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BIRTH: 1867 KOLLWITZ
Died on 08 July 1823: Sir Henry
Raeburn, Scottish painter specialized in Portraits
born on 04 March 1756.
Raeburn was born in 1756, in Edinburgh, was orphaned, educated at Heriot’s Hospital in Edinburgh, and brought up under the general supervision of his elder brother William. In 1772, he was apprenticed to James Gilliland, an Edinburgh goldsmith. While he was still an apprentice he began to paint miniatures, first in watercolors, then in oils.
In 1780, he married Anne Leslie, widow of Count Leslie, who was 12 years his senior and the mother of 3 children. In 1782, he joined the class under the supervision of Alexander Runciman. In April 1784 he left Edinburgh for Italy, where he stayed until 1887.
On his return he settled in Edinburgh, and soon attained pre-eminence among Scottish artists. He was knighted by George IV in 1822, and appointed king’s limner for Scotland a few days before his death. His style was to some extent founded on that of Reynolds, but his bold brushwork and brave use of contrasting colors make his works original. Among his sitters were the writer Sir Walter Scott, philosopher Hume, songwriter and printer Boswell, critic and essayist John Wilson and other outstanding men of Scotland.
Born in Stockbridge, near Edinburgh, the second son of a mill owner, Raeburn was orphaned at the age of six. His brother placed him in George Heriot's hospital (a home for orphans) in 1765, where he received a classical education and learned the rudiments of gentlemanly behavior. From 1772 to 1778 he was apprenticed to James Gilliland, a goldsmith and jeweler, and began to paint miniatures. Largely self-taught as an artist, without formal classes in drafsmanship or anatomy, he may have received some instruction from David Deuchar, an engraver and etcher. His first known attempt at full-scale portraiture is George Chalmers (1776). In 1784, shortly before Raeburn left for Italy, he met Sir Joshua Reynolds, who gave him introductions to Pompeo Batoni and Gavin Hamilton. While the Roman experience left little mark on his work, Raeburn was impressed by the sculpture he viewed and may have been inspired also to a fuller use of color and chiaroscuro.
He returned to Edinburgh at the age of thirty to become its leading portraitist. He visited London in 1819 to determine the feasibility of establishing a studio there, but the keen competition persuaded him to return to Edinburgh. There he worked in comparative isolation from the changing fashions in London, although he exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1823. President of the Society of Scottish Painters in 1812, Raeburn was appointed King's Limner and Painter for Scotland in 1823, the year he died.
Leading Scottish portrait painter during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In about 1771 Raeburn was apprenticed to the goldsmith James Gilliland and is said to have studied with the Edinburgh portrait painter David Martin briefly in 1775. But for the most part Raeburn was self-taught, progressing from miniature painting to full-scale portraiture. A portrait of George Chalmers (1776) is Raeburn's earliest known portrait, and its faulty drawing and incorrect perspective suggest the artist's lack of formal training. By his marriage to a wealthy widow in 1778, he achieved financial security, and during the next four years he considerably improved his artistic skill. In London in 1785, while en route to a tour of Italy, he met Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose works were already familiar to him from Scottish collections and engravings.
A man of many interests and a good conversationalist, Raeburn became a popular member of the new cultured Edinburgh society. By about 1790 he had painted the portrait of his wife and the double portrait of Sir John and Lady Clerk, in which the artist experimented with unusual lighting from behind the sitters' heads. During the following decade Raeburn produced some of his most brilliant portraits, such as Sir John Sinclair (1795), which foreshadowed the MacNab (1813), in which tonalities became darker and lighting more contrasted.
The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddlingston Loch (1795)
Sir Duncan Campbell, Scot Guards (1815, 128x102cm) John Tait of Harvieston (1800, 124x98cm) Sir William Napier, Baronet (1810, 241x149cm) Alexander Carre of Cavers (1802, 90x70cm) Mrs. Alexander Henderson (1800, 76x64cm) The Binning Children (1811)
Lieutenant Colonel William Shirriff H.E.I.C.S.
Sir John Sinclair (1795, 238x154cm)_ Raeburn, the leading Scottish portrait painter of his period, painted directly on to the canvas without preliminary drawings, and his vigorous, bold handling - sometimes called his 'square touch' - could be extraordinarily effective in conveying the character of rugged Highland chiefs.
Died on 08 July 1867: Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz,
printmaker and sculptor who died on 22 April 1945, specialized in Self-Portraits.
[I won't say anything: only cold wits would make fun of Kollwitz]
— She received her first art tuition from Rudolph Mauer (1845–1905) in Königsberg in 1881. She continued her training in 1885 in Berlin under Karl Stauffer-Bern and in 1888 under Ludwig Herterich (1856–1932) in Munich. Influenced by the prints of Max Klinger, which had been brought to her attention by Stauffer-Bern, she devoted herself to this form and gave up painting after 1890. She first produced etchings and lithographs but later also woodcuts. From 1891 she lived in Berlin where she had her first success: the portfolio of three lithographs and three etchings, A Weavers’ Revolt (1898), inspired by Gerhard Hauptmann’s play Die Weber, was shown at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung. Kollwitz joined the Secession in Berlin and was appointed to a special teaching post at the Künstlerinnenschule.
Selbstbildnis mit der Hand an der Kopf (1910, 16x14cm) Selbstbildnis von vorn (1923, 15x16cm) Selbstbildnis im Profil nach Rechts (1938, 48x29cm) Kleines Selbstbildnis nach links (1922, 19x13cm) Selbstibildnis am Tisch, II Fassung (1893, 18x13cm) Kleines Selbstbildnis (1920, 32x24cm) Selbstbildnis (1921, 22x27cm) — [you haven't had enough of her self-portraits? OK, here's just one more, out of umpteen] Selbsbildnis (1900) Hamburger Kneipe (not a hamburger joint... just a tavern in Hamburg) (1901, 19x24cm) — Weberzug (4th plate in the series Ein Weberaustand, 1897, 22x29cm) 61 prints at FAMSF
Died on 08 July 1925: Robert Polhill Bevan,
Town Group painter and lithographer born on 05 April (05 August?) 1865.
— Self-Portrait (1914, 46x26cm) >>>
— He studied at the Westminster School of Art and in Paris. In 1890–1891, having encountered Paul Sérusier at the Académie Julian in Paris, he made his first visit to Brittany, where he worked with the Pont-Aven group; he also developed an interest in lithography. After contact with Renoir, Bevan made a second visit to Brittany in 1893–1894, when he met and was influenced by Gauguin. From the early 1900s Bevan adopted a divisionist or pointillist style in paintings that often depicted London street scenes and horse trading, as in Horse Sale at the Barbican (1912), and landscapes painted on summer holidays in Devon and Cornwall, of which Green Devon (1919) is a striking example. In the last years of his life his style changed, the paint becoming thicker and more textural, with a new attention to the juxtaposition of masses. At times he approached a Cubist geometry of form, for example in rural scenes such as Hay Harvest (1916), while retaining the use of clear, pure colour, and luminous colored shadows. His lithographs, which he made again from 1919, show a fluent and expressive line, with formal massing expressed through graduations of tints, as in London Church (1924), giving them a tonal delicacy equivalent to his oil paintings. Bevan was a founder-member of the Camden town group. Having contributed to the formation of the London Group he broke away in 1914 to form the Cumberland market group with Charles Ginner and Harold Gilman. Always keen to retain links with the French art scene, he and Ginner organized the exhibition Peintres modernes anglais at the Galerie Druet in Paris in 1921.
— Born at Hove in Sussex on 05 April 1865 Bevan was the fourth of six children. His father was a banker with a comfortable financial life style. First educated at Winchester and then by private tutors, his first teacher of drawing was Alfred Pearce who became one of the chief designers at ‘Doultons’. In 1888 Bevan went to the Westminster School of Art studying under Fred Brown before moving to Julian’s in Paris, a somewhat leisurely apprenticeship possible because of family backing.
At twenty-seven Bevan went to Tangiers and joined a group of artists. He had a great love of horses and for one season he was Master of the Tangier Hunt. Bevan moved on to Brittany for two years and then lived in a lonely farmhouse at Hawkridge on Exmoor for three years where he indulged in hunting, painting and print making (mostly of hunting subjects).
In the summer of 1897 Bevan attended the wedding ,in Jersey, of his friend Eric Forbes Robertson who was marrying an art student from Poland. The bridesmaid was also a Polish art student, Stanislawa de Karlowska [<<< portrait by him, 1920, 46x38cm]. It was apparently love at first sight but because of language difficulties they had to communicate in French which was their only common language. Many were the letters Bevan wrote her and then he journeyed into the depths of Polish countryside to her father’s house. They were married in Warsaw on 09 December 1897.
The Bevans set up home near Swiss Cottage in London but made regular visits between 1899 and 1904 to Poland where he painted landscapes and horses. An exhibition of his work in 1908 at the first Allied Artists’ Exhibition broke his isolation as an artist and he became part of the circle of the Fitzroy Street Group and an original member of the Camden Town Group, the London Group and the Cumberland Market Group.
— Horse Sale at the Barbican (1912, 79x122cm) _ Bevan was fond of riding and often painted horses, almost always in London. They were either cab horses or, as here, horses being sold in a market. The auctioneer is standing in the decorated box in the background. Bevan's attitude in choosing to paint London, where he lived, matched the urban realism of the Camden Town Group, implied in their name. This is one of his largest paintings, and was carefully designed in detail in a preparatory drawing. The flat and textured color that characterises this work first appears in Bevan's paintings at about this time. This picture was included in the Camden Town Group exhibition of 1912
After training in London and Paris, Bevan worked in the early 1890s at Pont Aven in Brittany. There he met Gauguin. The influence of French Post-Impressionism, with its emphasis on the flat, patterned surface of the painting and its use of prominent outlines is very clear in Bevan's work. His paintings, however, tend to use more subdued colors, appropriate to his English urban subjects. After settling in London in 1910 he began to paint scenes of horse-drawn cabs and — as here — horse sales. In these works the nobility of the animal is contrasted with the drab but respectful character of the onlookers.
— Devonshire Valley (501x600pix, 46kb) _ Bevan’s first visit to Applehayes, with his wife, was in the summer of 1912. They returned in 1913 and 1915. Due to the war Squire Harrison found it impossible to continue offering hospitality to his artist friends. Bevan had taken a special liking to the Blackdown Hills and from 1916 to 1919 he rented a cottage called Lytchetts in the Bolham Water Valley, Clayhidon. He would stay there from early May to the middle of November for a long working holiday. His wife and children, Robert and his sister (later Mrs. Charles Baty), would visit him during the school holidays. At intervals, particularly during the winter months he would travel with his family to Poland to visit relatives. On one such trip whilst drawing at Opatow he was apprehended by Russian Police for alleged spying (the second time this happened was whilst drawing in Camden Town).
Lytchetts was owned by the Chard family, who lived at Harts Farm. Anne Chard remembers Bevan from her childhood recalling he was of a shy retiring disposition and not easy to communicate with. However she, her brother and sisters frequently saw him. A solitary gentleman tramping miles across the Blackdowns carrying either a sketch book and pencils or paints and easel tucked under his arm. Anne could remember Bevan’s look of pleased amusement when turning suddenly from the easel he encountered a child gazing in wonder at the remarkable likeness on canvas of two dearly loved shire horses, Prince and Farmer. On another occasion the Chard children having been asked to collect Prince from the common decided to mount and play at hunting on the way home. Three young children hanging on for dear life trotting along a narrow lane where they met the tall familiar figure and gaily called out "Good afternoon, Mr. Bevan". The artist lifted his bowler hat in acknowledgement and stopped dead in his tracks gazing incredulously at the spectacle before him. He was dressed in a light grey check suit with a watch-chain across his waistcoat. A bow tie and spats added to the elegance of his appearance. One of his nicknames in London was "Prime Minister" because of his bearing and attire.
In 1920 Bevan moved away from Clayhidon but remained close by at Goulds Farm, Luppitt. In 1922 he spent a few weeks in a farm house near his old friend Harrison and in 1923 Bevan bought Marlpits, in the middle of Luppitt Common. Whilst alone at Marlpits in 1925 cancer was diagnosed. He was taken to London by car but failed to recover from the serious operation involved and died in St. Thomas’s Hospital on 08 July 1925.
As can be seen, of the three artists Bevan spent by far the most time in Clayhidon and naturally more of his works of the area have survived. However he was very critical and may have destroyed much work. Very little survives from his three years on Exmoor.
During his first visit in 1912 Bevan painted Evening in the Culm Valley (private collection). During his next visit in 1913 he produced Haze Over The Valley and Devonshire Valley. From the third visit in 1915 he painted at least seven works including Dunn’s Cottage (City Art Gallery, Leeds). Leeds Art Gallery acquired this in 1983 and the assistant keeper Jonathan Benington wrote to the Clayhidon Local History Group requesting information about the building for an article he was writing. He had concluded by consulting a large Scale Ordnance Survey map that it must be Dunsgreen Farm. We were able to tell him of the correct location. The cottage was known as Shepherds Villa. It is now much altered but still standing at the bottom of Applehayes Lane. Frank Dunn was Squire Harrison’s groom and lived there. A sketch of the cottage is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The Little Oak Tree (King George VI Art Gallery, Port Elizabeth, South Africa) was first exhibited as The Back of Dunn’s Cottage. Brimley Hill and a crayon and watercolor Sunshine at Applehayes are others. Then follows a series painted in the Rosemary Lane area. Rosemary No.I and Rosemary No.II (private collections), Rosemary (Victoria and Albert Museum).
From his days at Lytchetts we have The Chestnut Tree. This was painted at Harts Farm where the Chard family lived. The Hay Harvest: Anne Chard remembered Bevan sketching this and identifies the central figure as her father. The Long Barn (private collection) one of the two views painted by Bevan of barns at Harts Farm. Harts Farm (private collection) and a lithograph Harts Farm (Victoria and Albert Museum). Mare and Foal (private collection) painted at Lytchetts. Timber Hauling No.I (private collection) again painted at Lytchetts and portrays working horses. A second larger version was painted in London during 1918. Culme Bridge, Hemyock (Johannesburg Art Gallery), this painting was spotted by a visitor from Hemyock whilst visiting the gallery. The History Group wrote to the gallery and received a color photograph. The scene shows the bridge between Culmbridge House and Culmbridge Mill and looks directly to the building at the road junction in between. We were able to supply a modern photograph and details of the painter and area. (This led to receiving another photograph of Gore’s Applehayes also held by the gallery).
Other known paintings by Bevan of the area are Clayhidon Church, Caller at the Mill, Troakes Farm, Up Bolham Water, An Outhouse, Devon, Fields at Applehayes, Applehayes Across the Valley, Fields Farm and a lithograph Smithy Barn, Bolham. No doubt others will reappear from time to time as in 1989 a print appeared in Country Life of a scene Near Applehayes featuring a small barn (now greatly enlarged) between Barr Park Farm and Cordwents Farm. Discreet inquiries revealed the selling price of the painting was Ł55,000.
Finally two other paintings need to be mentioned. Firstly Self Portrait by Bevan (National Portrait Gallery) which was reported to be a good likeness and secondly a painting by his wife Stanislawa de Karlowska At Church Staunton, Somerset.
— Ploughing in Brittany (1894, 25x35cm)