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BIRTH: 1844 EAKINS
Died on 25 July 1736: Jean-Baptiste
Joseph Pater, French artist born on 29 December 1695.
French painter, the only pupil of Watteau (a fellow native of Valenciennes), with whom he had a somewhat touchy relationship. An unlikely legend has it that Watteau dismissed him from his studio (1713) because he was disturbed by the threat offered by his progress to his own pre-eminence; whatever the reason for their differences, they were reconciled soon before Watteau's death. Like Watteau's other imitator, Lancret, Pater repeated the master's type of 'fêtes galantes' in a fairly stereotyped fashion. He showed more originality in scenes of military life and groups of bathers (in which he gave freer rein to the suggestiveness often seen in his fêtes galantes).
The Offer of Flowers (Springtime) (41 x 55cm)
The Chinese Hunt (1736, 55x46cm) Fête Champêtre (65x82cm) another Fête Champêtre (15x20cm)
Concert Champêtre _ Pater followed Watteau closely in the genre called fête galante, transposing his atmosphere to a more silvery one.
Born on 25 July 1844: Thomas Couperthwaite
Eakins, in Philadelphia.
Philadelphian Realist painter, photographer, teacher. Eakins was the husband of Susan Macdowell Eakins. He studied under Gérôme and Léon Bonnat. Eakins' students included Thomas Anshutz and Henry Ossawa Tanner. Eakins died in Philadelphia on 25 June 1916.
Most recognized for insightful, poweful portraits. Controversial teacher; a powerful influence upon Robert Henri. 1862-1866 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; 1864-1865 attended anatomy classes at Jefferson Medical College; 1866-1869 École des Beaux-Arts under Gérôme and Bonnart; 1869-1870 in Spain, influenced by Velazquez and Ribera; 1870 returned to Philadelphia, resided there rest of his life; 1872-1875 produced major sculling and sailing works; 1875 first teaching position at Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; painted Portrait of Professor Gross (The Gross Clinic); 1876 The Gross Clinic rejected as a work of art [too gross?] but exhibited in U.S. Army Post Hospital at 1876 Centennial Exposition; 1877 left Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts but returned in 1878; 1878-1882 gained increasing reputation for instruction, for direct teaching of anatomy from human dissection; 1882 became director of Pennyslvania Academy of the Fine Arts; 1884 married his student, Hannah Susan MacDowell; February 15, 1886 four years' controversy over his didactic methods and use of nude models culminated in his resignation from Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; February 22, 1886 founded Philadelphia Art Students' League with nucleus of former students from Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Artsãthis small group was active for the next seven years; 1886 during ten weeks in summer and autumn lived the life of a cowboy in Badlands of the Little Missouri (southwestern North Dakota); 1888-1889 painted The Agnew Clinic; 1896 had his only lifetime one-man show (Philadelphia); 1899 death of his father provided an inheritance with additional financial independence; 1880-1905 worked extensively with photography, including 1884-1885 collaboration with Edweard Muybridge in Philadelphia on photography of movement; 1888-1907 lectured at New York Art Students' League; 1892-1908 produced a large body of work including boxing and wrestling pictures.
Thomas Eakins was a one of the foremost US realist painters of the 19th century. Working independently of contemporary European styles, he was the first major artist after the US Civil War (1861-1865) to produce a profound and powerful body of work drawn directly from the experience of US life.
Eakins studied drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1861 to 1866. His concurrent study of anatomy at Jefferson Medical College led to a lifelong interest in scientific realism. Eakins spent three years in Paris from 1866 to 1869, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. He was strongly influenced by 17th-century masters, particularly the Dutch artist Rembrandt and the Spanish painters Josepe de Ribera and Diego Velazquez. These masters impressed him with their realism and psychological penetration. He returned to Philadelphia in 1870 and lived there the rest of his life.
Eakins's paintings depict scenes and people observed in the life around him in Philadelphia, particularly domestic scenes of his family and friends. He exercised his scientific inclination in paintings of sailing, rowing, and hunting, where he delineated the anatomy of the human body in motion. He painted several large and powerful hospital scenes, most notably The Gross Clinic (1875), which combined sharp realism a depiction of an operation in progress with psychological acuity in the portrayal of the surgeon, Doctor Gross.
As director of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Eakins introduced an innovative curriculum,including thorough study of anatomy and dissection as well as scientific perspective, which revolutionized the teaching of art in America. His insistence on study from the nude scandalized the school's authorities, however, and he was forced to resign in 1886.
During the later part of his career, Eakins's scientific interests were overshadowed by his preoccupation with psychology and personality, and in his art he concentrated principally on portraiture studies of friends, scientists, musicians, artists, and clergymen. In addition to their masterly evocation of personality, these portraits are characterized by uncompromising realism and by a sculptural sense of form, which is evident in the strong modeling of the sitters' heads, bodies, and hands. Typical of his full-length portraits is The Pathetic Song (1881), with the standing figure of a singer in a rich silk gown silhouetted against a dimly lighted music room.
Although none of his paintings brought him financial or popular success, Eakins had a profound influence, both as a painter and as a teacher, on the course of American naturalism. His realistic approach to painting was ahead of his time.
Walt Whitman Self~Portrait The Gross Clinic Starting Out After Rail Baby at Play Concert Singer The Pathetic Song Max Schmidt in a Single Scull The Swimming Hole Miss Van Buren
Study "Negress" (1869, 58x50cm) Frank Jay St. John (1900, 61x51cm) Professor William Woolsey Johnson (1896, 61x51cm) The Courtship (1878, 51x61cm)
Died on 25 July 1652: Bonaventura
Peeters I, Flemish marine painter and satirical
poet, born on 23 July 1614. [If ever the reputation of Peeters
peters out, it'll be a sign that pitiful pea-brained peasants have taken
[Please, without panting or petering, repeat as quickly as possible to all who will listen:
Painter Peeters did not paint on paper a poster of a pretty peck of pickled peppers. A poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers painter Peeters painted not. If you say that Peter Piper picked the peck of pickled pretty peppers painter Peeters painted on paper, where is the pretty poster of a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked and painter Peeters painted on paper?]
[Oh!... excuse me... are you saying that it is not painter Peeters but painter Pater who painted on paper a poster of the peck of pretty pickled peppers that Peter Piper picked? Well, I remain convinced that neither painter Pater nor painter Peeters painted a poster of a pretty peck of pickled peppers on paper. A poster of a peck of pickled pretty peppers painter Pater and painter Peeters painted not. If you say that Peter Piper picked the pretty peck of pickled peppers painter Pater painted on paper, where is the poster of a peck of pretty pickled peppers Peter Piper picked, painter Pater painted on paper, and painter Peeters painted not?]
[Note: the poster of a peck of pickled peppers that was never painted was not pretty... it was beautiful!]
An Oriental Harbor (1650, 66x95cm) _ In a cove overlooking a turbulent sea and under fast-moving clouds, a fortified harbour stretches out on a hill in the right foreground. Crowned by a central building with a western-style entrance, this is nonetheless a Turkish area, as can be seen from the crescent moon on the flag above the fortress and the turbans of the harbour dwellers. Outside the port western ships lie at anchor, one of them flying the English St George's cross from its mizzen mast. The most striking vessel, in the left foreground, a heavily-armed three-master with the Dutch tricolour in front and the arms of Amsterdam on the escutcheon, is still under sail and approaching the harbour. A sloop has been set out from this vessel. In the right foreground a heavy trunk is being heaved ashore with considerable difficulty from a moored sloop carrying two distinguished men, one wearing a turban, another a fur hat.
The painting is signed with monogram and dated in the centre right. However, the two final figures of the date are difficult to read. Reading the third number as a 5, which is the most probable solution, this situates the composition in the painter's later career, when he concentrated on harbour views having a reference to the Levant, or eastern Mediterranean, which the Venetians first reinforced with trading posts until these were later conquered by the Turks.
The introduction of an exotic touch in Peeters' oeuvre is contemporaneous with a growing international demand for Italianising landscapes. Bonaventura Peeters the Elder, who became a free master of Antwerp in 1634, originally painted shipwrecks and rough seas, along with calmer Scheldt and coastal views and a subtly gradated palette. During the 17th century he was the leading marine painter in the Spanish Netherlands. His artistic importance can be cause for surprise because sea paintings are generally associated with the Dutch art of the Golden Age. However, like so many other genres, marine painting also originated in the Spanish Netherlands. With the migration of innovative artists like Adam Willaerts and Jan Porcellis from and to the United Provinces, the genre developed more or less in parallel in the North and the South. In terms of their quality and the finesse of their painting, the South Netherlandish seascapes deserve more attention and more detailed study than they have received until now.
Storm on the Sea (1632, 58x84cm) _ one of the rare paintings signed and dated by the artist. Shipwreck is a companion-piece.