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1994: THE SCREAM IS BACK !
Died on 07 May 1826 (1828?):
Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier,
painter born on 11 November 1738.
— Une Spartiate Donnant un Bouclier à son Fils (1805, 45x54cm) _ Like other artists of his time, Jean-Jacques François Le Barbier rejected the lighthearted grace of the Rococo in favor of the straightforward severity of Neoclassicism. His subjects, often vignettes from Greek and Roman mythology and history, served as illustrations for the newfound morality and patriotism of the French during and after the Revolution. In this work, the characters enact a Spartan woman’s traditional farewell to a departing warrior, "Return with your shield or on it." All elements of the painting reinforce its message: the babies playing with the warrior’s lance allude to Spartan military training, which began in infancy. The simplicity of the stone-walled interior underscores the austerity of Spartan existence, while the dog is both a symbol of fidelity and a reference to the famed dogs of Sparta.
— Courage des Femmes de Sparte se Défendant contre les Messéniens (1787, 318x324cm)
— Etude de femme en fureur (1781, 40x32cm)
— Henry IV and Sully at Fontainebleau (1783, 327x240). Tapestry cartoon (B&W image) commissioned by Louis XVI for the Gobelins factory for the Story of Henry IV series. Exhibited at the 1783 Salon. The subject is familiar after the piece depicting Henry IV's hunting party; the painter set the scene in the gallery at Fontainebleau, but the episode actually took place out-of-doors, along what was formerly known as the White Mulberry Walk. Sully himself related how, on entering the King's bedchamber, the sovereign said impatiently to Beringhem: “The weather isn't good; I don't want to go riding, take off my boots.” He then went down to the Queen's Garden, followed the path to the kennels, summoned Sully, who had taken his leave of him, and said, “Come here, haven't you anything to say to me?” He then took me by the hand, said Sully, and leading me down the Mulberry Walk, he had two Swiss guards who did not understand French put at the entrance... I wanted to embrace his knees, but he would not let me, so that any courtier who may have seen this posture from afar would not think I had made such a gesture to obtain forgiveness for a real crime... At the end of this scene, the King took back the papers that had led to this discussion.”
Died on 07 May 1894: Charle-Émile
Jacque, French Barbizon
School painter, printmaker, and illustrator, born on 23 May 1813.
— In 1830 he worked briefly for an engraver who specialized in cartography, and in that year he produced his first etching, a copy of a head after Rembrandt. From 1831 to 1836 Jacque served in the infantry, seeing action in the siege of Antwerp in 1832. During military service he found time to sketch scenes of army life and is reputed to have submitted two works to the Salon of 1833 in Paris. In 1836 he went to London where he found employment as an illustrator. He was back in France in 1838 and visited his parents in Burgundy, where he became enamored of the countryside.— Auguste Delâtre was an assistant of Jacque.
— After his schooling, Charles-Émile Jacque began work in a notary's office, but he quickly departed to pursue printmaking. Apprenticed at seventeen to a map engraver, he made his first etching the same year, a female head after Rembrandt.
Dissatisfied with cartography, Jacque joined the army, where he served seven years. During this time he prepared the lithographic album Militairiana (1840), praised by poet and critic Charles Baudelaire for the frankness of its caricatures of military life. Jacque worked in London in 1836-38 producing woodcuts to illustrate Shakespeare and a history of Greece.
Back in France he established his reputation as an illustrator and contributed caricatures to Charivari in 1843 and 1844. Married in 1843, he made his debut at the Salon as an etcher two years later, his prints prompting Baudelaire's admiration once again. Jacque played a key role in the revival of etching in France during the 1840s, but he also began to paint in this period. He depicted windmills at Montmartre in emulation of Michel, whose dramatic landscapes would remain a source of inspiration.
Jacque's realist paintings of animals in the country, especially pigs, chickens, and sheep, soon became his hallmark, and in 1848 the state bought his picture Herd of Cattle at the Drinking Hole (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Angers). In the spring of 1849, to avoid cholera in Paris, Jacque and his friend of three years Millet (q.v.) moved their families to adjoining properties in the artists' colony of Barbizon. Jacque introduced Millet to rustic themes, while Millet's work prompted Jacque to imbue his peasant subjects with more vigor.
Besides making art, Jacque bred poultry, cultivated asparagus, and invested in real estate in Barbizon. He also wrote and illustrated the book Le poulailler: Monographie des poules indigènes et exotiques (1858). These business interests distinguished him from his Barbizon colleagues and contributed to the cooling of his friendship with Millet and others. In the 1850s and 1860s Jacque experimented with larger print formats, and he exhibited animal paintings at the Salon for the first time in 1861, winning a third-class medal. After 1860 he spent more time in Paris than Barbizon and in the 1870s established a factory for the production of "artistic furniture" based on Gothic and Renaissance pieces. Between 1870 and 1888 Jacque did not show at the Salon, but he continued to produce and sell works through dealers. Repeating the same themes, he began to use the palette knife and painted more thickly and freely. Combining art and business, he helped establish and became president of the Société des Animaliers Français in 1881.
Outliving the other Barbizon artists, the elderly Jacque called himself "the last of the romantics." He profited from the Anglo-American taste for landscape in the late nineteenth century. At the 1889 Exposition Universelle Jacque obtained a gold medal as painter and a grand prix as printmaker.
— Photo of Jacque
— A Shepherdess with her Flock near a Stream (81x66cm) — The Swineherd (1890, 69x100cm) — A Flock of Sheep in a Barn (74x93cm) — A Shepherdess Watering her Flock (47x39cm) — A Shepherdess with her Flock in a Woodland Clearing (46x55cm) — Homeward Bound (71x100cm) — Le Troupeau (73x100cm) — Les Moutons dans le Sous-Bois (49x119cm) — Sheep At Pasture (66x56cm) — Shepherdess (81x61cm) — Le Petit Porcher
102 prints at FAMSF.
Died on 07 May 1840: Caspar-David
Friedrich, German painter born on 05 September 1774.
Caspar David Friedrich was an outstanding 19th-century German romantic painter whose awesome landscapes and seascapes are not only meticulous observations of nature but are also allegories. Friedrich was born in Greifswald and studied at the Copenhagen Academy. In 1798 he settled in Dresden, where he became a member of an artistic and literary circle imbued with the ideals of the romantic movement. His early drawings—precisely outlined in pencil or sepia—explored motifs recurrent throughout his work: rocky beaches, flat, barren plains, infinite mountain ranges, and trees reaching toward the sky. Later, his work began to reflect more of his emotional response to natural scenery.
He began to paint in oils in 1807; one of his first canvases, The Cross in the Mountains (1807), is representative of his mature style. A bold break from traditional religious painting, this work is almost pure landscape; the figure of the crucified Christ, seen from behind and silhouetted against a mountain sunset, is almost lost in the natural setting. According to Friedrich's own writings, all the elements in the composition have symbolic meanings. The mountains are allegories of faith; the rays of the setting sun symbolize the end of the pre-Christian world; and the fir trees stand for hope. Friedrich's cold, acid colors, clear lighting, and sharp contours heighten the feeling of melancholy, isolation, and human powerlessness against the ominous forces of nature expressed in his paintings. As a faculty member of the Dresden Academy, Friedrich influenced later German romantic painters. Although his reputation declined after his death, 20th-century viewers are fascinated by his imagery.
The German romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich was one of the greatest exponents in European art of the symbolic landscape. He studied at the Academy in Copenhagen (1794-1798), and subsequently settled in Dresden, often traveling to other parts of Germany. Friedrich's landscapes are based entirely on those of northern Germany and are beautiful renderings of trees, hills, harbors, morning mists, and other light effects based on a close observation of nature. Some of Friedrich's best-known paintings are expressions of a religious mysticism. In 1808 he exhibited one of his most controversial paintings, The Cross in the Mountains , in which for the first time in Christian art an altarpiece was conceived in terms of a pure landscape. The cross, viewed obliquely from behind, is an insignificant element in the composition. More important are the dominant rays of the evening sun, which the artist said depicted the setting of the old, pre~Christian world. The mountain symbolizes an immovable faith, while the fir trees are an allegory of hope. Friedrich painted several other important compositions in which crosses dominate a landscape. Even some of Friedrich's apparently nonsymbolic paintings contain inner meanings, clues to which are provided either by the artist's writings or those of his literary friends. For example, a landscape showing a ruined abbey in the snow, Abbey with Oak Trees (1810), can be appreciated on one level as a bleak, winter scene, but the painter also intended the composition to represent both the church shaken by the Reformation and the transitoriness of earthly things.
Romanticism was an early nineteenth-century aesthetic movement encompassing nature, nationalism, and spirituality. In Germany, it found perfect expression in the music of Beethoven, the writings of Goethe, and the art of Caspar David Friedrich. Today, Friedrich is recognised as the quintessential German Romantic painter. In his lifetime, though, he achieved only modest fame, and his talent was cheapened by imitation. His melancholy, sometimes morbid style appealed to Romantic tastes, but fell from favour as the ardour of Romanticism cooled. Born 5 September 1774, Friedrich is often compared to his contemporaries, the landscape painters Turner and Constable. But his paintings are not landscapes; Friedrich never painted from nature. He travelled throughout northern Europe and made detailed sketches of its terrain, but his paintings contain elements of different settings in wholly imagined scenes. Friedrich actually ignores the law of nature for aesthetic impact. In his paintings Friedrich rarely depicts people, except to emphasise nature's vastness. When figures appear in his paintings, they stand with their backs to the viewer, lost in contemplation. Friedrich is primarily a religious artist. The Romantic worship of nature finds literal expression in his work, which articulates the artist's Protestant faith through natural symbolism. On a sensual level, his paintings deliver a frisson of ecstasy or horror. But they also demand intellectual decoding. The transience of human existence, the redemptive powers of nature, man at the mercy of the elements - all are stock themes of Romanticism. For Friedrich, though, they had personal meaning too. At 13, Friedrich fell through the surface of a frozen lake and nearly perished. His brother saved Friedrich's life but drowned in the effort. Friedrich's mother died in 1781, and a sister ten years later. His dark, deeply religious paintings may reflect these childhood tragedies. After studying in Copenhagen, Friedrich left his home, Greifswald, for Dresden, the art capital of Europe in the nineteenth century. He specialised in sepia, watercolors, and topographical drawings, turning to oils by 1808. In 1825, Friedrich suffered a severe illness from which he never fully recovered. A decade later, a stroke left him partially paralysed, and too weak to paint in oils. Instead, he returned to the watercolors and sepias of his youth. But he was a broken, bitter man. He died on 7th May 1840, impoverished and obscure. Friedrich remained shrouded in obscurity until the 1890s, when he was rediscovered by the Symbolists. In 1945, fire gutted the National Gallery, Berlin, destroying many of his masterpieces. The scarcity of Friedrich's paintings heightens their emotive power today.
— Landscape with Solitary Tree (1822, 55x71cm)
Chalk Cliffs on Rügen (1819) Cloister Cemetery in the Snow Large Enclosure Riesengebirge (1835) The Sea of Ice Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog (1818, 94x75cm) Woman in front of the Setting Sun (1818, 22x30cm) The Stages of Life (1835, 72x68cm) Schlafender Knabe (1802, Bleistift, Pinsel in Braun, Feder in Schwarz und Braun, 18x12cm).
Tetschen Altarpiece or The Cross in the Mountains (1807, 115x110cm) This painting was originally intended to be an altarpiece for the Swedish King, Gustav IV Adolf, but it instead came into the possession of Count Franz Anton von Thun-Hohenstein, and was hung in the bedroom of the Count's residence at Schloss Tetschen in northern Bohemia. Friedrich wrote of this painting: "Jesus Christ, nailed to the tree, is turned here towards the sinking sun, the image of the eternal life-giving father. With Jesus's teaching an old world dies - that time when God the Father moved directly on the earth. This sun sank and the earth was not able to grasp the departing light any longer. There shines forth in the gold of the evening light the purest, noblest metal of the Saviour's figure on the cross, which thus reflects on earth in a softened glow. The cross stands erected on a rock, unshakeably firm like our faith in Jesus Christ. The firs stand around the cross, evergreen, enduring through all ages, like the hopes of man in Him, the crucified."
Abbey in the Oakwood (1809; 110x171cm) This atmospheric painting depicts a funeral procession. The monks carry a casket past an open grave, towards a crucifix. The ground is covered with snow and littered with pagan symbols. Friedrich used oak trees as a symbol of the old Pagan way of life. The setting is Eldena, the ruined Cistertian abbey three miles from Friedrich's birthplace of Greifswald.
Winter Landscape with Church (1811, 33x46cm) The figure in this painting is probably Friedrich himself. The traveller has abandoned his crutch and is praying before a crucifix before resuming his journey onwards to the Gothic cathedral in the distance.
— The Tree of Crows (1822) — View from the Painter's Studio (1806) — Cemetery at Dusk (1826, 143x110cm) — Eldena Ruin (1825, 35x49cm) — Monastery Graveyard in the Snow (1819, 121x170cm) — On board a Sailing Ship — Chalk Cliffs on Rügen (1819) — Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon (1835, 34x44cm) — Woman on the Beach of Rügen (1818) — The Cross on the Mountain — City at Moonrise (1817) — Landscape with Oak Trees and a Hunter (1811) — Abbey in an Oak Forest (1810) — Evening — The Cross in the Mountains (1808)— Moon rising over Sea (1821) — Port by Moonlight (1811) — Largeness — Landscape in the Riesengebirge
— 59 smallish images at www.geocities.com/Paris/Arc/5340/friedric.htm (they average about 600x425 pixels, 50KB)
Died on a 07 May:
1794 Claude-Louis Chatelet (or Chastelet), French artist born in 1753.
1792 Aert Schouman, Dutch aertist born on 04 March 1710. [Was Aert Schouman an art showman? Something, say, like Salvador Dalí would be?]
Born on a 07 May:
1885 (30 April?) Guido Luigi Russolo, Italian painter, printmaker, writer, and composer, who died on 04 February 1947. — [Doesn't it make you think that, indisputably, there ought to be a Russian artist named Italianolo Contendere?] — The fourth of five children, he was trained in music by his father, who was a clockmaker and organist. In 1901 he went to Milan to join his family, who had moved there so that his two brothers, Giovanni and Antonio, could study music at the conservatory. Diverging from his father’s inclinations, Luigi was attracted towards other forms of art, especially painting. Though not actually enrolled at the Accademia di Brera, through new friends he indirectly followed the ideas taught there. In the same period he worked for the restorer Crivelli in Milan, serving his apprenticeship working on the interior decorations of the Castello Sforzesco and on Leonardo’s Last Supper in the refectory of S Maria delle Grazie. In December 1909 he took part in the exhibition Bianco e nero at the Famiglia Artistica in Milan, contributing a series of etchings, made during the preceding year, which show a definite leaning towards Symbolist forms and images. The undulating quality of the line in such etchings as his portrait of Nietzsche (1909), which seems to translate a musical rhythm into visual form through a strong, enveloping sign, remained a distinctive and individual feature of Russolo’s work and poetics, especially in his Futurist work.
1839 Jules-Adolphe Goupil, French painter who died on 28 April 1883. [Rusé comme un renard?] LINKS Lady Seated
1734 Jean Humbert, Dutch artist who died in October 1794.
Happened on a 07 May:
1994 Stolen The Scream is recovered. ^top^
Norway's most famous painting, The Scream by Edvard Munch [12 Dec 1863 – 23 Jan 1944], is recovered almost three months after it was stolen from an Oslo museum.
The most powerful image created in the Expressionist style must be Munch's startling painting The Scream. The painting perfectly sums up all the horrors that mankind has visited upon himself all throughout our checkered history. The stunning thing about this abrupt, almost brutal work is that it truly stands alone in art. Before Munch, no one in history portrayed human fear and pain outside of specific depictions. Nothing in this landscape is conducive to the sense of horror shown by Munch. Despite that odd sunset, it's not the end of the world, nor the advent of a holocaust, nor the beginning of a disastrous war. Or is it all of these? That's why The Scream works so well.
OTHER ART BY EDVARD MUNCH ONLINE:
Ashes — The Dance of Life — Death in the Sickroom — Evening on Karl Johan — Madonna — Model by the Wicker Chair — Night in St. Cloud — Puberty — Red Creeper — Self Portrait: Between Clock and Bed — Self-Portrait with Burning Cigarette — The Sick Child — Starry Night — Two Women on the Shore — Vampire — The Voice
1908 Los pintores Santiago Rusiñol i Prats, con Jardín de Aranjuez, y Julio Romero de Torres, con Musa gitana, comparten el premio anual que concede la Academia de Bellas Artes de España.