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• April 1st sensation: Pride and Promiscuity... • Download the first 1.24 trillion decimals of pi... • China~US plane collision crisis... • Treaty between Pilgrims and Amerindians... • Le peuple a faim... • Author of Cyrano is born... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • King names brother his heir... • Charlemagne is born... • Hitler imprisoned… • Battle of Okinawa begins... • L'Argentine envahit les Falklands... • Author of Manon Lescaut is born... • Soviets stop US and UK military trains to Berlin… • Hitler sentenced for putsch... • Bismarck is born... • British Royal Air Force... • First US subcompact car... • Jane Austen declines royal writing advice... • Gerstner's first day at IBM... • Funding for Babbage's Difference Engine proposed... • First metal radio tube... • North Vietnam invades South... • House banking scandal... • Search will find silver AND Tombstone... • Selznick's movie studio...
|On a 01 April:
2002 The abstract painting LA Structures I, by V. Grinberg, is auctioned at Sotheby's for some $20'000. SEE THE PICTURE AT ART 4 APRIL
2001 Slobodan Milosevic, in a negotiated surrender, goes to jail in Belgrade, after 26-hours of police failing to overcome his bodyguards' gunfire at his Belgrade villa. He faces corruption charges carrying a maximum of 5 years in prison, not extradition to the Hague as an indicted war criminal. Riots had forced Milosevic to relinquish power on 06 October 2000. However he would later be extradited to the Hague's war crimes tribunal.
2001 Se celebran en Holanda los primeros matrimonios homosexuales con plenos derechos.
2001 Central African Republic President Ange-Félix Patasse replaces prime minister Anicet Georges Dologuele with Martin Ziguele.
Sensational texts by Jane Austen are discovered !!!
National Public Radio, on its morning show All Things Considered of 28 March 2001, announced the publication for today's date (note which it is!), of Pride and Promiscuity The Lost Sex Scenes of Jane Austen, recently discovered passages that were omitted from Pride and Prejudice. It was authentified by the author of Pride and Punctuation. (note today's date)
Seriously now, born on 16 December 1775, Jane Austen was the seventh of eight children born to a clergyman in Steventon, a country village in Hampshire, England. She was very close to her older sister, Cassandra, who remained her faithful editor and critic throughout her life. The girls had five years of formal schooling, then studied with their father. Jane read voraciously and began writing stories as young as age 12, completing an early novella at age 14. [1810 pencil and watercolor, by C. Austen >]
Austen's quiet, happy world was disrupted when her father retired to Bath in 1801. Jane hated the resort town but amused herself by making close observations of ridiculous society manners. After her father's death in1805, Jane, her mother, and sister lived with one of her brothers until 1808, when another brother provided them a permanent home at Chawton Cottage, in Hampshire. Jane concealed her writing from most of her acquaintances, slipping her writing paper under a blotter when someone entered the room. Though she avoided society, she was charming, intelligent, and funny, and had several admirers. She actually accepted the marriage proposal of a well-off friend of her family's, but the next day withdrew her acceptance, having decided she could only marry for love.
Jane Austen published Sense and Sensibility anonymously on 30 October 1811. A small circle of people, including the Price Regent, learned Austen's identity, but most of the British public knew only that the popular book had been written "by a Lady." She published several more novels before her death, including Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). She died on 18 July 1817, of what today is thought to be Addison's disease. Northanger Abbey and Persuasion were published posthumously.
Sense and Sensibility tells the story of the impoverished Dashwood sisters. Marianne is the heroine of “sensibility”—i.e., of openness and enthusiasm. She becomes infatuated with the attractive John Willoughby, who seems to be a romantic lover but is in reality an unscrupulous fortune hunter. He deserts her for an heiress, leaving her to learn a dose of “sense” in a wholly unromantic marriage with a staid and settled bachelor, Colonel Brandon, who is 20 years her senior. By contrast, Marianne's older sister, Elinor, is the guiding light of “sense,” or prudence and discretion, whose constancy toward her lover, Edward Ferrars, is rewarded by her marriage to him after some distressing vicissitudes.
Pride and Prejudice describes the clash between Elizabeth Bennet, the daughter of a country gentleman, and Fitzwilliam Darcy, a rich and aristocratic landowner. Although Austen shows them intrigued by each other, she reverses the convention of “first impressions”: “pride” of rank and fortune and “prejudice” against Elizabeth's inferiority of family hold Darcy aloof; while Elizabeth is equally fired both by the “pride” of self-respect and by “prejudice” against Darcy's snobbery. Ultimately, they come together in love and self-understanding. The intelligent and high-spirited Elizabeth was Jane Austen's own favourite among all her heroines and is one of the most engaging in English literature.
Northanger Abbey combines a satire on conventional novels of polite society with one on Gothic tales of terror. Catherine Morland, the unspoiled daughter of a country parson, is the innocent abroad who gains worldly wisdom: first in the fashionable society of Bath and then at Northanger Abbey itself, where she learns not to interpret the world through her reading of Gothic thrillers. Her mentor and guide is the self-assured and gently ironic Henry Tilney, her husband-to-be.
In its tone and discussion of religion and religious duty, Mansfield Park is the most serious of Austen's novels. The heroine, Fanny Price, is a self-effacing and unregarded cousin cared for by the Bertram family in their country house. Fanny emerges as a true heroine whose moral strength eventually wins her complete acceptance in the Bertram family and marriage to Edmund Bertram himself, after that family's disastrous involvement with the meretricious and loose-living Crawfords.
Of all Austen's novels, Emma is the most consistently comic in tone. It centres on Emma Woodhouse, a wealthy, pretty, self-satisfied young woman who indulges herself with meddlesome and unsuccessful attempts at matchmaking among her friends and neighbors. After a series of humiliating errors, a chastened Emma finds her destiny in marriage to the mature and protective George Knightley, a neighbouring squire who had been her mentor and friend.
Persuasion tells the story of a second chance, the reawakening of love between Anne Elliot and Captain Frederick Wentworth, whom seven years earlier she had been persuaded not to marry. Now Wentworth returns from the Napoleonic Wars with prize money and the social acceptability of naval rank; he is an eligible suitor acceptable to Anne's snobbish father and his circle, and Anne discovers the continuing strength of her love for him.
On 01 April 1816 Jane Austen declines royal writing advice. ^top^
Jane Austen responds to a letter from the Prince Regent suggesting she write a historic romance, saying, "I could not sit down to write a serious romance under any other motive than to save my life." Austen's correspondence with the Prince Regent, as well as literary figures of the day, was prompted by the success of her novels.
AUSTEN ONLINE: ^top^
| 2000 La sucesión del primer ministro japonés, que
sufre una embolía cerebral, provoca la crisis política en el país.
1999 El presidente de Brasil Fernando Henrique Cardoso firma un proyecto de ley para acabar con la esclavitud en el país.
1997 Comet Hale-Bopp Perihelion (0.914 AU)
1996 In a case that sparked an uproar reminiscent of the Rodney King case, two Riverside County, Calif., sheriff's deputies were videotaped repeatedly clubbing a Mexican man and woman after a 110-km highway chase involving a pickup truck suspected of sneaking across the border.
1995 El presidente ucraniano Leonid Kuchma pone bajo su control el Gobierno de Crimea tras abolir su Constitución y deponer al dirigente de la república autónoma, Yuri Meshkov.
1991 Iran releases British hostage Roger Cooper after 5 years.
1991 Warsaw Pact disbands.
1991 US minimum wage goes from $3.80 to $4.25 per hour.
1987 La Cámara de los Comunes de Reino Unido rechaza por cuarta vez desde 1965 la reimplantación de la pena de muerte.
1986 World oil prices dip below $10 a barrel.
1985 Duarte consigue la victoria en las elecciones generales celebradas en El Salvador.
1985 En Santiago de Chile el entierro de tres opositores se convierte en una protesta masiva contra Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte.
1984 Se celebra una manifestación contra el régimen militar uruguayo.
1982 US transfers operaiton of Canal to Panama
1979 Iran proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of Shah
1977 Attempt for Moslem state in Chad fails.
1976 Gracias al acelerador de partículas UNILAC, propiedad del GSI de Darmstadt, se logra, por primera vez, acelerar un ion pesado (U-238) hasta 6,7 MeV.
1975 Cambodia President Lon Nol flees from Khmer Rouge.
1975 El Ministerio de Sanidad alemán comunica que más de la mitad de los ciudadanos tiene exceso de colesterol en la sangre.
1974 Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1973 El IVA comienza a aplicarse en Reino Unido.
1970 US President Nixon signs a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect after 01 January 1971.
1969 El Tribunal Supremo español confirma la sentencia del Tribunal de Orden Público (TOP) y condena a Néstor Luján a 8 meses de prisión por publicar una carta sobre el problema de la lengua catalana.
1966 China premier Chou en-Lai starts "Cultural revolution"
1962 El Movimiento Revolucionario Liberal de Colombia proclama la candidatura de Alfonso López Michelsen, hijo del ex presidente Alfonso López Pumarejo.
1960 U Nu elected premier of Burma.
1960 the first weather satellite, "TIROS-One," was launched from Cape Canaveral. Los Estados Unidos ponen en órbita el primer satélite meteorológico, el Tiros 1.
1957 Trial begins in Budapest against participants in October uprising.
1957 India adopta el sistema métrico decimal.
1956 España y Marruecos firman un acuerdo sobre transferencia del territorio marroquí que hasta entonces era Protectorado español.
1952 Big Bang theory proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe and Gamow.
1950 Organización de las Naciones Unidas adopta un plan para dividir Jerusalén.
1950 Se hace público en Moscú un proyecto de Iosif Visarionovich Dzhugashvili "Stalin" que prevé una profunda transformación de los recursos naturales de la URSS hasta los Urales.
1946 400'000 US mine workers strike
1946 Van Acker forms Belgian govt (without CVP)
1946 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa es aclamado en las calles de la capital argentina y se producen atentados contra los centros judíos y socialistas.
1945 Canadian troop free Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo and Eibergen
1945 Ruhrgebied sealed off by US first and 9th army 1945 -
1942 Mexico changes from 3 time zones to 2
1942 Allied air raid on harbor city Kupang Timor
1941 Nazis forbid Jews access to cafés.
1941 Pro-German Rashid Ali al-Ghailani grabs power in Iraq.
1941 El general Isaías Medina Angarita asume la presidencia de Venezuela.
1939 Todas las emisoras de radio españolas difunden el último parte militar, en el que se anuncia el fin de la Guerra Civil española, lo que supone el inicio del nuevo sistema político dictatorial del general Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
1939 US recognizes Franco government in Spain at end of Spanish civil war. Pope Pius XII congratulates Generalissimo Franco for his victory.
1937 Aden becomes British crown colony.
1937 Birmania (Myanmar) se separa de la India y obtiene del Reino Unido estatuto de dominio.
1936 Orissa constituted a province of British India.
1936 Austria decide la implantación del servicio militar obligatorio.
1936 El reglamento de médicos del Reich, promulgado por Hitler, completa la (auto) equiparación del colectivo médico que se encuentra en la Alemania nacionalsocialista.
1933 Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany
1933 Nazi Germany begins persecution of Jews, by boycotting Jewish businesses.
1933 Heinrich Himmler es nombrado jefe de la policía política de Baviera.
1929 Prosiguen los combates en México entre las tropas federales del presidente Emilio Portes Gil y las del general rebelde José Gonzalo Escobar.
1928 Jiang Jieshi inicia la serie de victorias militares que le convertirán en el paladín de la China anticomunista.
1925 La Bauhaus se instala en Dessau.
1920 El Partido Obrero Alemán se convierte en el Partido Obrero Nacional Socialista (NSDAP).
1916 Bulgaria adopta el calendario gregoriano en sustitución del juliano.
1912 El primer ministro británico, Herbert Henry Asquith, prepara un nuevo Home Rule.
1910 Dumitru Dan (Romania) completes a 100'000 km walk.
1905 British East African Protectorate becomes colony of Kenya.
1904 Un grave terremoto causa una gran devastación en Kosovo.
1901 Se celebran en España numerosos mítines anticlericales, especialmente en La Coruña y Málaga.
1900 Jorge I es nombrado príncipe soberano de Creta.
1892 Un grupo de independentista cubanos en el exilio, liderados por José Julian Martí Pérez, Antonio Maceo Grajales y Máximo Gómez fundan el Partido Revolucionario Cubano.
1891 Painter Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903] leaves Marseille for Tahiti [click on image for full portrait >] — links to ten of his Tahiti images.
1877 Prospecting begins that will find silver AND Tombstone. ^top^
Ignoring the taunts of fellow miners who say he will only find his own tombstone, prospector Edward Schieffelin begins his search for silver in the area of present-day southern Arizona. Later that year, Schieffelin was not only alive and well, but he had found one of the richest silver veins in the West. He named it the Tombstone Lode. Located about 70 miles southeast of Tucson in the San Pedro Valley, the Tombstone Mining District and the town of Tombstone quickly became major economic and social centers of the Southwest. Schieffelin and his partners were able to attract vast amounts of eastern investment capital to develop their claims. Quickly making their fortunes, the original partners sold out in 1880-81 and left Arizona for more civilized locales. Tombstone, however, continued to boom. By 1881, more than 10'000 persons lived in the region and Tombstone had become the seat of the newly created Cochise County.
The Wild West spirit of the town and large amounts of money attracted gamblers, criminals, and would-be lawmen. Of these, Doc Holliday and the Earp brothers are the most famous today, because of their brief shoot-out with the Clantons and McLaurys at the O.K. Corral in 1881. Tombstone was home to scores of other gamblers and gunslingers, though, including John Ringo, William C. Brocius, and Frank Leslie. So much violence and lawlessness marked the early years of Tombstone's history that President Chester Arthur briefly considered imposing martial law in May 1882. Upstanding civic leaders like the rancher John Slaughter worked to promote law, order, and civic growth. The wild boom days in Tombstone, however, soon waned of their own accord when miners struck groundwater, which made it too expensive to dig any deeper. By the early 1890s, most of the mines had closed and the town went into decline. Mining resumed sporadically at Tombstone during subsequent decades, but the town never regained its former glory. By 1929, Tombstone seemed to be headed for ghost town status, and the county seat moved to Bisbee. Ironically, the very gambling and violence that growth-minded town fathers once tried to suppress became its economic savior. In the post-World War II years, the people of Tombstone began to cater to the US fascination with the Wild West. Museums and the restoration of the O.K. Corral made Tombstone into a tourist destination, leading some to call it the town that is "too tough to die."
1867 Singapore, Penang and Malakka become British crown colonies.
1867 Se inaugura en París la Exposición Universal de Industrias y Bellas Artes, con la que Napoleón III pretende realzar su Imperio.
1866 US Congress rejects presidential veto, gives all equal rights in US
1865 Battle of 5 Forks, Virginia, signaling end of Lee's army
1865 Battle at Blakely Alabama
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1864 James Batterson purchases the very first travel insurance policy. The policy, issued by industry stalwart, the Travelers Insurance Company, seemingly sold Batterson on the benefits of insurance coverage: three months later he purchased Travelers' very first general insurance plan.
1863 first wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, VA
1862 España e Inglaterra rompen su alianza con Francia.
1836 Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reaches Cocos Islands
1767 La Compañía de Jesús es expulsada de España por mandato de Carlos III y su primer ministro, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea conde de Aranda.
1767 Luis XV ordena a los franceses instalados en las Malvinas desalojar el archipiélago.
1748 Ruins of Pompeii found.
1734 A cause de ses liens familiaux avec Stanislas Leszcynski, Louis XV s'est investi dans la guerre de Succession de Pologne, pour cette raison, l'Autriche lui déclare la guerre avec l'aide de son empereur.
1693 Colonial clergyman Cotton Mather's first-born son died at the age of four days. Mather suspected witchcraft as the cause, and had previously published "Wonders of the Invisible World," affirming his belief in spectral phenomena.
1540 Francisco I rey de Francia, anuncia el Edicto de Fontainebleau, por el que se prohíbe el credo protestante.
1328 Jeanne d'Evreux, la femme de Charles IV le Bel qui vient de mourir le 1er février à l'âge de trente-trois ans, accouche, ce jour. On espère un fils. Une fille naît. La succession au trône de France se trouve ouverte. Des trois prétendants, Philippe, comte d'Evreux, Edouard III d'Angleterre et Philippe de Valois, c'est le dernier, l'actuel régent, qui est proclamé roi le 08 Apr.
1256 Alfonso X, "el Sabio" es proclamado emperador germánico.
0705 Greek pope John VII chosen as successor to John VI
0527 Justinianus becomes compassionate emperor of Byzantium
0374 Comet 1P/374 E1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0884 AUs of Earth.
which occurred on an April 01:
2002 Eleven Palestinians, murdered by Palestinians as collaborators with Israel: eight men being held in an intelligence building in Tulkarm, West Bank, shot by two masked gunmen; one shot in Bethlehem, two in Qalqilya.
1984 Manuel Mújica Lainez, poeta y ensayista argentino.
1984 Marvin Gaye, singer, shot to death by his father Marvin Gaye Sr in LA.
1976 Max Ernst, German French Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 02 April 1891. MORE ON ERNST AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1974 Georges Pompidou, président de la République successeur du Général de Gaulle, professeur de lettres de formation, ayant souffert pendant plusieurs années du cancer. Cet humaniste a pu assurer la continuité de l’héritage gaulliste tout en préparant certains changements de société, mais il laissa sa place au plus jeune président que la France ait connu et aussi à la plus dramatique invention fiscale pour le petit peuple: la TVA (reprise par le monde entier)
1968 Lev Landau, mathematician.
1947 King George II of Greece.
1946 More than 170, in tidal waves striking the Hawaiian islands.
1933 Salvador Rueda, poeta español.
1930 Zawditu first reigning female monarch of Ethiopia.
1926 Charles Angrand, French artist born on 29 April 1854.
1910 Mikaïl Alexandrovitch Wrubel, Russian artist born on 05 March 1856.
1909 20'000 Arméniens sont massacrés à Adana.
1896 Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter born on 03 June 1852. MORE ON ROBINSON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1873: 547 passengers and crew of British White Star steamship Atlantic which sinks off Nova Scotia (another source says 481).
1863 Steiner, mathematician.
1839 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French artist born on 18 February 1755.
1802 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist born on 22 September 1725. MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1793 Some 53'000 Japanese in eruption of volcano Unsen.
1784 Johannes Janson, Dutch artist born on 17 April 1729.
1649 fray Juan Bautista Mayno (or Maino), Spanish painter born in 1569 or 1578 MORE ON MAYNO AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1621 Cristofano Allori, Florentine painter, born on 17 Oct 1577. -- MORE ON ALLORI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1557 Lautaro, caudillo araucano, en el campo de batalla.
1492 Lorenzo I de Médicis, el Magnífico, poeta y político italiano.
Births which occurred on a 01 April:
2003 Cloned banteng male [04 Apr 2003 photo >], weighing about the normal 20 kg, by cesarean section from a surrogate mother cow at a farm in Sioux Center, Iowa. In 1977 the San Diego Zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species began its Frozen Zoo program: preserving tissue samples from hundreds of endangered animals in small plastic vials, which are kept superfrozen in liquid nitrogen. It sent frozen skin cells from a male banteng who died childless in 1980 to researchers at the cloning company Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, which inserted genetic material from the banteng skin cells into 30 cow eggs that had their genetic material removed. Trans Ova Genetics of Hull, Iowa, then implanted the cloned eggs into cows in Sioux Center, Iowa. Of the 16 resulting pregnancies, 14 miscarried and this is the first to result in a birth. The other birth would take place on 03 April 2003, a male weighing 40 kg, whom the scientists would kill on 08 April, as being too overweight to have a good chance of survival. The banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) is an endangered wild bovine species from the forests of Southeast Asia, mostly in Java, and is closely related to the domesticated cow
1976 Apple Computer is founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Paul Jobs [24 Feb 1955~].
1970 The Gremlin, first US subcompact car. ^top^
AMC, the company that first introduced the compact car in the 1950s, introduces the Gremlin, the US's first subcompact car. AMC was the only major independent car company to survive into the 1970s. AMC's success relied heavily on the vision of the company's first president, George Romney, who strongly believed that to compete with the Big Three automakers his company must offer smaller, more fuel-efficient alternatives to their cars. The AMC Rambler, a compact car, accounted for nearly all of AMC's profits through the 1950s, the era during which the company enjoyed its most substantial success. AMC's fortune faded rapidly after Romney left the company in 1962, and by the end of the '60s, the company's output had dropped to a dismal 250'000 sales per year. The release of the Gremlin in 1970 marked the company's return to Romney's vision. Designed to compete with the imported Volkswagens and Japanese sub-compacts, the Gremlin was essentially the AMC Hornet with its back end cut off. AMC President Roy Chapin attempted to re-create the vigorous personal campaign that Romney had used successfully to market the Rambler in the '50s. He appeared before the US public in advertisements to extol the virtues of the "first sub-compact" car. Unfortunately for AMC, the Gremlin was out on the market for only a short time before the Big Three released their own sub-compact models. The Gremlin, created to save AMC, floundered.
1947 Connes, mathematician.
1943 Oklahoma!, comedia musical que renovará este género, se estrena.
1929 Yo-yo is introduced by Louie Marx.
1929 Milan Kundera, escritor francés de origen checo.
1927 First automatic record changer introduced, by His Master's Voice.
1922 William Manchester, author.
1920 Toshiro Mifune Tsing-tao China, writer/actor (Shogun)
1919 Joseph Edward Murray, médico estadounidense, premio Nobel 1990.
1901 Jay Vivian Whittaker Chambers, US journalist; Communist from 1923 to 1938. On 03 August 1948, during the MacCarthyist Red Scare, Chambers accused Alger Hiss (11 Nov 1904 15 Nov 1996) of having been a Communist spy. Chambers later gave as evidence microfilms of government documents hidden in a pumpkin on his farm. It ended up with Hiss serving 44 months in prison for perjury, though he has always asserted his innocence. It is not known whether it was Hiss or Chambers that was lying, though General Dimitri Volkogonov, head of the Russian military intelligence archives, declared in 1992 that he found no documents indicating that Hiss had been a spy. Chambers published his autobiography, Witness, in 1952. He died of a heart attack on 09 July 1961.
1895 Aitken, mathematician.
1889 Manuel de Góngora y Ayustante, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista español.
1889 First dishwashing machine marketed (Chicago)
1875 Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace, British novelist, playwright, and journalist who produced popular detective and suspense stories and was in his time "the king" of the modern thriller. He wrote 175 books, 24 plays, and countless articles and review sketches. He died on 10 February 1932.
1873 Sergei Rachmaninoff, Novgorod Province, Russia, (Prelude in C# Minor). He died on 28 March 1943.