which occurred on an April 07:
students aged 11 to 18, by fire, at the beginning of the school
day, in an old two-story wooden school in village Sydyi Bal, near Vilyuisk
in the Sakha
by its Russian name, Yakutiya, before 1992), Siberia. Ten students are
injured with burns and fractures from jumping out of upstairs windows.
2002 Fernando Vadayo Calderón, Jerson Yamid Meléndez Novoa, Dulfai
Gavilán Falla, Wilson Javier Cruzado Jiménez, Néstor Alejandro Calderón
Guevara, Diego Ramos Gómez, and at least 6 other Colombians by a car bomb
(50 kg of potassium chloride) at 01:05 in the entertainment district of
Villavicencio, capital of Meta state. 67 persons are injured.
Sarah Levy-Hoffman, 89, of Tel-Aviv, Israeli, of injuries received
on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel,
which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including this one.
2001 Timothy Thomas, 19, Black, unarmed, shot (for RWB*)
once in the chest by Cincinnati policeman Steve Roach, 27, White. Thomas
was wanted on 14 warrants for misdemeanors and traffic violations, including
driving without a license and failing to wear a seat belt. Police chased
him several blocks into a dark alley before he was killed. He is the fourth
Black killed by Cincinnati police since November 2000. Three were shot and
a fourth died of asphyxiation in police custody, resulting in charges against
two officers. This latest killing would provoke several days of riots. The
killer cop would be charged only with negligent homicide and obstructing
official business (with a maximum penalty of 9 month in prison) and then,
on 26 September 2001, be acquitted even of that. [*RWB = Running While Black]
9 Vietnam and 7 US persons, including Lt. Col. Marty Martin, 40, and
Maj. Charles Lewis, in helicopter crash.
sixteen were searching for the remains of Americans missing in action
(MIAs) from the Vietnam War. The Russian-made MI-17 helicopter
crashes in central Vietnam. There are no survivors. Those killed were
the advance team for a 95-member Hawaii-based US group that was scheduled
to begin work at six MIA recovery sites in early May. The helicopter
was a Vietnamese military aircraft and its pilot was Vietnamese.
The Joint Task Force Full Accounting,
based in Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii, has searched for MIA remains from
the Indochina War in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and southern China since
it was established on 23 January 1992, and later it expanded
operations to include World War II and Korean War MIA recovery cases.
The sky was hazy when the helicopter
crashed at mid-afternoon near Thanh Tranh village in Quang Binh province's
Bo Tranh district, about 450 km south of Hanoi. Vietnamese police
said local authorities found one Vietnamese man still alive when they
reached the crash site Saturday. The man told them the helicopter
was carrying an MIA search team. He later died.
Since 1973, the remains of 591 American service members formerly listed
as unaccounted for have been identified and returned to their families.
There are 1992 Americans still unaccounted for from the war in Southeast
Asia, including 1498 in Vietnam. The United States spends $5 million
to $6 million annually on MIA recovery operations in Vietnam, Laos
and Cambodia. Quang Binh province, where the accident occurred, was
the southernmost province of North Vietnam during the war, just north
of the former demilitarized zone. It contains many military crash
sites because it was heavily bombed during the war.
US concern for dead bodies far exceeds that for the living: Vietnamese
children in danger from land mines, Vietnamese and US victims of Agent
Orange, mixed race children which US servicemen had with Vietnamese
women and left behind where they are discriminated against by Vietnamese
1990: 190 person in arson fire aboard a ferry en route
from Norway to Denmark killed.
prime minister of Rwanda; ^top^
Joseph Kavaruganda, president
of the Supreme Court of Rwanda,
ten Belgian peacekeepers,
and hundreds of other victims of the Rwandan Massacres.
In the Rwandan capital of Kigali, violence
eruptes between the Patriotic Front rebel group, dominated by Rwanda's
Tutsi people, and government soldiers and militias, dominated by the
Hutus. Gangs of youth, police, and other groups join in the chaotic
fighting. The day before, Juvenal Habyarimana, the president of Rwanda;
and Cyprien Ntyamira, the president of Burundi; were killed when their
plane was downed by rocket fire on its journey back from a peace conference
in Tanzania. The death of President Habyarimana, the leader of Rwanda
since 1973, exasperated an already tense internal situation in Rwanda,
and violence broke out in Kigali as soon as word of his death arrived.
The fighting and racial massacres quickly spread to the rest of the
country, and in the ensuing civil war, the Hutu-dominated government
and militia forces were gradually driven into neighboring central
African countries by the Tutsi-led Patriotic Front. During their retreat,
the Hutu soldiers and militiamen massacred over 500,000 Tutsi civilians
and tens of thousands of Hutu civilian moderates. The genocide was
conducted in a particularly brutal manner, with most victims hacked
to death with machetes or bludgeoned to death with clubs. In 1996,
the massacres resumed as the former Hutu government forces, militiamen,
and other refugees were expelled from Zaire and Tanzania and re-entered
Rwanda, now controlled by a Tutsi-led government.
The world does nothing to stop the genocide.
Rwandan armed forces kill 10 Belgian
peacekeeping officers in a successful effort to discourage international
intervention in their planned genocide that had begun only hours earlier.
In less than three months, Hutu extremists who controlled Rwanda murdered
an estimated 500'000 to 800'000 innocent civilian Tutsis in the worst
episode of ethnic genocide since World War II. The Tutsis, a minority
group that made up about 10% of Rwanda's population, received no assistance
from the international community, although the United Nations later
conceded that a mere 5000 soldiers deployed at the outset would have
stopped the wholesale slaughter.
The immediate roots of the 1994 genocide
went back a few years. In the early 1990s, President Juvenal Habyarimana,
a Hutu, began using anti-Tutsi rhetoric to consolidate his own power
among the Hutus. Beginning in October 1990, there were several massacres
of hundreds of Tutsis. Although the two ethnic groups were very similar,
sharing the same language and culture for centuries, the law required
registration based on ethnicity. The government and army began to
assemble the Interahamwe (meaning "those who attack together") and
prepared for the elimination of the Tutsis by arming Hutus with guns
In January 1994, the United Nations
forces in Rwanda warned that larger massacres were imminent. On 06 April
1994, President Habyarimana's plane was shot down, killing him and
several of his close advisers. It is not known if the attack was carried
out by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a Tutsi military organization
stationed outside the country at the time, or by Hutu extremists trying
to instigate a mass killing. In any event, Hutu extremists in the
military, led by Colonel Bagosora, immediately went into action, murdering
Tutsis and moderate Hutus within hours of the plane crash.
The Belgian peacekeepers were killed
the following day, a key factor in the withdrawal of U.N. forces from
Rwanda. Within days, the radio stations in Rwanda were broadcasting
appeals to the Hutu majority to kill all Tutsis in the country. The
army and the national police directed the slaughter, sometimes threatening
Hutu civilians when persuasion didn't work. Thousands of innocent
people were hacked to death with machetes by their neighbors. Despite
the horrific crimes, the international community, especially the United
States, hesitated to take any action. They wrongly ascribed the genocide
to chaos amid tribal war.
It was left to the RPF to begin an
ultimately successful military campaign for control of Rwanda. By
the summer, the RPF had defeated the Hutu forces and driven them out
of the country and into several neighboring nations. However, by that
time, 75% of the Tutsis living in Rwanda had been murdered. Years
after the genocide, thousands of Hutus remained in prison awaiting
trials for murder. Unfortunately, there were not enough people, either
living or innocent of the crimes, to staff the legal system.
1989 A Soviet submarine carrying
nuclear weapons sinks in the Norwegian Sea.
Vitalyevich Kantorovich, Russian mathematician and economist
born on 19 January 1912.
1972 "Crazy" Joe Gallo, mobster, killed at his 43rd birthday
1961 Vanessa Bell, English painter born on 13 May 1879.
ON BELL AT ART 4 APRIL with
links to images.
1947 , 83, in Dearborn, Michigan. He founded the Ford automobile
1947 Henry Ford, in Dearborn,
Michigan. Born on 30 July 1863, he was a US industrialist who revolutionized
factory production with his assembly-line methods.
spent most of his life making headlines, good, bad, but never indifferent.
Celebrated as both a technological genius and a folk hero, Ford was
the creative force behind an industry of unprecedented size and wealth
that in only a few decades permanently changed the economic and social
character of the United States. When young Ford left his father's
farm in 1879 for Detroit, only two out of eight Americans lived in
cities; when he died at age 83, the proportion was five out of eight.
Once Ford realized the tremendous part he and his Model T automobile
had played in bringing about this change, he wanted nothing more than
to reverse it, or at least to recapture the rural values of his boyhood.
Henry Ford, then, is an apt symbol of the transition from an agricultural
to an industrial US.
was one of eight children of William and Mary Ford. He was born on
the family farm near Dearborn, Michigan, then a town 13 km west of
Detroit. Abraham Lincoln was president of the 24 states of the Union,
and Jefferson Davis was president of the 11 states of the Confederacy.
Ford attended a one-room school for eight years when he was not helping
his father with the harvest. At age 16 he walked to Detroit to find
work in its machine shops. After three years, during which he came
in contact with the internal-combustion engine for the first time,
he returned to the farm, where he worked part-time for the Westinghouse
Engine Company and in spare moments tinkered in a little machine shop
he set up. Eventually he built a small “farm locomotive,”
a tractor that used an old mowing machine for its chassis and a homemade
steam engine for power.
back to Detroit nine years later as a married man. His wife, Clara
Bryant, had grown up on a farm not far from Ford's. They were married
in 1888, and on 06 November 1893, she gave birth to their only child,
Edsel Bryant. A month later Ford was made chief engineer at the main
Detroit Edison Company plant with responsibility for maintaining electric
service in the city 24 hours a day. Because he was on call at all
times, he had no regular hours and could experiment to his heart's
content. He had determined several years before to build a gasoline-powered
vehicle, and his first working gasoline engine was completed at the
end of 1893. By 1896 he had completed his first horseless carriage,
the “Quadricycle,” so called because the chassis of the
four-horsepower vehicle was a buggy frame mounted on four bicycle
wheels. Unlike many other automotive inventors, including Charles
Edgar and J. Frank Duryea, Elwood Haynes, Hiram Percy Maxim, and his
Detroit acquaintance Charles Brady King, all of whom had built self-powered
vehicles before Ford but who held onto their creations, Ford sold
his to finance work on a second vehicle, and a third, and so on.
During the next seven years he had
various backers, some of whom, in 1899, formed the Detroit Automobile
Company (later the Henry Ford Company), but all eventually abandoned
him in exasperation because they wanted a passenger car to put on
the market while Ford insisted always on improving whatever model
he was working on, saying that it was not ready yet for customers.
He built several racing cars during these years, including the “999”
racer driven by Barney Oldfield, and set several new speed records.
In 1902 he left the Henry Ford Company, which subsequently reorganized
as the Cadillac Motor Car Company. Finally, in 1903, Ford was ready
to market an automobile. The Ford Motor Company was incorporated,
this time with a mere $28'000 in cash put up by ordinary citizens,
for Ford had, in his previous dealings with backers, antagonized the
wealthiest men in Detroit.
company was a success from the beginning, but just five weeks after
its incorporation the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers
threatened to put it out of business because Ford was not a licensed
manufacturer. He had been denied a license by this group, which aimed
at reserving for its members the profits of what was fast becoming
a major industry. The basis of their power was control of a patent
granted in 1895 to George Baldwin Selden, a patent lawyer of Rochester,
New York. The association claimed that the patent applied to all gasoline-powered
automobiles. Along with many rural Midwesterners of his generation,
Ford hated industrial combinations and Eastern financial power. Moreover,
Ford thought the Selden patent preposterous. All invention was a matter
of evolution, he said, yet Selden claimed genesis. He was glad to
fight, even though the fight pitted the puny Ford Motor Company against
an industry worth millions of dollars. The gathering of evidence and
actual court hearings took six years. Ford lost the original case
in 1909; he appealed and won in 1911. His victory had wide implications
for the industry, and the fight made Ford a popular hero.
“I will build a motor car for the great multitude,” Ford
proclaimed in announcing the birth of the Model T in October 1908.
In the 19 years of the Model T's existence, he sold 15'500'000 of
the cars in the United States, almost 1'000'000 more in Canada, and
250'000 in Great Britain, a production total amounting to half the
auto output of the world. The motor age arrived owing mostly to Ford's
vision of the car as the ordinary man's utility rather than as the
rich man's luxury. Once only the rich had traveled freely around the
country; now millions could go wherever they pleased. The Model T
was the chief instrument of one of the greatest and most rapid changes
in the lives of the common people in history, and it effected this
change in less than two decades. Farmers were no longer isolated on
remote farms. The horse disappeared so rapidly that the transfer of
acreage from hay to other crops caused an agricultural revolution.
The automobile became the main prop of the American economy and a
stimulant to urbanization—cities spread outward, creating suburbs
and housing developments—and to the building of the finest highway
system in the world.
birth rate of Model T's was made possible by the most advanced production
technology yet conceived. After much experimentation by Ford and his
engineers, the system that had evolved by 1913–1914 in Ford's
new plant in Highland Park, Michigan, was able to deliver parts, subassemblies,
and assemblies (themselves built on subsidiary assembly lines) with
precise timing to a constantly moving main assembly line, where a
complete chassis was turned out every 93 minutes, an enormous improvement
over the 728 minutes formerly required. The minute subdivision of
labor and the coordination of a multitude of operations produced huge
gains in productivity.
the Ford Motor Company announced that it would henceforth pay eligible
workers a minimum wage of $5 a day (compared to an average of $2.34
for the industry) and would reduce the work day from nine hours to
eight, thereby converting the factory to a three-shift day. Overnight
Ford became a worldwide celebrity. People either praised him as a
great humanitarian or excoriated him as a mad socialist. Ford said
humanitarianism had nothing to do with it. Previously profit had been
based on paying wages as low as workers would take and pricing cars
as high as the traffic would bear. Ford, on the other hand, stressed
low pricing (the Model T cost $950 in 1908 and $290 in 1927) in order
to capture the widest possible market and then met the price by volume
and efficiency. Ford's success in making the automobile a basic necessity
turned out to be but a prelude to a more widespread revolution. The
development of mass-production techniques, which enabled the company
eventually to turn out a Model T every 24 seconds; the frequent reductions
in the price of the car made possible by economies of scale; and the
payment of a living wage that raised workers above subsistence and
made them potential customers for, among other things, automobiles—these
innovations changed the very structure of society.
During its first five years the Ford Motor Company produced eight
different models, and by 1908 its output was 100 cars a day. The stockholders
were ecstatic; Ford was dissatisfied and looked toward turning out
1000 a day. The stockholders seriously considered court action to
stop him from using profits to expand. In 1909 Ford, who owned 58
percent of the stock, announced that he was only going to make one
car in the future, the Model T. The only thing the minority stockholders
could do to protect their dividends from his all-consuming imagination
was to take him to court, which Horace Elgin Dodge [17 May 1868 –
10 Dec 1920] and John Francis Dodge [25 Oct 1864 – 14 Jan 1920]
did in 1916.
The Dodge brothers,
who formerly had supplied chassis to Ford but were now manufacturing
their own car while still holding Ford stock, sued Ford for what they
claimed was his reckless expansion and for reducing prices of the
company's product, thereby diverting money from stockholders' dividends.
The court hearings gave Ford a chance to expound his ideas about business.
In December 1917 the court ruled in favor of the Dodges; Ford, as
in the Selden case, appealed, but this time he lost. In 1919 the court
said that, while Ford's sentiments about his employees and customers
were nice, a business is for the profit of its stockholders. Ford,
irate that a court and a few shareholders, whom he likened to parasites,
could interfere with the management of his company, determined to
buy out all the shareholders. He had resigned as president in December
1918 in favor of his son, Edsel, and in March 1919 he announced a
plan to organize a new company to build cars cheaper than the Model
T. When asked what would become of the Ford Motor Company, he said,
“Why I don't know exactly what will become of that; the portion
of it that does not belong to me cannot be sold to me, that I know.”
The Dodges, somewhat inconsistently, having just taken him to court
for mismanagement, vowed that he would not be allowed to leave. Ford
said that if he was not master of his own company, he would start
another. The ruse worked; by July 1919 Ford had bought out all seven
minority stockholders. (The seven had little to complain about: in
addition to being paid nearly $106'000'000 for their stock, they received
a court-ordered dividend of $19'275'385 plus $1'536'749 in interest.)
Ford Motor Company was reorganized under a Delaware charter in 1920
with all shares held by Ford and other family members. Never had one
man controlled so completely a business enterprise so gigantic.
The planning of a huge new plant at
River Rouge, Michigan, had been one of the specific causes of the
Dodge suit. What Ford dreamed of was not merely increased capacity
but complete self-sufficiency. World War I, with its shortages and
price increases, demonstrated for him the need to control raw materials;
slow-moving suppliers convinced him that he should make his own parts.
Wheels, tires, upholstery, and various accessories were purchased
from other companies around Detroit. As Ford production increased,
these smaller operations had to speed their output; most of them had
to install their own assembly lines. It became impossible to coordinate
production and shipment so that each product would arrive at the right
place and at the right time. At first he tried accumulating large
inventories to prevent delays or stoppages of the assembly line, but
he soon realized that stockpiling wasted capital. Instead he took
up the idea of extending movement to inventories as well as to production.
He perceived that his costs in manufacturing began the moment the
raw material was separated from the earth and continued until the
finished product was delivered to the consumer. The plant he built
in River Rouge embodied his idea of an integrated operation encompassing
production, assembly, and transportation. To complete the vertical
integration of his empire, he purchased a railroad, acquired control
of 16 coal mines and about 280'000 hectares of timberland, built a
sawmill, acquired a fleet of Great Lakes freighters to bring ore from
his Lake Superior mines, and even bought a glassworks.
The move from Highland Park to the completed River Rouge plant was
accomplished in 1927. At 08:00 any morning, just enough ore for the
day would arrive on a Ford freighter from Ford mines in Michigan and
Minnesota and would be transferred by conveyor to the blast furnaces
and transformed into steel with heat supplied by coal from Ford mines
in Kentucky. It would continue on through the foundry molds and stamping
mills and exactly 28 hours after arrival as ore would emerge as a
finished automobile. Similar systems handled lumber for floorboards,
rubber for tires, and so on. At the height of its success the company's
holdings stretched from the iron mines of northern Michigan to the
jungles of Brazil, and it operated in 33 countries around the globe.
Most remarkably, not one cent had been borrowed to pay for any of
it. It was all built out of profits from the Model T.
unprecedented scale of that success, together with Ford's personal
success in gaining absolute control of the firm and driving out subordinates
with contrary opinions, set the stage for decline. Trusting in what
he believed was an unerring instinct for the market, Ford refused
to follow other automobile manufacturers in offering such innovative
features as conventional gearshifts (he held out for his own planetary
gear transmission), hydraulic brakes (rather than mechanical ones),
six- and eight-cylinder engines (the Model T had a four), and choice
of color (from 1914 every Model T was painted black). When he was
finally convinced that the marketplace had changed and was demanding
more than a purely utilitarian vehicle, he shut down his plants for
five months to retool. In December 1927 he introduced the Model A.
The new model enjoyed solid but not spectacular success. Ford's stubbornness
had cost him his leadership position in the industry; the Model A
was outsold by General Motors' Chevrolet and Chrysler's Plymouth and
was discontinued in 1931. Despite the introduction of the Ford V-8
in 1932, by 1936 Ford Motor Company was third in sales in the industry.
A similar pattern of authoritarian
control and stubbornness marked Ford's attitude toward his workers.
The $5 daily wage that brought him so much attention in 1914 carried
with it, for workers, the price of often overbearing paternalism.
It was, moreover, no guarantee for the future; in 1929 Ford instituted
a $7 day, but in 1932, as part of the fiscal stringency imposed by
falling sales and the Great Depression, that was cut to $4, below
prevailing industry wages. Ford freely employed company police, labor
spies, and violence in a protracted effort to prevent unionization
and continued to do so even after General Motors and Chrysler had
come to terms with the United Automobile Workers. When the UAW finally
succeeded in organizing Ford workers in 1941, he considered shutting
down before he was persuaded to sign a union contract.
During the 1920s, under Edsel Ford's nominal presidency, the company
diversified by acquiring the Lincoln Motor Car Company, in 1922, and
venturing into aviation. At Edsel's death in 1943 Henry Ford resumed
the presidency and, in spite of age and infirmity, held it until 1945,
when he retired in favor of his grandson, Henry Ford II.
Henry Ford had a complex personality. Away from the shop floor he
exhibited a variety of enthusiasms and prejudices and, from time to
time, startling ignorance. His dictum that “history is more
or less bunk” was widely publicized, as was his deficiency in
that field revealed during cross-examination in his million-dollar
libel suit against The Chicago Tribune in 1919; a Tribune
editorial had called him an “ignorant idealist” because
of his opposition to US involvement in World War I, and while the
jury found for Ford it awarded him only six cents. One of Ford's most
publicized acts was his chartering of an ocean liner to conduct himself
and a party of pacifists to Europe in November 1915 in an attempt
to end the war by means of “continuous mediation.” The
so-called Peace Ship episode was widely ridiculed. In 1918, with the
support of US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb
1924], Ford ran for a US Senate seat from Michigan. He was narrowly
defeated after a campaign of personal attacks by his opponent.
In 1918 Ford bought a newspaper, The
Dearborn Independent, and in it published a series of scurrilous
attacks on the “International Jew,” a mythical figure
he blamed for financing war; in1927 he formally retracted his attacks
and sold the paper. He gave old-fashioned dances at which capitalists,
European royalty, and company executives were introduced to the polka,
the Sir Roger de Coverley, the mazurka, the Virginia reel, and the
quadrille; he established small village factories; he built one-room
schools in which vocational training was emphasized; he experimented
with soybeans for food and durable goods; he sponsored a weekly radio
hour on which quaint essays were read to “plain folks”;
he constructed Greenfield Village, a restored rural town; and he built
what later was named the Henry Ford Museum and filled it with US artifacts
and antiques from the era of his youth when US society was almost
wholly agrarian. In short, he was a man who baffled even those who
had the opportunity to observe him close at hand, all except James
Couzens, Ford's business manager from the founding of the company
until his resignation in 1915, who always said, “You cannot
analyze genius and Ford is a genius.”
Ford died at home in 1947, exactly 100 years after his father had
left Ireland for Michigan. His holdings in Ford stock went to the
Ford Foundation, which had been set up in 1936 as a means of retaining
family control of the firm and which subsequently became the richest
private foundation in the world.
Paul Heinz Prüfer, German mathematician born on 10 November
1945:: 2498 Japanese sailors as Yamato
battleship Yamato, ostensibly the greatest battleship in
the world, is sunk in Japan's first major counteroffensive in the
struggle for Okinawa. Weighing 72'800 tons and outfitted with nine
460-mm guns, the battleship Yamato and accompanying fleet
were Japan's only hope of destroying the Allied fleet off the coast
of Okinawa. But insufficient air cover and fuel cursed the endeavor
as a suicide mission. Struck by 19 US aerial torpedoes, it was sunk.
Edward Alan Christopher Paley, English mathematician born on
07 January 1907. dies in an avalanche while on a skiing vacation, near Banff,
1923 Edward Killingworth Johnson, British artist born in
1900 Frederic Edwin Church, US Hudson
River School painter born on 04 May 1826, specialized in Landscapes.
ON CHURCH AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
David Gustav du Bois-Reymond, German mathematician born on
02 December 1831, brother of physiologist Emil Heinrich du Bois-Reymond
[07 Nov 1818 – 26 Dec 1896].
Phineas Taylor Barnum, in Bridgeport, Connecticut,
Though he was gravely ill, the 81-year-old showman's sense of humor
hadn't deserted him. He requested that a New York paper run his obituary
before he died so he could enjoy reading it, and the paper obliged.
Barnum was born in Bethel, Connecticut, in 1810. When young Phineas
was 15, his father died, leaving Barnum to support his mother and
five siblings. He worked as publisher of a weekly paper in Danbury,
Connecticut, and was arrested for libel several times. He married
at age 19 and in 1934 went to New York promoting Joice Heth, a woman
he claimed was 161 years old and had been a nurse to George Washington.
He earned $1,500 a week promoting her but later admitted Heth's history
was a hoax. In 1942, he purchased John Scudder's American Museum in
New York and filled the five-story marble building with sensational
curiosities from around the world, including a pair of Siamese twins
joined at the chest, and an alleged mermaid preserved in liquid. The
museum also presented dramatic spectacles, beauty contests, and other
most popular of the museum's spectacles, however, was Barnum's friend
Charles Stratton, a diminutive man known as General Tom Thumb. Thumb
became so popular that Barnum and Stratton were invited to an audience
with the Queen of England. During the 26 years Barnum ran the museum,
some 82 million guests--including Charles Dickens and the Prince of
Wales--visited. After two devastating fires, Barnum closed the museum
in 1868 and moved on to promote a more legitimate attraction: Swedish
singer Jenny Lind, whom he billed as "The Swedish Nightingale." She
gave nearly 100 concerts under Barnum's management.
Interested in politics, Barnum served in the Connecticut state legislature
and became mayor of Bridgeport. When his wife died, he married a woman
40 years his junior. At age 60, Barnum launched P.T. Barnum's Grand
Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan and Circus, the largest circus
venture in US history up to that time. Although circuses had been
around for many years, Barnum magnified the experience, offering action
in three different rings at once. In 1872, he began billing his circus
as "The Greatest Show on Earth." In 1881, he teamed up with James
A. Bailey to form the "P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show on Earth, and The
Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and the Grand
International Allied Shows United." The show was more commonly known,
however, as the Barnum and London Circus. In 1882, Barnum added the
6 1/2-ton elephant Jumbo to the show. In 1888, the show changed its
name to "Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth." Barnum died after
spending his entire life revolutionizing entertainment, popularizing
not just the circus but also museums and concerts as entertaining
activities. His last words were reportedly, "Ask Bailey what the box
office was at the Garden last night."
1803 Toussaint-Louverture, 60, prisoner in France. He was
a leader of the Haitian independence movement during the French Revolution,
who emancipated the slaves and briefly established Haiti as a black-governed
French protectorate, but was captured by treachery by general Charles Leclerc
with whom he had made peace.
1707 Willen van de Velde, British Dutch English marine
painter born on 18 December 1633. MORE
ON VAN DE VELDE AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
(18 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
le ttribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BIZOT François Marie, âgé de 50 ans, né à Besançon,
ingénieur, ex maire de Montargis, département du Loiret comme conspirateur.
JULIEN Jean François, âgé de 60 ans, chirurgien et
officier municipal de la commune de Montargis, né et domicilié à Montargis,
département du Loiret, comme conspirateur.
Elisabeth Thérèse, veuve Pericard, maître des comptes, âgée
de 70 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, comme
LAMOTTE François (dit Senones), François
Pierre, ex noble, domicilié à Bonneuil, département de la
Seine, comme conspirateur.
femme du ci-devant marquis de Senones, âgée de 36 ans, native de St
Dominique, département de la Mayenne, domiciliée à Bonneuil, département
de la Seine, condamnée à mort, comme conspiratrice.
Charles Léonard, administrateur du district de Montargis,
âgé de 45 ans, natif de Clamecy, ci-devant, président de l'élection,
depuis juge du district domicilié à Montargis, département du Loiret,
comme convaincu d'être complice de manœuvres pratiquées de la part
du tyran roi et de ses suppôts dans l'intervalle du 20 juin au 10
MOUZIN Etienne, âgé de 28 ans, notaire,
domicilié à Dijon département de la Côte-d'Or, comme conspirateur,
ayant eu des intelligences avec les ennemis extérieures avec les ennemis
extérieurs de la République.
PELE VARENNES Marie Joseph
Hippolite, ci-devant receveur particulier des finances, depuis
receveur de district, natif de Sens, âgé de 53 ans, domicilié à Montargis,
département du Loiret, comme conspirateur, en rédigeant et signant
une adresse liberticide, envoyée au tyran roi, contre le peuple, sur
les événements du 20 juin 1793.
notaire, né et domicilié à Dijon, département de la Côte-d'Or, comme
convaincu d'avoir eu des intelligences avec les ennemis extérieures
de la République.
SAINT-GERMAIN Antoine Louis Claude
(dit Dapchon), ex marquis, maréchal de camp, âgé de 45 ans, né et
domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme conspirateur.
D'ABOVILLE Bernard Alexandre, âgé de 25 ans, né à Commelin
(Meuse), capitaine au 24° régiment, guillotiné.
MOUILLÉ Nicolas, maréchal-des-logis au 6ème régiment d'hussards, domicilié
à Nancy, département de la Haute Marne, comme émigré.
PETAIN François, âgé de 43 ans, né et demeurant à St Pol, pérruquier,
ci-devant concierge de la maison d'arrêt, époux de Capron Marie Anne
RUAUX Jean Antoine Baptiste, âgé de 23 ans, né à Rennes(Ille et Vilaine),
Par la commission militaire
ou révolutionnaire de Laval:
Léonore Augustin, ex-noble et curé, domicilié à la Bazonge
de Chemère, canton de Laval, département de la Mayenne comme contre-révolutionnaire.
comme brigands de la Vendée:
BAZILE Louis, cordonnier, domicilié à Menil, canton
de Château-Gontier, département de la Mayenne
Julien, filassier, domicilié à Dupertre, département de la
LEPINE Gaspard, filassier, domicilié
à Marigné, département de Mayenne et Loire
laboureur, domicilié à Nosière département de la Mayenne
René, laboureur, domicilié à Romagné, département d’Ille-et-Vilaine
SOUDRAIN Jean, sabotier, domicilié à Tigné, département
de Mayenne et Loire
Par la commission
militaire de Nantes, comme brigands de la Vendée:
GODART Jean, domicilié à St Fulgent,
département de la Vendée JASMIN Jacques, domicilié
à Bourg, département de la Vendée
domiciliés à Bouguenais, département de la Loire
DUTAY Jean GARNIER Quentin
GUILLON Pierre PELLETIER Pierre
PLINE Louis (ou ELINE?) ROBERTOT
Charles TREMAR Barthélemi
Jean Antoine, frère-lai-trapiste, domicilié à Tanargues,
département de l'Ardèche comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal
criminel dudit département.
déserteur autrichien, domicilié à St Michel, département de l’Aisne
comme distributeur de faux assignats, par le tribunal militaire du
département du Nord.
CLER François, propriétaire
agriculteur, domicilié à St Chamas, département des Bouches du Rhône
comme chef d'émeute, par le tribunal révolutionnaire dudit département.
DEMOI François Pierre, ex curé et chevalier
de la Roche-Beaucourt, domicilié à Neuvic, département de la Dordogne
comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
SPILMAN Marie Eve, négociante ci-devant femme
de chambre de la femme Ducelard, domiciliée à Besançon, département
du Doubs, comme distributrice de faux assignats, le 18 germinal an
3, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1614 Doménikos Theotokópoulos
El Greco, Cretan-born Spanish painter, whose elongated
figures puzzled his contemporaries but gained appreciation in the 20th century.
He also was a sculptor and an architect. MORE
ON EL GRECO AT ART 4 APRIL
with links to images.
0030 Jesus of Nazareth, is crucified
by Roman soldiers in Jerusalem (scholars' estimate)