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a 16 April:
2003 Shortly after he arrives at a Kuwait hospital, Ali Ismail Abbas, 12 [12 April photo, in a Baghdad hospital >], is operated upon to graft temporary skin on the burns covering some 35% of his body, which he suffered as he sheets caught fire on or about 30 March 2003, just after midnight, when a US missile hit his Zafaraniya (50 km from Baghdad) home, also causing him to lose both arms (they were shattered by the explosion and later amputated in the local hospital), his father Ismail, his 5-months-pregnant mother Azhar, his younger brother Abbas, and 7 other relatives. His six sisters, aged 6 to 20, and a stepbrother, 10, survive, several of them wounded. While Ali receives all this publicity, there are hundreds of other injured Kuwaiti children left behind where looted hospitals, deprived of electricity, cannot take adequate care of them.
2001 First Union Corp., the 6th largest US bank, announces that it is buying competitor Wachovia Corp. for $13.4 billion in stock, to make under the Wachovia name the 4th biggest US banking company, with $324 billion in assets, trailing only Citigroup Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. and Bank of America. Analysts doubt that the two disparate corporate cultures of Wachovia and First Union can merge efficiently.
2000 The International Monetary Fund concluded a protest-marred opening session in Washington with a statement repeating past pledges to seek greater debt relief for the poorest countries and reform the IMF so it could better prevent financial crises.
1992 Entra en vigor en Vietnam la nueva Constitución, que permite la propiedad privada.
1992 The US House of Representatives ethics committee lists 303 current and former lawmakers who had overdrawn their House bank accounts.
1991 US President George Bush announces that US forces will be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
1984 Vaselin Djuradevic es elegido nuevo presidente de Yugoslavia.
1982 Asturias, paralizada por una huelga general.
1975 The Khmer Rouge Rebels win control of Cambodia after a five-year civil war. They rename the country Kampuchea and begin a reign of terror.
1970 Comienza en Viena una conferencia entre soviéticos y estadounidense sobre limitación de armas estratégicas, SALT.
1966 Rhodesian PM Ian Smith breaks diplomatic relations with Britain.
1966 La Iglesia católica polaca critica severamente al Gobierno. El cardenal Wyszynski declara "tener intención de desempeñar un papel político".
1947 Financier and presidential confidant Bernard M. Baruch said in a speech at the South Carolina statehouse: "Let us not be deceived we are today in the midst of a cold war."
1945 US troops enter Nuremberg, Germany, during WW II.
1944 The destroyer USS Laffey survives large-scale damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.
1930 Comienza una guerra civil en China.
1926 The first Book-of-the-Month Club selection is distributed: Lolly Willows, or, The Loving Huntsman by Sylvia Townsend Warner. It goes to the nearly 5000 joined the Club, established in New York City in April.
1865 Capture of Columbus and West Point, Georgia
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1862 President Lincoln signs an act abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia, an important step in the long road toward full emancipation and enfranchisement for African Americans.
1862 Confederate President Jefferson Davis approved conscription act for white males between 18 and 35.
1854 San Salvador destroyed by earthquake.
1818 The US Senate ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed US-Canada border.
1794 (27 germinal an II) PAPAREL 1er frère, ex curé de Vabres, BRAJON Gilbert (dit Pied-de-Pastière), tonnelier, domiciliés à Mende, et GASE, ecclésiastique, et RABIER aîné, domiciliés à Chanac, département de la Lozère, sont condamnés à mort comme séditieux, par contumace, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1794 (27 germinal an II) DORCHES Jacques Joseph, cultivateur, domicilié à Sameon, département du Nord, est condamné à être déporté comme contre-révolutionnaire par le tribunal militaire de l'armée du Nord.
1794 En France révolutionnaire, loi du 27 germinal, qui prévoit la peine de mort.
1789 US President-elect George Washington leaves Mount Vernon, Virginia, for his inauguration in New York
1787 The first production of a US play to be successfully mounted by a professional company debuts in New York: The Contrast, by Royall Tyler, at the John Street Theater. It glorifies US simplicity and idealism.
1777 At the Battle of Bennington, New England's minutemen routed British regulars.
1746 Las tropas que defendía el derecho al trono de Jacobo III, el Pretendiente, hijo de Jacobo II, son derrotadas por el ejército de Guillermo II, Rey de Inglaterra.
1622 Armand Jean Duplessis cardinal de Richelieu es nombrado primer ministro de Francia, cargo que ejerció bajo los reinados de Luis XIII y Luis XIV.
1581 Felipe II es proclamado rey de Portugal en el monasterio de Tomar. [¿monasterio? ¿y después fue a celebrar en la cantina de Rezar?]
1521 German reformer Martin Luther, 34, arrived at the Diet of Worms, where he afterward defended his "Ninety-Five Theses," first advanced in
1517 At the Diet, Luther refused to recant his ideas 'unless overcome by Scripture.'
0642 Tulga, rey visigodo hispánico, es derrocado por Chindasvinto, hijo de Chintila, nombrado rey por una revuelta nobiliaria. Sin embargo Chindasvinto se convertirá en uno de los monarcas más enérgicos contra la nobleza, ejecutando a unos 700 miembros de esa clase social mientras que un elevado número era enviado al destierro, posiblemente a raiz de una conspiración sufrida en los inicios de su reinado. Puso en marcha una sólida política de fortalecimiento de la corona, exigiendo un juramento de fidelidad a los altos dignatarios. También se preocupó por regular la vida social y económica a través de un Código legal que promulgará su hijo y sucesor Recesvinto. Las medidas de saneamiento fiscal completan un glorioso reinado (642-653).
0556 Pelagius I begins his reign as Pope
which occurred on an April 16:
2003 Graham Stuart Thomas, 94, English gardener, author of 19 books on gardening, from Old Shrub Roses (1955) to The Garden Through the Year (2002)
2003 Three innocent Iraqis, shot from rooftops by US troops in Mosul. There were people inside the central bank, which is next door to the governor's office. They had been looting money for several days. Police were standing outside the bank and fired shots in the air to disperse the looters. The US soldiers, apparently thinking that they were being fired at, shoot at the people in front of the governor's office, rather than at the looters, and also hit some people in a passing bus. 17 innocent civilians are wounded.
2003 All 70 crew members of Chinese submarine No.361, suffocated during a descent by its diesel engines running and using up all the oxygen. They ought to have shut off and power been provided by batteries. The accident occurs during a silent, no-contact drill, so that it is not discovered until 26 April, and then the Chinese authorities do not reveal it until 02 May, without mention of date, place, or cause. It was a Ming-class submarine, built by the Chinese based on an obsolete Soviet model
2001 Three Syrian soldiers, by Israeli planes attacking a Syrian radar station in Lebanon's central mountain, 10 km west of Chtaura, in retaliation for Syria not controling Hezbollah guerrillas, who on 14 April killed an Israeli soldier near the Chebaa Farms area, where the borders of Lebanon, Syria and Israel meet. It is the first Israeli attack on Syrians since 1982.
2001 Mullah Mohammed Rabbani, 44, of cancer. He was head of Afghanistan's Taliban governing ministers' council.
2000 Policarpo Paz García, político y militar hondureño.
1998 Alberto P. Calderón, Argentinian engineer and mathematician born on 14 September 1920.
1997 Doris Angleton, by 13 bullets from two guns, in her home in the River Oaks area of Houston, Texas. Her husband, Robert Angleton, became a suspect. He implicated his brother Roger, who in February 1998 committed suicide in his prison cell, leaving notes that he had killed Doris and tried to frame his brother in an extortion attempt. These notes were not allowed in the murder trial of Robert, who nevertheless was acquitted on 12 August 1998.
1988 Abu Jihad, lugarteniente de Yasser Arafat y "número 2" de la OLP, asesinado en Túnez por un comando de 30 personas supuestamente pertenecientes a los servicios secretos de Israel.
1984 Helcías Martán Góngora, poeta colombiano.
1978 Richard Lindner, US painter born in 1901. MORE ON LINDNER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1972 Yusunari Kawabata, novelista japonés, Premio Nobel de Literatura 1968.
1965 Floris Jespers, Belgian artist born in 1889.
1942 José Moreno Carbonero, pintor español.
1941 Émile Bernard, French painter and writer born on 28 April 1868. MORE ON BERNARD AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1932 Walter Launt Palmer, US painter born on 01 August 1854. MORE ON PALMER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1919 Paul Mansion, Belgian mathematician born on 03 June 1844.
1914 George William Hill, US mathematician born on 03 March 1838.
1849 Alexis Charles Henri Maurice Clérel de Tocqueville, French political scientist, historian, and politician, born on 29 July 1805. He is best known for his 4-volume De la Démocratie (1840), treating in great part of the US. But he did not favor democracy for Algerians. In 1841 he wrote: J'ai souvent entendu en France des hommes que je respecte, mais que je n'approuve pas, trouver mauvais qu'on brûlât les moissons, qu'on vidât les silos et enfin qu'on s'emparât des hommes sans armes, des femmes et des enfants. Ce sont là, suivant moi, des nécessités fâcheuses, mais auxquelles tout peuple qui voudra faire la guerre aux Arabes sera obligé de se soumettre. and: Quoi qu'il en soit, on peut dire d'une manière générale que toutes les libertés politiques doivent être suspendues en Algérie.
1828 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish painter born on 30 March 1746. MORE ON GOYA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1825 Johann Heinrich Füssli, Swiss British Romantic painter born in 1741. MORE ON FÜSSLI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1817 Martin Drölling, French academic painter baptized as an infant on 19 September 1752. - MORE ON DRÖLLING AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
| 1812 Martin von Molitor, Austrian artist born on 20
1782 Giuseppe Vasi, Italian engraver and painter born on 28 August 1710. — more with links to images.
1687 Gaspar Pieter (Petter) Verbruggen, Flemish artist born on 08 September 1635.
1446 Filippo Brunelleschi, Florentine architect, sculptor, and painter.
0304 Santa Engracia.
which occurred on an April 16:
1955 Henri de Nassau, gran duque heredero de Luxemburgo.
1948 La Organización Europea de Cooperación Económica se funda en París. Constituye uno de los primeros pasos para la unidad europea y el futuro Mercado Común.
1940 Margrethe II, queen of Denmark, Amalienborg Palace, Copenhagen.
1927 Joseph Ratzinger, teólogo y cardenal alemán.
1922 Leo Tindemans, economista y político belga.
1898 Hellmuth Kneser, German mathematician who died on 23 August 1973.
1871 John M. Synge, Irish poetic dramatist who died on 24 March 1909..
1867 Wilbur Wright of aeronautical fame.
1844 Anatole France, French [how did you guess?] writer (Thaïs, The Wickerwork Woman) (Nobel 1921). He died on 12 October 1924. ANATOLE FRANCE ONLINE: Crainquebille, Putois, Riquet et plusieurs autres récits profitables L'Etui de nacre (1923) Les sept femmes de la Barbe-Bleue et autres contes merveilleux
1823 Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein, German mathematician who died on 11 October 1852. He worked on a variety of topics including quadratic and cubic forms, the reciprocity theorem for cubic residues, quadratic partition of prime numbers and reciprocity laws.
1821 Ford Madox Brown, English Pre-Raphaelite painter who died on 06 October 1893. MORE ON BROWN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1820 Victor Alexandre Puiseux, French mathematician who died on 09 September 1883. He worked on elliptic functions and studied computational methods in astronomy.
1786 Sir John Franklin, English rear admiral and explorer who died on 11 June 1847.
1766 John Leslie, Scottish mathematician who died on 03 November 1832.
1755 Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, French Neoclassical painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 30 March 1842. MORE ON VIGÉE~LEBRUN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1682 John Hadley, English astronomer who who built the first Gregorian reflector telescope. He died on 14 February 1744.
1660 Sir Hans Sloane, English physician and naturalist who died on 11 January 1753.
1647 Matthys Naivei, Dutch artist who died in 1721.
1635 Frans van Mieris the Elder, Dutch painter who died on 12 March 1681. MORE ON VAN MIERIS AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.