• Benjamin Franklin dies... • Khmer Rouge victorious... • Hudson's last voyage... • Général Giraud escapes... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Protests against Vietnam War... • Bay of Pigs invasion... • Soviet invaders force Czech reformist leader to resign... • Yugoslavia surrenders... • Crippled spacecraft returns safely... • US~USSR race to get Nazi assets... • Ford Mustang car… • Connally acquitted of taking bribes... • Car self starter is patented... • An authentic [NOT!] life of Billy the Kid... • Out of Africa's author is born... • Encryption export restrictions challenged... • MGM is formed... • Ford Mustang car...
| On a 17 April:
2002 It is announced that archeologists, in National Geographic sponsored excavations started in 1999, have discovered 2200 Inca mummies and more than 50'000 artifacts dating from 1480-1535 in the Tupac Amaru shantytown (Puruchuco-Huaquerones) near Lima, Peru.
| 2001 El primer ministro israelí, Ariel
Sharon, ordena al Ejército que abandone las posiciones que había
ocupado en la franja de Gaza.
1998 18 astronautas, junto a unos 2000 animales e insectos, parten en la nave espacial Columbia para realizar pruebas de ingravidez, en una misión sin precedentes.
1997 Tras dos meses de marcha, miles de campesinos brasileños llegan a Brasilia para pedir el reparto de tierras no productivas.
1997 @Home, a cable modem company, says that it has raised $48 million through a private placement of stock. The company hopes to use the bandwidth of cable television to permit faster Internet connections. @Home would place a successful IPO in the summer of 1997.
1986 IBM announces that it will manufacture the first computers using the megabit memory chip.
1983 In Warsaw, police rout 1000 Solidarity supporters
1971 Se firma en Damasco la Constitución de la Federación de Repúblicas Árabes, formada por Egipto, Siria y Libia.
1967 El presidente chino Liu Shaoqi es acusado de haber organizado en febrero de ese año un golpe de Estado contra Mao Zedong.
1964 Se inaugura la mayor central de bombeo de carburante del mundo en Vianden (Luxemburgo).
1963 Una nueva República Árabe Unida, integrada por Egipto, Siria e Iraq, es proclamada en El Cairo.
| 1960 American Samoa sets up a constitutional government
1956 USSR's Cominform (Parliament) dissolves.
1956 Estados Unidos presenta el avión Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, capaz de volar a doble velocidad que el sonido y transportar armas atómicas.
1954 Los partidarios del antiguo sultán Muhammad V ibn Yusuf son objeto de una dura represión en Casablanca.
1953 667 almacenistas de víveres son encarcelados en Buenos Aires por violar los precios tope oficiales.
1952 Colombia firma un pacto de asistencia militar con Estados Unidos.
1946 Last French troops leave Syria (National Day)
| 1936 La Ley de Reforma Agraria española
es derogada y se declara la ilegalidad de todas las organizaciones fascistas.
Las Cortes destituyen y deportan a Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres,
y la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) declara la huelga general
1935 La Sociedad de Naciones condena unánimemente el rearme alemán.
1934 León Trostki es expulsado de Francia.
1930 Abkhazian ASSR established in Georgian SSR.
1928 Japón decide el envío de buques de guerra y tropas a Shantung.
1923 Se abre el XII congreso del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética, en él que Stalin y la dirección del partido son criticados.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional francesa aprueba la jornada laboral de ocho horas.
1916 Tropas inglesas y portuguesas avanzan hacia las posiciones alemanas en África oriental.
1912 Se produce una rebelión en el ejército regular del sultán de Marruecos en Fez; las tropas francesas restablecen el orden.
1912 Tiene lugar un eclipse total de sol en Europa.
1900:: 7 high chiefs of American Samoa sign Instrument of Cession
1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki signed, ends first Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
1864 Confederate attack on Plymouth, North Carolina begins
1863 Union Colonel Grierson's Raid from La Grange, Tennessee, to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, begins
1863 John S. Marmaduke's Confederates leave Arkansas on raid into Missouri
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues .
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1861 Virginia become 8th state to secede from the US.
1833 English historian and statesman Thomas B. Macaulay declared: 'The whole history of Christianity proves that she has little indeed to fear from persecution as a foe, but much to fear from persecution as an ally.'
1824 Russia abandons all North American claims south of 54º 40' N
1814 Francisco Javier Elío y Olondriz, capitán general de Valencia, elabora el primer pronunciamiento del Ejército español en favor de un determinado sistema político, en apoyo de Fernando VII.
1812 Las Cortes de Cádiz crean el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia.
1809 Un decreto de la Junta Central Suprema y Gubernativa del Reino en Sevilla autoriza el armamento del pueblo.
1808 Bayonne Decree by Napoléon I of France orders seizure of US ships
1793 Battle of Warsaw
1792 Loi de la Révolution française prévoyant la peine de mort pour les révoltés.
1752 El rey Fernando VI funda en Madrid la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
1708 El cirujano parisino Jean-Louis Petit consigue la primera extracción con éxito de cataratas.
1524 NY Harbor discovered by Giovanni Verrazano.
1521 Martin Luther is excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. Lutero comparece ante la Dieta de Worms, donde no se retracta de sus escritos.
1492 Christopher Columbus signs contract with Spain to find western route to the Indies. Los Reyes Católicos firman las Capitulaciones de Santa Fe, que regulan los derechos y obligaciones entre la Corona y Cristóbal Colón.
which occurred on an April 17:
2003 Adham al-Katri, 32, Palestinian policeman, from wounds he suffered during an Israeli army raid into Gaza city in February. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least 1997 Palestinians and 732 Israelis”.
2003 Mahmoud al-Louh, 21, Palestinian, of wounds sustained in an Israeli air raid on Gaza City.
2003 Yusuf Yahya, 21, Palestinian, shot on a street in Tulkarm, West Bank, by an Israeli army patrol enforcing a curfew. The Israelis claim that he was throwing Molotov cocktails at them.
2003 J[ohn] Paul Getty [Jr.] [10 Mar 1998 photo >], US (British since 1997) dibillionaire born on 07 September 1932, the third of five sons of J[ean] Paul “Oklahoma Crude” Getty [15 Dec 1892 – 06 Jun 1976] who founded Getty Oil and built a $6 billion fortune, making him the richest man in the world at his death. After attending the University of San Francisco and doing a brief stint in the army, Getty Jr. took charge of Getty Oil enterprises in Rome. But he resigned within six years, telling his father, "It doesn't take anything to be a businessman." He then embarked on a freewheeling lifestyle of drugs and parties. In 1967, he divorced his wife of 11 years, Gail, with whom he had four children. But the hippie life ended in 1971 when Getty's second wife, Bali-born model Talitha Pol, died of an accidental drug overdose in Rome. He moved to the UK in 1972 and, for years, lived alone in a heavily secured mansion on the bank of the River Thames in London's upscale Chelsea neighborhood, taking solace in heroin and rum. He gave no interviews, issuing only the occasional statement through his lawyers. The bulk of Getty's fortune came from a family trust after the sale of Getty Oil to Texaco in 1984. His father, from whom he was estranged, left him only a nominal sum in his will. The younger Getty's fortune had been put as high as $2 billion, but he said much of it was in family trusts he did not control. In 1971, Getty's teenage son from his first marriage, John Paul III, was abducted in Italy and held for five months. It was only after the kidnappers cut off part of his ear and sent it to the family that the boy's grandfather agreed to help pay a reported ransom of $3.4 million. A year later, the youngster had a drug-induced stroke that left him a paraplegic and practically blind. In 1994, Catholic Getty married Victoria Holdsworth, his longtime British girlfriend, who is credited with his rehabilitation and gradual emergence into public life as a philanthropist and art lover.
2003 Giannis Spyridon “John” Latsis [1998 photo >], Greek pentabillionaire who kept a low profile (101st richest in world in 2003 according to Forbes). Born on 14 September 1910, Latsis started working as a laborer, and then as a deck hand in the merchant marine. He eventually become a captain and later a shipowner. Then he expanded into construction, undertaking major projects in Arab countries. In 1969, Latsis established Petrola, the first export-oriented oil refinery in Greece. He also built and operated a major refinery in Saudi Arabia. In 1979 he went into finance, buying the Deposit Bank from the Onassis family in Geneva, then acquired more European banks, including London's Private Bank and Trust Company and Greece's second biggest private bank, EFG Eurobank Ergasias. He founded the philanthropic Latsis Foundation, and made large donations to earthquake victims in Greece, Egypt and Armenia. He also gave money to the Greek government for the purchase of fire planes.
2003 Dr. Robert Atkins, who was in a coma after falling on an icy sidewalk and hitting his head on 08 April 2003. Born on 17 October 1930, he started an independent medical practice in 1959. He was overweight (88 kg) and applied to himself an adaptation of a no-carbohydrate diet tested on a small scale by Dr. Alfred W. Pennington during WW II. He lost 9 kg and this led him to promoting the quack high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate Atkins Diet. He sold millions of his (co-authored) books starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution (1972) and including Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution (1992), Dr. Atkins' Quick and Easy New Diet Cookbook (1997), and Atkins for Life (2003). He turned the fad into a profitable business. He had less success with other quack promotions, such as ozone (against cancer), herbal medicines, acupuncture.
2002 Sergeant Marc Léger, 29, of Lancaster, Ont.; Private Richard Green, 21, of Mill Cove, N.S.; Corporal Ainsworth Dyer, 25, of Montreal; and Private Nathan Smith, 27, of Tatamagouche, N.S., of Alpha Company, 3rd Battalion of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, during a night exercise near Tarnak Farms, close to Kandahar, Afghanistan, by a 500-pound laser-guided bomb dropped by Major Harry Schmidt of the Illinois Air National Guard from his F-16, claiming self-defense and being attacked. Eight other Canadian soldiers are wounded, including Sergeant Lorne Ford, from Edmonton, who ends up losing an eye and a leg. A US AWACS (airborne warning and control system) radar aircraft directing the flight had ordered a delay in any attack while checks were being made. Schmidt and fellow F-16 pilot and 2-plane flight leader Major William Umbach (also of the Illinois Air National Guard) would be charged by military justice in September 2002. The military's unwritten license to kill first and ask questions later (if at all) may apply to peaceful Afghan civilians, but not to allied troops. And smart bombs are not smart enough to outwit stupid and paranoid users.
2001 Pheng Heng, 37, as, early in the morning, two grenades tied together are tossed into the middle of a low-stakes gambling game in which she was participating, in a wooden and bamboo shack in the rural district of Kampong Trach, province of Kampot (SW of Phnom Penh), Cambodia. Six others are wounded.
1997 Allan Francovich, investigador, escritor y director de cine estadounidense.
1997 Herzog Haim, político israelí de origen irlandés.
1993 Turgut Ozal, político y presidente de Turquía.
1992 Remigio Mendiburu, escultor español.
1990 Rev Ralph Abernathy, 64, US civil rights activist.
1987 Un muerto y tres heridos, en un frustrado intento de golpe de Estado contra el Gobierno de Corazón Cory Aquino, en Filipinas.
1986 Neal S. Rosenblum, 25, Orthodox Jew from Toronto, shot on a street in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh, where he was visiting his in-laws, by unacquainted anti-Jewish Steven M. Tielsch who happered to pass by. After three mistrials, Tielsch would at last be convicted of third-degree murder on 13 September 2002, and sentenced on 13 November 2002 to 10 to 20 years in prison, but he would appeal.
1986 Marcel Dassault, ingeniero aeronáutico francés.
1986 Tres rehenes británicos, secuestrados en Líbano, son asesinados como represalia por la utilización de bases aéreas británicas por las fuerzas de Estados Unidos que bombardearon Libia.
1984 Mark Clark, general estadounidense de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1981 All 13 aboard Hadley Page 137 Jetstream I N11360 and 2 aboard Cessna 206 N4862F which at 16:01 collide 4 km east-southeast of Loveland, Colorado at 4000 m altitude. The Jetstream was Air US commuter Flight 716 out of Denver's Stapleton airport bound for Gillette, Wyoming, 500 km away. The crash resulted from the failure of the Cessna's pilot to establish communications with the Denver Center and his climbing into controlled airspace above 3810 m without an authorized transponder. A contributing factor was the fact that existing regulations did not prohibit parachute jumping in or immediately adjacent to federal airways, which was the intention of the Cessna's passenger. [the names of the victims are sought by one of this site's readers: please e-mail them to me if you can, together with any further information about this crash]
1981 Un turista en el aeropuerto de Ajaccio (Córcega), en un atentado frustrado contra Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.
1978:: 43 persons as southbound Venice-Rome luxury express train collides head-on with a northbound Lecce-Milan local train during a blinding rainstorm that triggered a mudslide across the tracks which steered the local into the path of the express. 50 muertos por la colisión de dos trenes entre Bolonia y Florencia provocada por un deslizamiento de tierras.
1977 Richard Dagobert Brauer, Jewish German US mathematician born on 10 February 1901. Brother of mathematician Alfred Theodore Brauer [09 Apr 1894 – 1985]. Richard Brauer became interested in work on group characters. He formulated a method to classify all finite simple groups, then spent the rest of his life working on this problem.
1970 Domenico Gnoli, Italian painter born on 02 May 1933. — more with links to images.
1895 Jorge Isaacs, Colombian poet and novelist born on 01 April 1837.
1847 François Joseph Servois, French artillery officer and mathematician born on 19 July 1768. He worked in projective geometry, functional equations and complex numbers. He introduced the word pole in projective geometry. He also came close to discovering the quaternions before Hamilton [04 Aug 1805 – 02 Sep 1865]. Servois was the author of Traité des propriétés projectives. The quaternions are a set of symbols of the form a + bi + cj + dk where a, b, c, d are Real numbers. They multiply using the rules i^2 = j^2 = k^2 = -1 and ij = k. They form a non-commutative division algebra. They are an extension of the imaginary numbers, which are their special case when j = k = 0.
1824 William Ashford, Britist artist born in 1746. — more with link to an image.
(28 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
| 1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables:
BARRAUD Abraham, voiturier, domicilié à Ilse-Boin, canton de Challans.
BENETEAU Jacques (dit le Prince), laboureur, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-Rié, canton de Challans.
Domiciliés à Paris, comme fabricants de faux assignats:
GUYOT François, brocanteur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
HOUZEL Daniel, commis, par le tribunal criminel de Paris.
| 1792 [1793???] MURY Jean, horloger, domicilié à Paris
département de la Seine, condamné à mort, comme fabricant de faux assignats,
par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1711 Joseph I, born on 26 July 1678, king of Hungary since 1687, Holy Roman Emperor since May 1705. He unsuccessfully fought since 1701 the War of Spanish Succession to keep the Spanish crown to the Habsburgs in the person of his younger brother archduke Charles [01 October 1685 20 October 1740] who succeeds him (as Charles VI) and keeps on fighting the war, with no success, until 1714.
1695 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, monja y poetisa mexicana.
1679 Jan van Kessel I, Dutch painter specialized in Still Life born on 05 April 1626. MORE ON VAN KESSEL AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1672 François Garnier, French painter born in 1600. — a bit more with links to images
0858 Pope Benedict III
0485 Proclus Diadochus, Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, poet, mathematician, born on 08 February 411. Author of a Commentary on Euclid — Liber de causis — Institutio theologica (metaphysics) — Elements of Physics — In Platonis theologiam — and many other works.
which occurred on an April 17:
1941 US Office of Price Administration is established (handles rationing).
1930 Manuel Vázquez Gallego, pintor y cineasta español.
1927 Ser y tiempo de Martín Heidegger se publica.
1897 Thornton Niven Wilder (novelist: The Bridge of San Luis Rey ; and playwright: Our Town , The Skin of Our Teeth ). Arguably one of the greatest playwrights of the twentieth century, Wilder is the only writer to win Pulitzer Prizes for both literature and drama.
1894 (05 April Julian) Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, Soviet leader (Sep 1953 – 14 Oct 1964) who died on 11 September 1971. Destalinizer, promoter of international peaceful coexistence, eyeball-to-eyeball blinker (25 Oct 1962), shoe banger (12 Oct 1960).
1866 Aniceto Marinas García, escultor español.
1863 August Edward Hough Love, English mathematician and physicist who died on 05 June 1940. Author of A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1893) and of Some Problems in Geodynamics
1862 Arnaldo Ferraguti, Italian artist who died in 1925. — links to images
1853 Arthur Moritz Schönflies, German mathematician who died on 27 May 1928. He worked first on geometry and kinematics but became best known for his work on set theory and crystallography. He classified the 230 space groups in 1891.
1852 Laura Theresa Epps Alma~Tadema, British painter and illustrator who died on 15 August 1909. MORE ON ALMA~TADEMA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1837 John Pierpont Morgan (financier)
1833 George Vicat Cole, English painter who died on 06 April 1893. MORE ON COLE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1806 William Gilmore Simms, US journalist and novelist who died on 11 June 1870. SIMMS ONLINE: Beauchampe: or, The Kentucky Tragedy: volume 1 _ volume 2 (1842) The Life of Francis Marion Martin Faber: The Story of a Criminal Richard Hurdis: A Tale of Alabama: volume 1 _ volume 2 (1848) — The Wigwam and the Cabin: volume 1 _ volume 2 (1845) — The Yemassee: A Romance of Carolina
1798 Étienne Bobillier, French mathematician who died on 22 March 1840. He is best known for his work on polars of curves and of algebraic surfaces. He showed that the tangents drawn from a point to a plane curve of order m have their points of contact on a curve of order m - 1 which he called the polar of the point.
1741 Samuel Chase, US jurist and signer of the US Declaration of Independence. He died on 19 June 1811.
1729 Johannes Janson, Dutch artist who died on 01 April 1784. — more with links to two images
1676 Frederick I, king of Sweden (1720-51)
1601 Frans Ykens, Flemish painter specialized in Still Life, who died on a 27 February before 1693. — more with links to images
1539 Tobias Stimmer, Swiss artist who died on 04 January 1584.