• Soviet leader answers US 5th~grader's letter... • Gone with the Wind sequel rights sold... • Crocodiles eat little girl... • Play about Davy Crockett... • Westmoreland top US general in Vietnam... • North Vietnamese nearly split South Vietnam... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 22 priority technologies... • Marconi is born... • Robinson Crusoe published... • Freed 21 years after death sentence... • Hunger strike deaths in Turkey... • US budget agreement... • US~Spain war engaged... • Suez canal started... • South Pole rescue... • Nazi Berlin encircled... • Space telescope... • Around the world underwater... • Klein is born... • Salgari's harakiri... • Tasso dies...
a 25 April:
2003 Late the previous day GenVec (GNVC) announced that it has signed an expansion to its existing agreement with the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institutes of Health to co-develope a vaccine for SARS. On the NASDAQ, at the opening, shares of GNVC jump to $3.00 from their previous close of $1.53, then decline to an intraday low of $2.22 and close at $2.68, with 7.2 million of its 22.7 million shares traded this day. GNVC had traded as low as $0.90 as recently as 04 April 2003, and as high as $4.42 on 12 December 2002 and $11.75 on 12 December 2000. [2~year price chart >]
2001 La policía filipina detiene al ex presidente filipino, Joseph Estrada, en su casa de Manila bajo la acusación de un delito de saqueo de las arcas públicas.
US sides with brutal countries on death penalty.
The UN Human Rights Commission votes 27-18 in favor of a moratorium on the death penalty. Seven countries abstain, and one Liberia is absent. The US and China voted against the moratorium. [Countries listed according to attitude towards death penalty] [Community of Sant'Egidio] No Western European country has the death penalty. Among those that do, besides the US and China, are such countries as Russia, Lybia, Afghanistan, Congo (DR), Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Laos, Lebanon, Mongolia, Myanmar, North Korea, Palestinian Authority, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Viet Nam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe.
From Catholic Catechism (1977):
2267. Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor. If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people's safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and more in conformity with the dignity of the human person. Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harmwithout definitively taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himselfthe cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are very rare, if not practically nonexistent.
Sick doctor rescued from South Pole.
A small medevac propeller plane of Raytheon Polar Services, fitted with skis for an icy landing started out the previous day to the South Pole to rescue a sick US doctor, setting out after two days of howling winds and blinding snow eased enough to attempt the harrowing journey to the bottom of the world. Flying into the pitch black of the polar winter, the eight-seat Twin Otter began its 10-hour flight from the UK's Rothera base, on an island half-way up the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula across from Chile, to the pole, at 14:34 UT on 24 April. Even with the improved weather, the temperatures at the South Pole was at 61ºC. The visibility had improved to 8 km miles with gusting winds and blowing snow. [Current Rothera weather forecast]
It was the second dramatic rescue attempt in 24 hours: Earlier on 24 April, a New Zealand air force plane successfully evacuated 11 US staffers from a research station on the other side of the frozen continent.
Flights to the South Pole are normally halted from late February until November because of the extreme cold and darkness. But health emergencies at the isolated, frigid Antarctic outposts forced rescuers in both operations to make the dangerous flights. Dr. Ronald S. Shemenski, 59, at the Amundsen Scott-South Pole station, the only physician among 50 researchers working at the station, had recently suffered a gall bladder attack and had the potentially life-threatening condition known as pancreatitis. A registered nurse at the South Pole helped take ultrasound images that were sent back to doctors in the US for diagnosis. Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas and can happen when a gallstone passes down the bile duct, irritating the gland. Shemenski needed surgery and had to be evacuated before harsher winter weather set it, making a future rescue impossible. In such a case, most people would have considered treatment within three weeks after the condition was diagnosed.
The rescue team included two pilots, a flight engineer, and a replacement physician (Dr. Betty Carlisle) for the polar station. The plane arrives at 00:02 UT on 25 April with the dark, bone-chilling cold with a sheet of ice as a runway and no tower to guide the landing. Barrels of flaming debris are set up to light the runway. The cold-resistant plane refuels, its crew rests, and at 16:47 UT heads back to Rothera, 2500 km away, where it would arrive at 00:52 UT on 26 April. From there another plane would fly Dr. Shemenski in about 6 hours the 1480 km to Punta Arenas, where he would board a commercial flight to the US.
This is the second time in two years that a doctor has been plucked from the pole in a medical emergency. On 16 October 1999, Dr. Jerri Nielsen, 47, then the only physician at the Amundsen Scott-South Pole Station was evacuated nearly five months after she discovered on herself a cancerous breast tumor, which she had been treating with herself with medical supplies dropped during a daring mission in July 1999 the middle of winter in Antarctica, when it was impossible for a plane to land there. The supplies allowed her to perform her own biopsy and begin administering chemotherapy. She e-mailed photographs of slide samples of the tumor to doctors in the United States. Nielsen's rescue was possible only after the winter relented slightly and it became warm enough (50ºC) to risk the flight, possibly the earliest post-winter flight to the South Pole.
On the opposite coast from the Rothera base, rescuers were also forced to move quickly to evacuate four ill Americans at McMurdo Antarctic Base. In a 15-hour round-trip journey from Christchurch, New Zealand, a C130 Hercules landed on McMurdo's ice runway, spending just one hour on the ground to pick up the evacuees and refuel. Engines were kept running to prevent them freezing in the 30ºC air. The sick Americans were joined on the flight by seven other US staffers, returning because of family emergencies. Two of the evacuees were suffering from critical conditions, and were taken to a hospital in Christchurch
Antarctica is the third-largest continent, half again the size of the United States. Nations including the United States, Britain, New Zealand, and Argentina carry out experiments at bases dotted across the continent. They are regularly serviced by flights during the summer months but batten down the hatches and reduce staffing for the polar winter. Scientific research at the South Pole Station ranges from the study of the origins of the universe to the behavior of the "ozone hole."
[photo below: the plane is refueled at the South Pole]
| 1999 El Gobierno colombiano y las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias
de Colombia (FARC) reanudan las negociaciones de paz.
1999 Los venezolanos aceptan en referéndum la formación de una Asamblea Constituyente para enmendar la Constitución y ejecutar el programa revolucionario del presidente Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías.
1996 Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about 8 million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
1996 The FCC proposes setting aside a free portion of the radio spectrum for various types of communications. The plan would facilitate wireless transmission of electronic mail and other data.
1993 Se aprueba la nueva Constitución de Rusia mediante referéndum y Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin pierde los comicios legislativos celebrados el mismo día.
1992 Dimite el presidente italiano, Francesco Cossiga.
1992 Islamic forces in Afghanistan take control of most of Kabul following the collapse of the Communist government.
Gone with the Wind sequel rights sold for $5 million.
Publishing rights to a Gone with the Wind sequel are sold to Warner Books for $4'940'000. The book, by Alexandra Ripley, was published in 1991. Gone with the Wind, by Margaret Mitchell, was published in 1936 and sold 25 million copies, making it one of the bestsellinging books of all time. The movie, released in 1939, became one of the world's best-loved films, winning several Oscars, including Best Picture. Ripley's novel, Scarlett: The Sequel to Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind, topped the bestseller list despite a cold response from critics and was made into a TV miniseries.
The Wind Done Gone without rights in 2001.
A federal judge on 20 April 2001 blocked the publication of black African-American Randall's novel The Wind Done Gone which he said borrows too liberally from Gone With the Wind and infringes on the copyright of Margaret Mitchell's classic novel. Randall, whose book was scheduled for publication in June 2001, argued that her story, told from the point of view of Scarlett O'Hara's mulatto half-sister on the plantation Tata (Tara in Gone With the Wind) , was a political parody. Attorneys for Mitchell's estate had argued in a hearing on 18 April 2001 that the issue was not one of free speech as Randall and the publisher claimed, but about providing protection to authors and other creative artists.
I was born May 25, 1845, at half-past seven in the morning into slavery on a cotton farm a day's ride from Atlanta. My father, Planter, was the master of the place; my mother was the Mammy. My half-sister, Other, was the belle of five counties. She was not beautiful, but men seldom recognized this, caught up in the cloud of commotion and scent in which she moved. From Page 1 of The Wind Done Gone.
| 1986 Hafez el Assad y Yaser Arafat ratifican
en Damasco la reconciliación entre Siria y la OLP (Organización
para la Liberación de Palestina).
1986 Se produce un accidente en la central nuclear soviética de Chernóbil (Ucrania).
1985 El grupo peruano Sendero Luminoso atenta contra el presidente del Jurado Nacional de Elecciones, Domingo García Rada.
1984 José María Ruiz Mateos Jiménez de Tejeda, fundador de RUMASA, es detenido en Frankfurt a su llegada de los Estados Unidos.
1984 Nicaragua presenta una queja en La Haya contra los Estados Unidos por participar en el minado de sus puertos. La actuación de la CIA ya había sido condenada por el Senado estadounidense.
1983 El Partido Socialista portugués, liderado por Mario Alberto Soares, gana las elecciones parlamentarias anticipadas.
Andropov writes to a US fifth-grader.
The Soviet Union releases a letter that Russian leader Yuri Andropov wrote to Samantha Smith, a US fifth-grader, born on 29 June 1972. This rather unusual piece of Soviet propaganda was in direct response to President Ronald Reagan's vigorous attacks on what he called "the evil empire" of the Soviet Union. In 1983, President Reagan was in the midst of a harsh rhetorical campaign against the Soviet Union. A passionate anticommunist, President Reagan called for massive increases in US defense spending to meet the perceived Soviet threat. In Russia, however, events were leading to a different Soviet approach to the West. In 1982, long-time leader Leonid Brezhnev died; Yuri Andropov was his successor. While Andropov was not radical in his approach to politics and economics, he did seem to sincerely desire a better relationship with the United States. In an attempt to blunt the Reagan attacks, the Soviet government on released a letter that Andropov had written in response to one sent by Samantha Smith, a fifth-grade student from Manchester, Maine. Smith had written the Soviet leader as part of a class assignment, one that was common enough for students in the Cold War years. Most of these missives received a form letter response, if any at all, but Andropov answered Smith's letter personally. He explained that the Soviet Union had suffered horrible losses in World War II, an experience that convinced the Russian people that they wanted to "live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on the globe, no matter how close or far away they are, and, certainly, with such a great country as the United States of America." In response to Smith's question about whether the Soviet Union wished to prevent nuclear war, Andropov declared, "Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are endeavoring and doing everything so that there will be no war between our two countries, so that there will be no war at all on earth. This is the wish of everyone in the Soviet Union. That's what we were taught to do by Vladimir Lenin, the great founder of our state." He vowed that Russia would "never, but never, be the first to use nuclear weapons against any country." Andropov complimented Smith, comparing her to the spunky character of Becky from the Mark Twain novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. "All kids in our country, boys and girls alike, know and love this book," he added. Andropov ended by inviting Samantha and her parents to visit the Soviet Union. In July 1983, Samantha accepted the invitation and flew to Russia for a three-week tour. Soviet propaganda had never been known for its human qualities. Generally speaking, it was given to heavy-handed diatribes and communist cliches. In his public relations duel with Reagan the US president known as the "Great Communicator" Andropov tried something different by assuming a folksy, almost grandfatherly approach. Whether this would have borne fruit is unknown; just a year later, Andropov died. Tragically, Samantha Smith, aged 13, died just one year after Andropov.
On 07 July 1983, Samantha, now 11, would go on her visit to the USSR. Some months before, when she was still 10, she had written a letter to Soviet leader Yuri Andropov asking for peace. At first Samantha heard nothing back. Then she found out that portions of her letter had been published in the Communist newspaper Pravda. A few weeks later she received a letter from Andropov inviting her to visit the Soviet Union.
For two weeks she would tour the country: Moscow, Leningrad, Red Square, meet with the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova, , and spent several days at a Soviet youth camp on the Black Sea. Through it all the US and Soviet media followed her every step.
Samantha didn’t stop after her tour of Russia. She wrote a book called Journey to the Soviet Union in which she wrote, “I dedicate this book to the children of the world. They know that peace is always possible.” She then went to Japan and met with the prime minister and spoke at an international children’s symposium. She also hosted a special for the Disney channel during the 1984 presidential campaigns to educate kids about the candidates, politics and the government. Samantha heard the North American promise they would never start a nuclear war; she also heard how the voices from the Kremlin swore that neither would they. And then, with the clear and simple logic of her eleven years she asked, “they why do you both go on making missiles and aiming them at each other?”
Samantha Smith died with her father in a plane crash on 25 August 1985, during a break in the filming of the TV series Lime Street. After her death, the Soviet Union issued a stamp in her honor. An echinopsis flower was named after her.
Samantha Smith's letter:
Dear Mr. Andropov,
My name is Samantha Smith. I am ten years old. Congratulations on your new job. I have been worrying about Russia and the United States getting into a nuclear war. Are you going to vote to have a war or not? If you aren’t please tell me how you are going to help to not have a war. This question you do not have to answer, but I would like to know why you want to conquer the world or at least our country. God made the world for us to live together in peace and not to fight.
Andropov's answer :
| 1982 Captured in 1967, the Sinai Peninsula is returned
by Israel to Egypt, as part of the 1979 Camp David Accord.
Israel devuelve a Egipto el control de la península del Sinaí
tras 15 años de ocupación, en cumplimiento de los tratados
de paz de 1979 entre ambos países.
1981 El observatorio astronómico Einstein (HEAO-2) finaliza su misión.
1980 Announcement of Jimmy Carter hostage rescue bungle in Irani.
1976 El Partido Socialista triunfa en las elecciones parlamentarias portuguesas con el 34,87% de los votos.
1975 El Gobierno español implanta el estado de excepción por tres meses en Vizcaya y Guipúzcoa
1974 Dictator Antonio Salazar overthrown in Portugal. . Los oficiales más jóvenes del ejército portugués, comandados por el general António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola, logran acabar con el régimen dictatorial de António de Oliveira Salazar en la llamada Revolución de los Claveles.
1972 Hans-Werner Grosse glides1461 km in an AS-W-12
1971 Se proclama la República de Bangladesh.
1971 Franz Jonas es reelegido presidente federal de Austria.
1967 Britain grants internal self-government to Swaziland.
1967 Colorado Governor John Love signs the first law legalizing abortion in the US. The law is limited to therapeutic abortions when agreed to, unanimously, by a panel of three physicians. [no love there for the unborn child]
1963 Reaparece en Madrid la Revista de Occidente, fundada en 1923 por José Ortega y Gasset y que había dejado de publicarse en julio de 1936.
1953 Nature magazine (171, 737-738) publishes a letter written on 02 April 1953 by James Dewey Watson [06 Apr 1928~] and Francis Harry Compton Crick [08 Jun 1916~], in which for the first time is proposed the correct double-helix structure of DNA, which, they write, “suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material”. The letter includes this diagram > [How they made the discovery, not theirs alone]
1947 Ho Chi Minh propone negociaciones a Francia. Los socialistas japoneses triunfan en las elecciones parlamentarias.
1945 Last Boeing B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
1945 US and USSR troops meet; Berlin encircled. ^top^
During World War II, American and Soviet troops met for the first time at Leckwitz on the Elbe River, less than a 160 km south of Berlin. The Allied troops, made up of patrols from the US 273rd Infantry Regiment and advance Soviet troops from the eastern front, joyously shook hands in celebration of the successes of their respective offensives against Nazi Germany.
With Germany just a few weeks away from collapse, the Americans were driving into the southern part of Germany, hoping to prevent a last stand by the German army in the heavily fortified "National Redoubt" in the Alps. The Soviets, meanwhile, were besieging the German capital of Berlin while pushing toward the Elbe River, the boundary of the postwar occupation zone agreed to at the Allied conference at Yalta in February.
On the day that the first advance US and Red Army troops met on the Elbe, the two main Soviet armies, totaling some two million soldiers, converged around Berlin, and the city was completely encircled. Just six days later, with Soviet troops in Berlin a few blocks from his bunker under the German Chancellery, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler committed suicide. The next day, more Nazi leaders followed him [to Hell?], and on 02 May, resistance against the Soviets ended in Berlin. Meanwhile, the Americans liberated Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia, and on 07 May, Germany signed its unconditional surrender, ending six years of murder and devastation in Europe. The next day, millions of people across Europe and the world celebrated "V-E Day," or "Victory in Europe."
Eight Russian armies completely encircle Berlin, linking up with the US First Army patrol, first on the western bank of the Elbe, then later at Torgau. Germany is, for all intents and purposes, Allied territory. The Allies sounded the death knell of their common enemy by celebrating. In Moscow, news of the link-up between the two armies resulted in a 324-gun salute; in New York, crowds burst into song and dance in the middle of Times Square. Among the Soviet commanders who participated in this historic meeting of the two armies was the renowned Russian Marshal Georgi K. Zhukov, who warned a skeptical Stalin as early as June 1941 that Germany posed a serious threat to the Soviet Union. Zhukov would become invaluable in battling German forces within Russia (Stalingrad and Moscow) and without. It was also Zhukov who would demand and receive unconditional surrender of Berlin from German General Krebs less than a week after encircling the German capital. At the end of the war, Zhukov was awarded a military medal of honor from Great Britain
La défaite allemande à Moscou et le débarquement américain en Normandie (06 Jun 1944) ont sonné la fin du führer. Désormais, la défaite allemande n'était plus qu'une question de temps. Au mois d'avril 1945, tout va se précipiter. Le 25, Américains et Soviétiques qui sont entrés en Allemagne font leur jonction dans une petite ville des bords de l'Elbe, Torgau, à quelques kilomètres de Leipzig. Une partie de l'Allemagne nazie est donc occupée. Américains et Britanniques ne sont plus qu'à une centaine de kilomètres de la capitale Berlin, mais les Soviétiques sont déjà aux portes de la ville. Ils entreront à Berlin le 30 Apr 1945 et, suprême affront pour Hitler, le drapeau rouge flottera le soir même sur le Reichstag, le Parlement de la capitale nazie. Ce même jour, Adolf Hitler se suicide dans son bunker. Sa compagne, Eva Braun, en fera de même ainsi que certains généraux qui seront avec lui. Les autres seront jugés la même année par le tribunal de Nuremberg lors du procès des criminels de guerre, et exécutés. Certains seront rattrapés par l'Histoire plusieurs années après comme Klaus Barbie, l'ancien chef de la Gestapo, qui ne sera jugé que le 04 Jul 1987 en France et condamné à la réclusion à perpétuité. L'Allemagne vaincue sera occupée par ses vainqueurs et partagée en deux Etats. La Seconde Guerre mondiale aura fait près de 40 millions de morts, dont 20 millions en URSS qui aura payé le prix le plus lourd pour abattre le nazisme.
1945 Estalla la insurrección partisana en Italia del Norte, que condena a los dirigentes fascistas y proclama la democracia en el país.
1943 La URSS y el Gobierno polaco en el exilio londinense rompen sus relaciones diplomáticas, tras el masacre de Katyn.
1940 Las tropas alemanas llegan a las puertas de Atenas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1939 En un campo de concentración de Pau (Francia) se descubren 25 mujeres disfrazadas de milicianos rojos.
1939 Las mujeres gallegas piden para el caudillo el principado de Santiago.
1938 Gran Bretaña e Irlanda firman un acuerdo comercial, militar y económico.
1938 El general Alberto Enríquez Gallo dicta una ley electoral para Ecuador.
| 1938 first use of seeing eye dog
1935 First round-the-world telephone conversation Sherman Gifford, president of the American Telephone Company in New York, and T.G. Miller, a vice president sitting about fifty feet away, spoke to each other via a call that was routed via 37'000 km of telephone wire and radio connections through San Francisco, Java, Amsterdam, London, and back to New York.
1934 Se produce una crisis total de Gobierno en España.
1931 Se dicta en España un auto de procesamiento contra el general Emilio Mola Vidal .
1926 In Iran, Reza Kahn is crowned Shah and chooses the name "Pehlevi."
1925 General Paul von Hindenburg takes office as president of Germany.
1924 Miguel Primo de Rivera crea en España el Partido Unión Patriótica.
1924 El Directorio prohíbe en España la manifestación del 01 mayo.
1918 El IV ejército alemán, bajo el mando del general Von Arnim, toma el monte Kemmel (Flandes).
1917 El llamado "decreto Adamson" prevé la instauración de la jornada laboral de 8 horas para los trabajadores de ferrocarriles estadounidenses.
1915 During World War I, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in hopes of defeating Turkey and attacking the other enemy nations (Central Powers) from the south. The attack was unsuccessful.
1914 Argentina, Brasil y Chile ofrecen su mediación en el conflicto entre México y los Estados Unidos.
1908 Se producen graves disturbios en Argentina como resultado del movimiento sedicioso de Santiago del Estero.
1907 Se produce un nuevo triunfo del Partido Conservador en las elecciones españolas a Cortes.
1905 La nueva Constitución en Transvaal (Sudáfrica) sólo concede el derecho al voto a los ciudadanos blancos.
1904 El almirantazgo inglés declara tener operativos 26 diques que pueden recibir buques de la envergadura del Dreadnought.
1904 El Partido Conservador triunfa en las elecciones de diputados a Cortes en España.
1901 Se funda en Barcelona la Lliga regionalista. Miles de manifestantes catalanes reclaman la separación de la iglesia y el estado.
1901 New York becomes the first US state to require license plates by law . Owners of automobiles were required to register their names and addresses, and a description of their vehicle, with the office of the secretary of state. The state sent each owner a small license plate, at least three inches high, which bore the owner's initials. The fee to register an automobile one dollar. In 1901, the state received $954 in registration fees.
1864 Battle of Marks' Mill, Arkansas on Steele's Camden Expedition.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1862 Bombardment and surrender of Fort Macon, North Carolina.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1862 Admiral Farragut occupies New Orleans, Louisiana.
1794 DAUDE J.M, âgé de 27 ans, natif de Cheroy, garçon charron, ensuite marchand, domicilié à Paris, est condamné à six ans de fers, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, pour avoir fait des ventes et achats de numéraire, tant en or qu'an argent, lesquels établissaient des différences très disproportionnées entre les assignats et le numéraire.
1792 GUERIN Jean Baptiste, marchand, domicilié à Reims, département de la Marne, sera condammné à mort, comme ayant mis en circulation de faux assignats le 25 avril 1792, par le tribunal criminel du département de Paris, comme réfractaire à la loi [sic].
1789 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes es nombrado pintor de Cámara del rey de España Carlos IV.
1707 Battle of Almansa:: Franco-Spanish forces defeat Anglo-Portugese. Las tropas hispanofrancesas de Felipe V derrotan a las del archiduque Carlos de Austria en la batalla de Almansa.
1624 El cirujano alemán Wilhelm Fabricius Hildanus extrae por primera vez una esquirla de hierro del ojo de un paciente con un imán.
1576 Holanda y Zelanda, provincias rebeldes norteñas, se federan y eligen como estatúder al beligerante [Guillermo I de Nassau, príncipe de Orange.
1530 The Augsburg Confession was read publicly at the Diet of Worms. Written principally by Philip Melanchthon, the document comprised the first official summary of the Lutheran faith.
1196 Tras la muerte de Alfonso II el Casto, sus hijos Pedro y Alfonso heredan, respectivamente, la corona de Aragón y el condado de Provenza.
which occurred on an April 25:
2004 Four Iraqi children, aged about 12, when US troops fire at a rejoicing group of children from a nearby school and of passersby [photo >] surrounding a Humvee (HMMWV = High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, diesel-powered US military vehicle that replaced the smaller jeep since at most 1982) which was burning after the explosion of a roadside bomb.
2004 A bystander, by a hand grenade thrown at Mehbooba Mufti, president of pro-India People's Democratic Party, the ruling puppet party in Indian-occupied Kashmir, after her speech at an election rally in the village Khul. She is the daughter of Mufti Mohammed Sayeed, the state's chief minister, and escapes unhurt, but 7 other bystanders are injured. Kashmir's independentists, some of which are terrorists, are boycotting India's parliamentary elections, which are being held in four phases in different constituencies, “Jammu & Kashmir” being the only state in which the elections are spread out between all four dates: 20 April, 26 April, 05 May, and 10 May 2004. [see Election Commission of India]
2004 The mother and wife of Ghulam Hassan, stabbed by unknowns who break into their home in village Ajas, Indian-occupied Kashmir. Hassan is a turncoat independentist now a collaborator with the Indian army.
2004 At least 10 persons in street fights between Muslim and Christian youth gangs, at which police fire, in Ambon, capital of the province of Maluku islands, Indonesia, after about 12 members of the region's small Christian separatist movement parade through Ambon on the 54th anniversary of a failed independence attempt. More than 50 persons are wounded. More than 9000 persons were killed in the Malukus between 1991 and 2001 in fighting between Muslims and Christians that attracted Islamic militants from all over Southeast Asia. A government sponsored peace pact was signed in 2002, but sporadic violence has continued and but South Maluku's two million people, evenly divided between Muslims and Christians, now live in separate communities.
2003 Lynn Chadwick, born on 24 November 1914, British sculptor of expressionistic, figurative works in welded iron and bronze. — LINKS
2003 Israeli Sgt. Lior Eliyakov, 21 [< photo], of the Duchifat infantry unit, by the accidental firing of the gun of the soldier with him, as the two get out of their jeep upon returning from patrol, north of Ramallah.
2003 Abdul Gani Malik, 70, shot by Islamic terrorists in Waripora, Baramulla district, Indian-occupied Kahsmir. Malik was a block president of the ruling collaborationist People's Democratic Party.
2002: 12 women worshippers, by a bomb exploding late in the evening in the women's section of a Shiite mosque in Bukker, Punjab, Pakistan.
2001 Ramadan Azzam, 31, Samir Zurub, 32, Saadi Dabas, 35, Yasser Dabas, 16, by Israeli remote control bomb, near the Rafiah border crossing with Egypt in the Gaza Strip, in the night. Six others are injured.. Azzam was head of the "Popular Resistance Committees," an organization of the Fatah believed to be responsible for some of the mortar firing against Israeli targets. Zurub and Dabas were members of the Palestinian security forces. Dabas was a civilian.
2000 Zika Petrovic, murdered, ally of war-criminal Yugoslav
President Slobodan Milosevic.
1892 William Bradford, US painter and photographer born on 30 April 1823. MORE ON BRADFORD AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1874 Octave Nicolas François Tassaert, French artist born on 26 July 1800.
1870 Daniel Maclise, Irish painter born on 25 January 1806. — a bit more with links to images.
1840 Siméon-Denis Poisson, French mathematician born on 21 June 1781. His most important contributions were a series of papers on definite integrals and his advances in Fourier series. This work was the foundation of later work in this area by Dirichlet [13 Feb 1805 – 05 May 1859] and Riemann [17 Sep 1826 – 20 Jul 1866]. In Recherchés sur la probabilité des jugements en matière criminelle et matière civile (1837) the Poisson distribution first appears. The Poisson distribution describes the probability that a random event will occur in a time or space interval under the conditions that the probability of the event occurring is very small, but the number of trials is very large so that the event actually occurs a few times. Poisson also introduced the expression “law of large numbers”. Poisson held that “Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics.”
1803 Adélaïde Vincent Labille-Guiard, French Neoclassical painter born on 11 April 1749, specialized in Portraits. LINKS
1744 Anders Celsius, astrónomo y físico sueco, nació (27 nov 1701) y murió en Uppsala. Inventó la escala de temperaturas Celsius. Autor de Dissertatio de Novo Methodo Distantiam Solis a Terra Determinandi, y de De Observationibus pro Figura Telluris Determinanda in Gallia Habitis. Disquisitio.
1691 Jean de Troy, French artist born in 1638.
1690 David Teniers II, born on 15 December 1610, Flemish painter of the Baroque period known for his genre scenes of peasant life. MORE ON TENIERS AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1675 Claude Lefebvre, French artist born on 12 September 1632. — more
1655 Giovanni-Andrea Donducci il Mastelletta, Italian artist born on 14 February 1575.
which occurred on an April 25:
1989 Gedhun Choeki Nyima, whose father is Konchok Phuntsog, and mother Dechen Chodon, of Lhari district in Nagchu, Tibet. On 14 May 1995 he would be recognized by the Dalai Lama as the reincarnation of Panchen Rinpoche (the Panchen Lama) and given by the Dalai Lama the name of "Tenzin Gedhun Yeshe Thrinley Phuntsog Pal Sangpo". The Chinese authorities take him away and in November 1995 appoint their own choice in his place (Gyaltsen Norbu, born in 1989 in Nagchu, north of Lhasa, son of two Communists). Chinese officials have insisted that Gedhun is studying in school and living with his family, but many Tibetans believe he is at best under house arrest and, at worst, dead.
1961 Integrated circuit is patented by Robert Noyce.
1959 Saint Lawrence Seaway, linking Atlantic with the Great Lakes, opens to shipping.
1954 First solar battery announced by Bell Labs (NYC)
1947 La dama negra, comedia de Salvador Ferrer, se estrena en el teatro Infanta Beatriz de Madrid.
1946 Vladimir Zhirinovski, político ruso.
1945 United Nations, founded in San Francisco, by delegates from 47 countries.
1929 José Ángel Valente, escritor español.
1927 Corín Tellado, escritora española.
1927 Albert Uderzo, dibujante francés, autor de Astérix. Astérix [image >] est le héros des aventures de la bande dessinée inventée par Albert Uderzo et René Goscinny. C’est le plus petit guerrier du village, mais toutes les missions périlleuses lui sont confiées sans hésitation. Il triomphe des adversaires les plus redoutables.
1921 Karel Christian Appel, Dutch Abstract Expressionist painter. MORE ON APPEL AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1919 La Escuela de Arquitectura y Artes Aplicadas Bauhaus, origen de la corriente artística que dominará el periodo de entreguerras, es fundada en Weimar por el arquitecto alemán Walter Gropius.
1918 Ella Fitzgerald, in Newport News, Virginia. She grew up to be one of the leading jazz singers of all time.
1914 Claude Mauriac, French novelist, journalist, and critic, who died on 22 March 1996; eldest son of 1952 Literature Nobel laureate François Mauriac (11 Oct 1885 01 Sep 1970).
1912 Federico Coullaut-Valera y Mendigutia, escultor español.
1906 William J. Brennan Jr., Supreme Court justice (1956-90). He died on 24 July 1997.
1904 María Zambrano Rodríguez, escritora española.
1903 (12 April Julian) Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, Russian mathematician who died on 20 October 1987. He was one of the developers of probability theory. He later used this work to study the motion of the planets and the turbulent flow of air from a jet engine.
1900 Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian physicist (Nobel 1945), mathematician. He died on 15 December 1958.
1887 Adrian Gösta Fabian Sandels, Swedish artist who died on 14 August 1919. — more
1879 Edwin Bidwell Wilson, US mathematician who died on 28 December 1964.
1867 August Eiebakke, Norwegian painter who died on 21 July 1938 — more
1857 Alejandro José Battenberg, príncipe de Bulgaria.
1853 John Frank Stevens, US chief civil engineer of the Panama Canal (1905-7). He died on 02 June 1943. [!AMANAPLANACANALPANAMA!]
1840 (Julian date: go to 07 May Gregorian) Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
1852 Leopoldo Alas y Ureña, Clarín, crítico y novelista español.
1824 Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger, French painter who died in October 1888. MORE ON BOULANGER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1807 Louis Apollinaire Sicard, French artist who died in 1881.
1734 José Andrés Cornide de Folgueira y Saavedra, historiador español.
1684 The thimble is patented.
1599 Oliver Cromwell, English Puritan soldier and statesman; Lord Protector (= dictator) of England, Scotland and Ireland. (1653-1658) He died on 03 September 1658. [click on image for portrait >]
1284 Edward II king of England (1307-1327)
1214 Saint Louis IX king of France (1226-1270)