• Brutal cops acquitted... • Henry James's Transatlantic sketches... • Cambodia invasion... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Jeanne d'Arc relieves Orléans... • 60% of French debt forgiven... • Dachau liberated... • Netscape Navigator 3.0... • Ticketmaster sues Microsoft... • Phone number for life... . • Japanese premier's war crimes indictement... • Hitler marries before suicide... • First Afro~American college... • 4 Secretaries of State deny Lattimore's influence... • Hearst is born... • Arbuthnot is born... • What is a Pierian spring... • Radio pioneer Eccles dies... • Final US evacuation of Saigon begins... • The hookless fastener...
|On a 29 April:|
Legislative elections in Senegal.
| 2000 Tens of thousands of angry Cuban-Americans march
peacefully through Miami's Little Havana, protesting the raid in which armed
federal agents yanked 6-year-old Elian González from the home of
1999 El enviado especial de Rusia para los Balcanes Viktor Chernomirdin viaja a Belgrado con una nueva propuesta de paz negociada con los principales países de la OTAN.
1997 Entra en vigor el Convenio Internacional sobre Prohibición de Armas Químicas tras ser ratificado por 88 de los 165 estados que lo firmaron en París en 1993.
1991 La Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) aprueba la autodeterminación del Sáhara Occidental.
1991 Un tornado y una marea devastan el litoral de Bangladesh.
1987 Se recogen firmas en Uruguay para someter a referéndum la ley de punto final para los militares.
1984 Jordi Pujol i Soley, candidato de la coalición Convergencia i Unió, logra el triunfo por mayoría absoluta en las elecciones autonómicas de Cataluña.
1983 Harold Washington is sworn in as Chicago's first Black mayor.
1983 La Junta Militar argentina da por muertos a todos los desaparecidos en la "guerra sucia".
1981 Siria instala misiles antiaéreos en el norte del Líbano.
| 1979 Las elecciones presidenciales en Ecuador
dan el triunfo a Jaime Roldós Aguilera, candidato populista.
1972 Miguel Ángel Asturias anuncia su disposición a presentar candidatura a la presidencia de Guatemala.
1971 US casualty figures in Vietnam for the week of 18 April to 24 April are released: 45 killed. This brings the total to 45'019 since 1961. Thus the Vietnam War becomes the 4th for US losses, after the Civil War, World War I, and World War II.
US and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia
Supported by US warplanes, artillery, and thousands of US military personnel, South Vietnamese government troops launched an invasion of Cambodia, intending to wipe out North Vietnamese and Vietcong positions there and bolster the pro-US regime of General Lon Nol.
In March of 1969, during the Vietnam War, US President Richard M. Nixon authorized secret bombing attacks against Vietnamese Communist bases across the border in Cambodia. One year later, Cambodian General Lon Nol ousted Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the ruler of Cambodia since 1953, and established a pro-US military regime. Norodom went into exile, and in April, he received the support of Chinese and North Vietnamese authorities in his call to arms against Lon Nol’s rule.
On 29 April, the US and South Vietnam responded by invading Cambodia. The next day, President Nixon announced the "incursion" in a televised address, and also that he had authorized an additional 8000 US combat soldiers to enter Cambodia and wipe out its Communist "control center."
The announcement led to widespread antiwar protests across the United States, and on 04 May, at Ohio’s Kent State University, four students were killed, eight injured, and one permanently paralyzed when National Guard troops opened fire on a group of antiwar demonstrators.
In August 1973, according to the terms of the Vietnam peace agreement signed in Paris earlier in the year, the US officially ended its bombing and any other direct military involvement in Cambodia. The US and South Vietnam involvement in Cambodia contributed to the outbreak of a larger civil war in the country, culminating in 1975 with the victory of Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge. Known as "Year Zero," 1975 was the beginning of three years of terror and genocide in Cambodia, resulting in the murder of over two million people on the country’s killing fields.
1970 US-South Vietnamese forces launch Cambodian "incursion" US and South Vietnamese forces launch a limited "incursion" into Cambodia. The campaign included 13 major ground operations to clear North Vietnamese sanctuaries 20 miles inside the Cambodian border. Some 50'000 South Vietnamese and 30'000 US soldiers were involved, making it the largest operation of the war since Operation Junction City in 1967. The operation began with South Vietnamese forces attacking into the "Parrot's Beak" area of Cambodia that projects into South Vietnam above the Mekong Delta. During the first two days, an 8000-man South Vietnamese task force, including two infantry divisions, four ranger battalions, and four armored cavalry squadrons, killed 84 communist soldiers while suffering 16 dead and 157 wounded. The second stage of the campaign began on 02 May with a series of joint US-South Vietnamese operations. These operations were aimed at clearing Communist sanctuaries located in the densely vegetated "Fishhook" area of Cambodia (across the border from South Vietnam, immediately north of Tay Ninh Province and west of Binh Long Province, 110 km from Saigon). The US 1st Cavalry Division and 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, along with the South Vietnamese 3rd Airborne Brigade, killed 3190 Communists in the action and captured massive amounts of war booty, including 2000 individual and crew-served weapons, 300 trucks, and 40 tons of foodstuffs.
By the time all US ground forces had left Cambodia on 30 June, the Allied forces had discovered and captured or destroyed 10 times more enemy supplies and equipment than they had captured inside South Vietnam during the entire previous year. Many intelligence analysts at the time believed that the Cambodian incursion dealt a stunning blow to the communists, driving main force units away from the border and damaging their morale, and in the process buying as much as a year for South Vietnam's survival. However, the incursion gave the antiwar movement in the United States a new rallying point. News of the incursion set off a wave of antiwar demonstrations, including one at Kent State University that resulted in the killing of four students by Army National Guard troops and another at Jackson State in Mississippi that resulted in the shooting of two students when police opened fire on a women's dormitory. The incursion also angered many in Congress, who felt that Nixon was illegally widening the scope of the war; this resulted in a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives that would severely limit the executive power of the president.
| 1968 Cinco hombres casados son ordenados diáconos
1965 Malta se convierte en el miembro número 18 del Consejo de Europa.
1965 Pope Paul VI promulgates his Encyclical Mense Maio [English text]
1955 El democristiano Giovanni Gronchi sucede en la presidencia de la República italiana a Luigi Einaudi, con el apoyo de socialistas y comunistas.
1955 Se celebra el Día del Animal en Argentina y los inspectores de la Asociación Popular Protectora de Animales vigilan que no se infrinja la disposición nacional que impone la jornada de descanso a todos los animales.
1954 Estados Unidos se niega a prestar ayuda militar a Francia en Indochina.
1952 Un aparato de Air France es atacado por un caza soviético.
Adolf and Eva marry. ^top^
Adolf Hitler marries longtime mistress Eva Braun in his Berlin bunker. Eva Braun met Hitler while employed as an assistant to Hitler's official photographer. Of a middle-class Catholic background, Braun spent her time with Hitler out of public view, entertaining herself by skiing and swimming. She had no discernible influence on Hitler's political career but provided a certain domesticity to the life of the dictator. Loyal to the end, she refused to leave the Berlin bunker buried beneath the chancellery as the Russians closed in. The couple was married only hours before they both committed suicide the next day.
Hitler designates Admiral Karl Doenitz as his successor.
| 1945 Premier tour des élections municipales en France,
les premières depuis 1939.
1944 Constitution du Comité français des Waffen S.S. où l'on retrouve Doriot, Déat, Darnand.
1943 Entrevue Hitler-Laval.
1941 Los iraquíes cortan el oleoducto que alimentaba a los ejércitos británicos.
1938 La renovación de la entente franco-británica pone el acento sobre las obligaciones de ambos países respecto a Checoslovaquia.
1937 Francisco Franco Bahamonde nombra a María del Pilar Primo de Rivera y Saenz de Heredia delegada nacional de la Sección Femenina.
1931 El Consejo de Ministros provisional de la Segunda República española autoriza el empleo del catalán en las escuelas primarias de Cataluña.
1926 US will forgive 60% of France's debt ^top^
During the early stretch of the twentieth century, the United States was a "debtor nation," saddled with $3 billion in loans to foreign creditors. But World War I helped transform the US into a creditor nation: by 1919, a number of European nations had racked up roughly $10 billion in debts to the American government. Suddenly freed from its reliance on foreign loans, the US government set about solidifying its new position as a global economic force.
However, under the rule of President Warren G. Harding, and his successor, Calvin Coolidge, the US adopted fiscal policies, including high tariffs and other barriers to foreign trade, which made it nearly impossible for Europe to repay its loans. Nevertheless, the White House steadfastly refused to wipe any portion of Europe's debts off the books, despite European leaders' attempts to persuade the U.S to reconsider its unwieldy fiscal policy.
Finally, in the mid-1920s, Coolidge relented and made arrangements to reduce, though not entirely scuttle, Europe's debts. Indeed, on this day in 1926, the US and France sealed a deal that eventually wiped away sixty percent of the French debt. France, who owed the US in the neighborhood of $4 billion, also agreed to a sixty-two-year term, at 1.6% interest, for the repayment of its debt.
1923 Se celebran las últimas elecciones de Diputados a Cortes de la Monarquía española antes de la Guerra Civil.
1916 El cuerpo expedicionario británico, bajo el mando del general Townsend, capitula en Irak ante los turcos, que hacen 10'000 prisioneros.
1916 Surviving Irish nationalists surrender to British in Dublin, as the Easter Rising is crushed after 5 days. [surrender document >]
1912 108ºF (42ºC), Tuguegarao, Philippines (Oceania record)
1910 Se forma en Australia un Gobierno laborista, presidido por Andrew Fisher.
1905 Se publica en Rusia un edicto de tolerancia para con las minorías religiosas.
1901 Estallan violentos enfrentamientos en la Universidad de Budapest entre estudiantes judíos y antisemitas.
1899 El piloto belga Camille Jenatzy establece un récord de velocidad en automóvil con 105,876 km/h a bordo de su vehículo, La Jamais Contente.
1894 Commonweal of Christ (Coxey's Army) arrives in Washington DC 500 strong to protest unemployment; Coxey is arrested for trespassing at Capitol
1875 Portugal aprueba la ley que suprime la esclavitud en todas las provincias de ultramar.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia, by Confederates continues
1862 100'000 federal troops prepare to march into Corinth, Mississippi.
1862 New Orleans falls to Union forces during the US Civil War. [on the 433rd anniversary of the fall of old Orléans to Jeanne d'Arc].
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia, continues
1861 Maryland's House of Delegates votes against seceding from the Union.
1856 Peace between England and Russia
1854 First African-American College is chartered ^top^
By an act of the Pennsylvania legislature, Ashmun Insitute, the first college founded solely for African-American students, was officially chartered. Established in the rolling farmlands of southern Chester County, Pennsylvania, Ashmun Institute was named after Jehudi Ashmun, the US agent who helped reorganize and preserve the struggling African-American colony in Africa that later grew into the independent nation of Liberia. The Ashmun Institute, chartered to give theological, classical, and scientific training to African Americans, opened on 01 January 1857, and John Pym Carter served as the college’s first president. In 1866, the institution was renamed Lincoln University.
1814 Los franceses se retiran de Cataluña y concluye la Guerra de la Independencia Española.
1729 El rey de España Felipe V da carácter de institución oficial a los mozos de Veciana, más conocidos en toda Cataluña por Mozos de Escuadra.
1715 John Flamsteed observes Uranus for 6th time
1661 Chinese Ming dynasty occupies Taiwan.
1597 Se calcula que en la ciudad de Sevilla viven unos 2000 mendigos.
which occurred on a 29 April:
2003 At least 15 Iraqis, including children, as US troops fire upon a crowd demonstrating against their occupation of a school in Falluja, Iraq. According to the US, the troops had been fired upon from the crowd. According to Iraqis, the demonstrators were unarmed. 70 are wounded
2002 Guillermo Ovalle, shot in attack by three gunmen, disguised as robbery at a small cafeteria in Guatemala. He was an accountant working for the human rights foundation of Rigoberta Menchú.
2001 Adnan Odeh, Palestinian, shot fleeing from Israeli soldiers who were trying to arrest him late in the day, near Qalqilya, West Bank. Odeh had collaborated with Israeli security forces in the past, but had begun working with Palestinian militants to carry out attacks in Israel. This brings the body count of the al-Aqsa intifada to 427 Palestinians and 71 Israelis.
2001 Jamal Nasser, 23, Palestinian, by bomb exploding prematurely in his car, near an Israeli school bus outside of Nablus, West Bank. Nasser, an engineering student at An-Najah University in Nablus, intended a suicide bombing.
2000 Antonio Buero Vallejo, dramaturgo español.
1996, 35 victims, aged 3 to 72, of shooting spree by Martin Bryant, 29, at Seascape, near Port Arthur in Tasmania.
1996 William Colby, drowned after boating accident, former CIA director. His body would be recovered later after he had been listed as missing.
1980 Decenas de estudiantes afganos muertos en Kabul durante las manifestaciones antisoviéticas.
1970 Paul Finsler, German mathematician born on 11 April 1894. His doctoral dissertation Curves and surfaces in general spaces introduced Finsler spaces, a generalisation of Riemannian spaces where the length function is defined differently and Minkowski's geometry holds locally. But Finsler's main work was in set theory, though he also worked on differential geometry, number theory, probability theory, and the foundations of mathematics. Author of On the foundations of set theory (part I: 1926, part II: 1965)
1964 Wenceslao Fernández Flórez, escritor y periodista español.
1953 Moïse Kisling, Jewish Polish French artist born on 22 January 1891. — more
1951 Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Austrian British philosopher, mathematician, born on 26 April 1889. He worked on the foundations of mathematics and on mathematical logic. He is the author of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1918).
1937 Wallace Hume Carothers, US chemist born on 27 April 1896; he developed nylon.
1933 José Félix Uriburu, general y político argentino. [Un Ubu Roi décontracté?]
1916 Jorgen Pedersen Gram, Danish mathematician born on 27 June 1850.
1906 André Plumot, Belgian artist born in 1829.
1903 El general Sierra, ex presidente de Honduras, fusilado por los revolucionarios.
1900 Nueve muertos en la Exposición Universal de París, al desplomarse los postes que sostenían un globo.
1894 Giuseppe Battaglini, Napolitan mathematician born on 11 January 1826.
1872 Jean-Marie-Constant Duhamel, French mathematician born on 05 February 1797.
1864 Charles-Julien Brianchon, French mathematician born on 19 December 1783.
1861 José María Ramón Obando del Campo, militar y político colombiano.
1793 VERDON Pierre, marchand, domicilié à Sonne (Vendée), est condamé à mort par la commission militaire séante à Sables.
1790 Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Younger, French artist born in 1715. dibujante, grabador y escritor LINKS
1676 Michiel Adriaanzoon de Ruyter [click image for photo of 1677 bust by Verhulst >], born on 24 March 1607, great Dutch admiral, whose brilliant naval victories in the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars enabled the United Provinces to maintain a balance of power with England, dies from mortal wounds received while fighting the French off Sicily.
1655 Cornelis Schut I, Flemish painter, draftsman and etcher, active in Italy, born on 13 May 1597. — more
1380 Santa Catalina de Siena, religiosa italiana.
which occurred on a 29 April:
2002 Natasha and Courtney Smith, in the UK, to Tina May and Dennis Smith, conjoined twins sharing one liver and one heart. They would die on 17 May 2002 without separation surgery, which they would have not been likely to survive.
1962 El Colegio de Arquitectos de Cataluña y Baleares se inaugura en Barcelona, construido por Xavier Busquets en 1961 y decorado el exterior con tres grandes frisos diseñados por Pablo Picasso.
1940 José Antonio García Blázquez, escritor y traductor español.
1936 Jacob Rothschild, financiero francés..
1934 Pedro R. Pires, político y primer ministro de Cabo Verde.
1933 Mark Eyskens, economista y político belga
1933 Rod McKuen, poet.
1931 Frank Auerbach, German British painter. MORE ON AUERBACH AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1930 Miguel Ángel Riera, escritor español.
1929 Jeremy Thorpe, político británico.
1923 Elegías de Duino, de Rainer Maria Rilke, se publica.
1913 First hookless fastener, named zipper later by B. F. Goodrich. ^top^
A slide fastener [< image] was exhibited by Chicago mechanical engineer Whitcomb L. Judson at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. Judson's fastener, patented on 29 August 1893 and called a clasp locker, was an arrangement of hooks and eyes with a slide clasp for closing and opening. But it didn't work and no one wanted it. He sold twenty, all to the US Postal Service, to close their mailbags.
Gideon Sundbäck, a Swedish engineer working in the US, substituted spring clips in place of hooks and eyes and in 1912 produced his Hookless #2. In the same year a similar device was patented in Europe by Catharina Kuhn-Moos. Sundbäck patents his invention in the US on 29 April 1913.
In 1917 the US Navy equipped windproof flying suits with slide fasteners. But people couldn't figure out how to use the slide fasteners. They actually came with directions. Still, no one wanted them.
In 1923 B.G. Work of the B.F. Goodrich Company ordered 150'000 slide fasteners, for closing overshoes, and in 1926 coined the name zipper. That did it. In the late 1920s and early 1930s zippers appeared on clothing for both men and women.
1905 Ogden Minton Pleissner, US painter specialized in Landscapes, who died is 1963. MORE ON PLEISSNER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1901 Hirohito (Japan's longest reigning emperor: 1926-89). He died on 07 January 1989.
1893 Harold C. Urey, in Indiana, physicist (Nobel 1934); discovered deuterium and participated in the development of nuclear weapons. He died on 05 January 1981.
1882 Auguste Herbin, French artist who died on 31 January 1960. — more with link to an image.
1882 Hendrik Nikolaas Werkman (or Werkmann), Dutch artist who died on 10 April 1945. — more
1879 Sir Thomas Beecham England, composer, founded London Philharmonic.
1876 Paul Antoine Aristide Montel, French mathematician who died on 22 January 1975. He worked mostly on the theory of analytic functions of a complex variable.
1854 Charles Angrand, French artist who died on 01 April 1926
1854 Jules-Henri Poincaré‚ France, mathematician, theoretical astronomer, philosopher of science. He died on 17 July 1912. Author of Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste (1899) La Science et l'Hypothèse (1903) La Valeur de la Science (1905) Science et Méthode (1908) Not to be confused with his first cousin Raymond Poincaré [20 Aug 1860 15 Oct 1934] president of the French Republic during WW I. [Cicéron, c'est Poincaré?]
1852 Peter Roget's Thesaurus first edition is published.
1824 Francesc Pi i Margall, político y escritor, presidente de la República española.
1818 Alexander II, Tsar of Russia (1855-81). He emancipated the serfs in 1861 and died on 13 March 1881.
1813 Rubber is patented.
1792 Matthew Vassar, in Norfolk, England, founder of Vassar College.
1783 David Cox I, British painter who died on 15 June 1859. MORE ON COX AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1745 Oliver Ellsworth, US senator, jurist and chief author of the Judiciary Act of 1789. He died on 26 November 1807.
1675 Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Venetian painter who died on 05 November 1741 (or possibly up to 3 days earlier). MORE ON PELLEGRINI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.