• Saigon falls... • WWW creators give it away free... • Hitler murders pet dogs, kills self... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • OAS is formed... • Digital calculator pioneer is born... • Annie Dillard is born... • Dodge company sold... • Date of Louisiana Purchase... • Explosion kills Palestinian children... • PDP7 computer... . • Land Rover... • 1st US presidential inauguration... • Women's prison...
| On a 30 April:
2002 Pakistan's general Pervez Musharraf, who made himself President by a bloodless coup on 12 October 1999, wins a referendum for him to extend his term of office for five years, past the October 2002 parliamentary elections, when the 3-year term which the Supreme Court allowed him runs out and the new parliament is supposed to elect a President.
2001 US warplanes conducting routine patrols in the no-fly zone of northern Iraq bomb air defense systems after coming under anti-aircraft fire northwest of Mosul.
2001 Chandra Levy, 24, is last seen alive. She is a former US Bureau of Prisons intern, allegedly romantically connected to married Congressman Gary Condit, 53, who has represented her hometown of Modesto, California, since 1989.
1994 El ministro del Interior español, Antoni Asunción, dimite por su responsabilidad política en la huida de Luis Roldán Ibáñez, ex director general de la Guardia Civil, acusado de diversos delitos.
1992 Militares amotinados en Sierra Leona toman el poder, tras la huida del presidente Joseph Saidu Momoh a Guinea.
1986 Más de 1000 personas resultan detenidas en Santiago de Chile en una redada masiva practicada por militares con la cara tiznada de negro, policías y fuerzas de seguridad.
1986 Se inaugura en Palma de Mallorca el Segundo Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Catalana.
1980 Queen Beatrix of Netherlands ascends to the throne.
1980 Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London.
1978 El Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) de Enrique Tierno Galván y el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) se fusionan.
1978 Según un informe del New York Times, el 1% de los adolescentes estadounidenses sufre anorexia nerviosa. [a site that fights anorexia: http://adiosbarbie.com/]
1975 Saigon falls.
North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces capture Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, and Duong Van Minh, president of South Vietnam for only nine days, surrenders unconditionally to the Communists. The same day, US forces complete the largest helicopter evacuation in history, airlifting select South Vietnamese officials and troops and the last few Americans still in Vietnam to the safety of US aircraft carriers offshore. At 19:52 the last US Marines in the country are lifted off the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon. Hours later, the city is renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
The reunification of Vietnam under the North Communist regime came two years after representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the US military involvement in the Vietnam War. By the end of 1973, the US contingent in Vietnam had shrunk to only fifty military advisors. On 30 April 1975, the last of these and other Americans were airlifted out of Vietnam and the war came to end. North Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin, accepting the surrender of South Vietnam, remarked, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been defeated." The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history, and cost fifty-eight thousand American lives.
By dawn, Communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet only sporadic resistance. The South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the North Vietnamese. The most recent fighting had begun in December 1974, when the North Vietnamese had launched a major attack against the lightly defended province of Phuoc Long, located due north of Saigon along the Cambodian border, overrunning the provincial capital at Phuoc Binh on 06 January 1975. Despite previous presidential promises to provide aid in such a scenario, the United States did nothing. By this time, Nixon had resigned from office and his successor, Gerald Ford, was unable to convince a hostile Congress to make good on Nixon's earlier promises to rescue Saigon from communist takeover.
This situation emboldened the North Vietnamese, who launched a new campaign in March 1975. The South Vietnamese forces fell back in total disarray, and once again, the United States did nothing. The South Vietnamese abandoned Pleiku and Kontum in the Highlands with very little fighting. Then Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang fell to the communist onslaught. The North Vietnamese continued to attack south along the coast toward Saigon, defeating the South Vietnamese forces at each encounter. The South Vietnamese 18th Division had fought a valiant battle at Xuan Loc, just to the east of Saigon, destroying three North Vietnamese divisions in the process. However, it proved to be the last battle in the defense of the Republic of South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces held out against the attackers until they ran out of tactical air support and weapons, finally abandoning Xuan Loc to the communists on 21 April.
Having crushed the last major organized opposition before Saigon, the North Vietnamese got into position for the final assault. In Saigon, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu resigned and transferred authority to Vice President Tran Van Huong before fleeing the city on 25 April. By 27 April, the North Vietnamese had completely encircled Saigon and began to maneuver for a complete takeover. When they attacked at dawn on 30 April, they met little resistance. North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace and the war came to an end. North Vietnamese Col. Bui Tin accepted the surrender from Gen. Duong Van Minh, who had taken over after Tran Van Huong spent only one day in power. Tin explained to Minh, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been beaten. If you are patriots, consider this a moment of joy. The war for our country is over."
|1974 Richard Milhous Nixon entrega a la comisión
investigadora las cintas magnetofónicas del asunto Watergate.
1973 US President Nixon announces the resignations of top aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean (Watergate affair).
1972 The North Vietnamese launched an invasion of the South.
1970 US troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by US President Nixon leads to widespread protests.
1968 US Marines attack a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do
1963 Francia anuncia la construcción de una base de pruebas nucleares en el atolón de Mururoa.
1970 President Nixon announced the US is sending troops into Cambodia. Widespread protests ensue.
1961 Sudáfrica se retira de la Commonwealth.
1960 Manifestaciones antigubernamentales en las ciudades turcas de Ankara y Estambul obligan a la proclamación de la ley marcial.
1955 Tras un fallido golpe de Estado, Bao Dai es destituido por el primer ministro Ngo Dinh Diem, en Vietnam del Sur.
1946 Un comité británico-estadounidense aboga a favor de la pronta inmigración de 100'000 judíos a Palestina.
1943 Adolf Hitler recibe a su títere francés Pierre Laval para darle órdenes.
1943 The British submarine HMS Seraph drops 'the man who never was,' a dead man on which the British planted false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
1940 Bolivia suspende sine die los permisos de inmigración a los judíos.
1937 Estados Unidos aprueba la cuarta Neutrality Act, de carácter permanente, que incluye la cláusula de cash and carry.
1934 Queda aprobada la nueva Constitución austriaca.
1934 En España, Severiano Martínez Anido, Callejo, Guadalhorce, Magaz y Calvo Sotelo quedan excluidos de la ley de amnistía por rebeldía.
1932 Se inaugura en Venecia el primer Congreso Internacional "Arte en el presente".
The Dodge heirs sold Dodge Brothers Inc. to the New York City banking firm of Dillon, Read and Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity. At the time the sale was reported to be the largest single cash sale in US history.
The sale of Dodge was not the result of a downturn in the company's fortune, as Dodge still enjoyed a firm position in the marketplace due to its reputation for quality and reliability. Dodge cars contained more heavy steel by percentage than their competitors; they were prized by doctors and traveling salesmen, who couldn't afford a breakdown during the long trips that were often called of them.
Rather, the company's sale resulted from the Dodge Brothers' offspring's unwillingness to manage the firm's affairs. Both Horace and John Dodge died in 1920. During their lifetimes they had run the company personally, explicitly excluding their family members from participation in the company's management. After the brothers' deaths a brief depression in the stock market in 1921 scared the family members into "cashing out" of the company's affairs.
| 1921 Pope Benedict XV encyclical On Dante.
1918 Guatemala declara la guerra a Alemania.
1917 El general Henri Philippe Pétain asume la jefatura del Estado Mayor del Ministerio de la Guerra francés para reemplazar a Robert Georges Nivelle.
1915 Ataque aéreo alemán en las costas inglesas.
1911 Una sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional de Portugal reconoce a las mujeres el derecho al voto.
1909 Queda reconocido oficialmente en España el derecho a la huelga.
1900 Hawaii is made a US territory.
1897 El físico británico Joseph John Thomson descubre el electrón, cuya existencia había predicho ya en 1891 su compatriota George Johnstone Stoney.
1889 First US national holiday, on centennial of Washington's inauguration
1864 Engagement at Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas on Steele's Camden Expedition
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1861 New York Yacht Club offers their vessels to the Federal government
1838 Nicaragua declares independence from Central American federation. Se proclama la independencia de Nicaragua en Chinandega.
1812 Exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase was dated as signed, the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory Louisiana is admitted into the Union as the eighteenth US state.
1725 Se firma el Tratado de Viena, por el que Felipe V, rey de España, firma la paz con Carlos VI, emperador de Alemania.
1598 In a ceremony at a site near present San Elizario, Texas, Juan de Oñate takes formal possession for Spain of the entire territory drained by the Rio Grande. This is near the location of future twin border cities, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, on the south or right bank of the Rio Grande and El Paso, Texas, on the opposite side of the river.
1563 Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
1531 El portugués Martín Alonso de Souza desembarca en el lugar donde, más tarde, se alzaría Río de Janeiro.
1508 Nicolás de Ovando, administrador de las Indias Occidentales, recibe de Fernando el Católico (Fernando II, Rey de Aragón y V de Castilla) la orden de construir iglesias.
1492 Los Reyes Católicos expiden a favor de Cristóbal Colón los títulos de almirante, virrey y gobernador de las tierras que descubriere.
1006 Brightest supernova in recorded history is observed
0642 Chindasvinto es coronado como monarca de la España visigoda.
0418 Roman Emperor Honorius (who ruled 395-423) issued a decree denouncing Pelagianism, which taught that humanity can take the initial and fundamental steps toward salvation by its own efforts, apart from divine grace.
which occurred on an April 30:
2003 Two Iraqi civilians, among some 1000 demonstrating against US occupation soldiers and their 28 April massacre of civilians, in Fallujah, as US troops fire at the crowd, allegedly because some of the demonstrators were throwing rocks and firing guns, which is denied by Iraqis. 14 Iraqis are wounded.
2003 Three Israelis: Yanai Weiss, 46; Ran Baron, 24; Dominique Caroline Hess, 29; and suicide bomber Asif Mohammed Hanif, 21, a Muslim with a British passport, at 01:10, as security guard Avi Taviv (who survives seriously wounded) prevents him from entering the pub Mike's Place on the seafront walkway Herbert Samuel Esplanade in Tel Aviv, Israel. 60 persons are wounded, including 11 Israeli soldiers and 2 tourists. Another would-be suicide bomber was accompanying the first, but, noticing a defect in his explosives, flees; he is Omar Khan Sharif, 27, also a Muslim with a British passport. In May, Sharif's body is found off a beach, apparently drowned.
1999 Dos personas mueren y 37 resultan heridas en un atentado perpetrado por un grupo neonazi contra un conocido pub del centro de Londres, frecuentado por homosexuales.
1999 A shepherd, 6 members of his family, and 101 sheep, in Kuban village, 30 km from Mosul, Iraq, in attack by US warplanes.
1998 Nizar Qabbani, poeta sirio.
1991 Some 125'000 by cyclone in Bangladesh.
1984 Karl Rahner, teólogo alemán.
1977 Charles Fox, English Canadian mathematician born on 17 March 1897.
1956 Alben W Barkley, 78, VP-D-1949-53
1947 Françesc Cambó i Battle, político catalanista español.
1900 John Luther "Casey" Jones, engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, in a wreck near Vaughan, Mississippi, after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers.
1888: 246 by hailstones, in Moradabad India.
1883 Édouard Manet, French Realist Impressionist painter and printmaker born on 23 January 1832. MORE ON MANET AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1657 Jacques de Stella, French painter born in 1596. MORE ON DE STELLA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1655 Eustache Le Sueur, French painter born on 19 November 1617. MORE ON LE SUEUR AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
0065 Lucius Anneus Séneca y Marcus Anneus Lucanus, implicados en la conjura de Pisón, son descubiertos y obligados a suicidarse.
which occurred on an April 30:
1967 La torre de televisión de Ostankino, de 533 metros de alto, se inaugura en Moscú.
1937 Richard Farina, US folksinger and novelist who died on 30 April 1966.
1932 Antonio Tejero Molina, militar golpista español.
1927 El segador, de José Ruiz Martínez “Azorín”, se estrena en Santander.
1916 Claude Elwood Shannon Jr., US electrical engineer and mathematician who died on 24 February 2001. He founded the subject of information theory and he proposed a linear schematic model of a communications system.
1912 Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, militar y vicepresidente del Gobierno español.
1909 Queen Juliana of Netherlands (1948-80)
1904 Un aparato capaz de recibir una onda emitida por un barco es patentado por Christian Hismeyes.
1902 Theodore William Schultz, in South Dakota, US economist who shared the 1979 Nobel Economics Prize with Sir Arthur Lewis of the UK for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries. He died on 26 February 1998.
1901 Simon Kuznets, Russian-born US Nobel Prize-winning economist and statistician who died on 08 July 1985.
1893 Joachim von Ribbentrop, German foreign minister under the Nazi regime (1933-45). He was chief negotiator of the treaties with which Germany entered World War II. Ribbentrop's greatest diplomatic coup was the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 23 August 1939, which cleared the way for Hitler's attack on Poland on 01 September 1939, thus beginning World War II. Together with nine other top Nazis, Ribbentrop was executed for war crimes on 16 October 1946.
1888 John Crowe Ransom, US poet and critic who died on 04 July 1974.
1885 Guido Luigi Russolo, Italian artist who died in 1947.
1883 Indalecio Prieto y Tuero, político español, que fue varias veces ministro en la II República española.
1857 Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist who pioneered the study of schizophrenics. He died on 15 July 1939.
1835 Franz von Defregger, Austrian painter who died on 02 January 1921. MORE ON DEFREGGER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1826 Jerónimo Martínez Sánchez, grabador, fotógrafo, dibujante y pintor venezolano.
1808 First practical typewriter completed by Italian Pellegrini Turri for his blind friend Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzono, though. typewriter patents date back to 1713. Commercial production, however, would begin only with the "writing ball" of Danish pastor Malling Hansen (1870).
1804 Richard Redgrave, British artist who died on 14 December 1888. MORE ON REDGRAVE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1798 Charles-Auguste van den Berghe, Belgian artist who died on 17 November 1853.
1777 Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, German, one of the world's great mathematicians and physicists. He died on 23 February 1855. He worked in a wide variety of fields in both mathematics and physics incuding number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics.
1651 Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, French philanthropist and founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He died on 07 April 1719.
1729 chevalier Jacques Antoine Volaire, French painter who died before 1802. MORE ON VOLAIRE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1504 Francesco Primaticcio di Bologna, Italian Mannerist painter and sculptor who died in 1570. MORE ON PRIMATICCIO AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.