an 21 August:
2017 First total solar eclipse of the 3rd millenium visible from North America.
2002 On the New York Stock Exchange, the stock of apparel manufacturer Delta Woodside Industries (DLW) rises from its previous close of $2.70 to an intraday high of $3.98 and closes at $3.68. On 19 August after the market closed (with DLW at $1.75) the company announced 4th quarter earnings of $0.22 per share vs. a loss of $0.94 per share in the year earlier 4th quarter. The stock had traded as high as $61.00 on 31 May 1999 and as low as $1.40 on 20 February 2002. [5~year price chart >]
2001 As expected, the US Federal Reserve Board lowers the discount rate (which stood at 6.5% at the beginning of the year) from 3.75% to 3.5%, explaining: "Household demand has been sustained, but business profits and capital spending continue to weaken and growth abroad is slowing, weighing on the US economy."
2000 Divers open the sunken sub Kursk
and find the crew dead. ^top^
| 2000 National
Geographic buys 30% of iExplore,
an online travel travel agent, to which it will license its name, stories,
and photos, a first.
1996 US President Clinton signs the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, aimed at making health insurance easier to obtain and keep.
| 1991 Apple Computer, which previously refused to use
others' software, agrees to incorporate Adobe's font control programs. Apple
had previously had planned to develop its own, jointly with Microsoft. The
decision to use Adobe's program helped entrench the Apple Macintosh as the
top choice for desktop publishing in the early 1990s.
1989 La organización antiapartheid surafricana African National Congress presenta un plan, adoptado por la OUA, para poner fin al conflicto racial en el país.
1988 Cease fire between Iran & Iraq takes effect after 8 years of war.
1983 Hallada en Orce (Granada) una supuesta mandíbula del hombre de Neanderthal, la más perfecta de las encontradas hasta entonces.
1983 The musical play La Cage Aux Folles opens on Broadway.
1983 A group of Milwaukee teenagers breeks into 60 computers across the US, including those at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City.
1977 Donna Patterson Brice sets high speed water skiing rec (111.11 mph)
1972 1st hot air balloon flight over the Alps
1972 Republican convention opens in Miami Beach
1971 Vietnam: Antiwar protesters associated with the Catholic Left raid draft offices in Buffalo, New York, and Camden, New Jersey, to confiscate and destroy draft records. The FBI and local police arrest 25 protesters.
1970 El tifón "Anita" devasta el sur y el oeste de Japón y destruye 50'000 casas.
1969 Un triunvirato militar asume el poder en Brasil al conocerse que el mariscal Artur Da Costa e Silva se halla afectado de una trombosis cerebral.
1969 Un incendio, al parecer provocado, destruye casi totalmente la mezquita "al Aqsa" en Jerusalén.
1968 El presidente argentino, Juan Carlos Onganía, destituye a un grupo de militares liberales, entre ellos a los generales Alsogaray y Lanusse.
1968 Democratic Convention opens in Chicago
|1961 Kenyatta freed from jail:
In the early 1950s, British troops crushed the Mau Mau Rebellion in Kenya and held more than 80'000 members of the tribe captive. On 21 August 1961, many of these captives, including Mau Mau leader Jomo Kenyatta, were finally released. Two years later, the seventy-three-year-old Kenyatta was elected Kenya's first prime minister. The following year, his nation gained complete independence from Britain, and was proclaimed a democratic republic.
Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenyan independence movement, is released by British colonial authorities after nearly nine years of imprisonment and detention. Two years later, Kenya achieved independence and Kenyatta became prime minister. Once portrayed as a menacing symbol of African nationalism, he brought stability to the country and defended Western interests during his 15 years as Kenyan leader.
Kenyatta was born in the East African highlands southwest of Mount Kenya sometime in the late 1890s. He was a member of the Kikuyu ethnic group Kenya's largest and was educated by Presbyterian missionaries. In 1920, Kenya formally became a British colony, and by 1921 Kenyatta was living in the colonial capital of Nairobi. There he became involved in African nationalist movements and by 1928 had risen to the post of general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association, an organization opposed to the seizure of tribal land by European settlers. In 1929, he first went to London to protest colonial policy, but authorities refused to meet with him.
Kenyatta returned to London several times over the next few years to petition for African rights and then remained in Europe in the 1930s to receive a formal education at various institutions, including Moscow University. In 1938, he published his seminal work, Facing Mount Kenya, which praised traditional Kikuyu society and discussed its plight under colonial rule. During World War II, he lived in England, lecturing and writing.
In 1946, he returned to Kenya and in 1947 became president of the newly formed Kenya African Union (KAU). He pushed for majority rule, recruiting both Kikuyus and non-Kikuyus into the nonviolent movement, but the white settler minority was unyielding in refusing a significant role for blacks in the colonial government.
In 1952, an extremist Kikuyu group called Mau Mau began a guerrilla war against the settlers and colonial government, leading to bloodshed, political turmoil, and the forced internment of tens of thousands of Kikuyus in detainment camps. Kenyatta played little role in the rebellion, but he was vilified by the British and put on trial in 1952 with five other KUA leaders for "managing the Mau Mau terrorist organization." An advocate of nonviolence and conservatism, he pleaded innocent in the highly politicized trial but was found guilty and sentenced to seven years in prison.
He spent six years in jail and then was sent to an internal exile at Lodwar, where he lived under house arrest. Meanwhile, the British government slowly began steering Kenya to black majority rule. In 1960, the Kenya African National Union (KANU, not related to Canu) was organized by black nationalists, and Kenyatta was elected president in absentia. The party announced it would not take part in any government until Kenyatta was freed. Kenyatta pledged the protection of settlers' rights in an independent Kenya, and on 14 August, 1961, he was finally allowed to return to Kikuyuland. After a week of house arrest in the company of his family and supporters, he was formally released on 21 August.
In 1962, he went to London to negotiate Kenyan independence, and in May 1963 he led the KANU to victory in pre-independence elections. On 12 December 1963, Kenya celebrated its independence, and Kenyatta formally became prime minister. The next year, a new constitution established Kenya as a republic, and Kenyatta was elected president.
As Kenya's leader until his death in 1978, Kenyatta encouraged racial cooperation, promoted capitalist economic policies, and adopted a pro-Western foreign policy. He used his authority to suppress political opposition, particularly from radical groups. Under his rule, Kenya became a one-party state, but the stability that resulted attracted foreign investment in Kenya. After he died on 22 August 1978, he was succeeded by Daniel arap Moi, who continued most of his policies. Affectionately known in his later years as mzee, or "old man" in Swahili, Kenyatta is celebrated as the founding father of Kenya. He was also influential throughout Africa.
| 1960 La Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA)
acuerda una serie de medidas condenatorias del régimen de Héctor B. Trujillo,
al ser probada la complicidad dominicana en el atentado contra el presidente
venezolano, Rómulo Betancourt.
1915 Italy declares war on Turkey.
1887 Mighty (Dan) Casey Struck-out in a game with the NY Giants!
1883 In Missouri begins the trial of Frank James, 40, who, after having robbed dozens of banks and trains over nearly two decades, turned himself in, in October 1882, discouraged by the murder of his brother Jesse the previous spring. The sympathetic jury would find him not guilty. The states of Alabama and Missouri would try to convict him twice more, on charges of armed robbery, with no success. In late 1883, Frank James would become a free man. He would live quietly until his death in 1915.
1874 Popular 19th century preacher Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887) is accused by Theodore Tilton of committing adultery with his wife. The resulting trial would end in a 9-3 hung jury decision, in Beecher's favor.
1864 Skirmish at Summit Point, West Virginia
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 The US Treasury Department circulates "postage currency", .5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes.
1794 France surrenders the island of Corsica to the British.
1680 Pueblo Indians take possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish.
1525 Estavão Gomes returns to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.
1192 The cruel warlord Minamoto Yoritomo , after killing off potential rivals, including his cousin and brothers, proclaims himself seii taishogun ("barbarian-quelling generalissimo"), becoming the supreme commander over the feudal lords. Thus he establishes the bakufu or shogunate which was to rule Japan for 700 years.
which occurred on a 21 August:
2003 Ismail Abu Shanab and two bodyguards, by five missiles from an Israeli helicopter fired at their car, in the Rimal neighborhood of Gaza City. Abu Shanab, a US-educated professor of engineering, was a senior political official of Hamas.
2002 Adelina Domingues, who was recognized as the oldest living person in the US, dies at the age of 114. Domingues died in her sleep Wednesday afternoon 21 August 2002, in San Diego at Brighton Place, the nursing home where Domingues lived since 1995. Though Domingues had remained physically active and mentally sharp, her health had declined over the last month. Domingues was born in the Cape Verde Islands and insisted her birth year was 1887, which would have made her 115 and the oldest person in the world. But a search turned up a baptism date of 1888. The Guinness Book of Records ruled she was 114 with a birthdate of 19 February 1888.
The oldest known living person is Kamato Hongo of Japan, who was born on 16 September 1887.
John McMorran of Florida is now the oldest person in the US. Born on 19 June 1889, he is 113.
Born to an Italian sea captain and a Cape Verdean woman, Adelina was 18 when she married Jose Domingues, a whaling captain. The couple moved to New Bedford, Mass., in 1907. They raised four children while Adelina worked as a seamstress. After her husband died in 1950, Domingues moved to Southern California to be near her son Frank, who died in Palm Desert in 1998. This was devastating to her, who lost her first son when he was 2 and another son and a daughter when they were teenagers. She asked why she would still be alive and have to bury her last child. That was the hardest thing for her, to still be alive and having buried all four of her children and her husband and brothers and sisters.
Domingues lived on her own until she was 107. She voted well into her 100s, and often wrote admiring letters to Ronald Reagan. She was quite opinionated, very clear in her wants and needs. Domingues herself never tried to offer a secret for her longevity, though she ate a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, and abstained from alcohol and tobacco. She never took any credit for anything she achieved in life. She always gave credit to God and to his plan and purpose in life. Domingues is survived by six grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren.
2002 Dominic James [photo >], born on 04 June 2000, of severe head injury due to having been violently shaken. This followed repeated abuse since soon after he was taken from his parents (black Sidney James and white Stephanie Ford, when police was called because they were fighting) on 18 June 2002 and placed in foster care in the home of the white couple John “Wesley” Dilley, 34, in Willard, Missouri. The abuse was reported repeatedly to the Division of Family Services, which did nothing to protect the child.
2001 Maria A. Caraveo, 36, and her daughters, Sharon Denise Mar, 13; Kelsey Idette Mar, 10; and Nerissa Aileen Mar, 9, each shot in the head and chest while in a car and the body dragged into a cornfield near Guadalajara. The bodies, in swimsuits, would be found the next morning near the abandoned car, with dozens of 9 mm shell casings lying next to towels, empty soft-drink bottles and pairs of flip-flops. The children were US citizens from Texas, and the mother a permanent legal resident of the US, from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. .
1995 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, University of Chicago mathematical astrophysicist born in India on 19 October 1910, who was awarded the 1983 Nobel prize in Physics for his theoretical work on the gravitational collapse of stars Author of The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes (1983), Principles of Stellar Dynamics (1942), Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (1961), Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science (1987).
1993 Thomas Smith, suicide by shooting himself in the head with a 12-gauge shotgun. He was a Catholic priest of the diocese of Richmond, Virginia. Allegations that he had sexually abused a young boy were presented to him on 19 August 1993.
1993 Kasdi Merbah, ancien Premier ministre d'Algérie et ex-chef de la Sécurité militaire, son frère, son fils, et 2 gardes du corps, assassinés à Bordj El-Bahri,. Alger.
1986 1746 persons, by toxic gas from Lake Nios volcanic eruption in Cameroon.
1983 Benigno Ninoy Simeon Aquino Jr., 50, the most serious challenger to Ferdinand Marcos’ dictatorship of the Philippines, gunned down by Marcos agents as he deplanes at Manila Airport, back from exile in the US. to campaign for the presidency in an election Marcos had promised. Born on 27 November 1932, Aquino had been the chief opposition leader during the era of martial law in the Philippines (1972–81) under Marcos. The assassination only increased opposition to Marcos, and Benigno's widow, Maria Corazon (Cojuangco) Aquino, 50, daughter of one of the largest landowners and manufacturers in the Philippines. became its leader, overthrowing Marcos on 25 February 1986. She served a 6-year term as president, unable to effect needed reforms.
1971 George Jackson murdered
1964 Palmiro Togliatti, secretario general del PCI.
1932 Lorenzo Coullaut y Valera, escultor e ilustrador español.
1927 William Burnside , mathematician who wrote the first treatise on groups in English and was the first to develop the theory of groups from a modern abstract point of view.
1926 Stuart Pratt Sherman, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in 18 Volumes
1909 Three drivers, at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, before 201000 spectators. Meanwhile Barney Oldfield breaks five world records in his Benz before the three-day meet is ended early.
| 1890 Frederic Henry Hedge, author of Christian
for the Church of Christ, Reason
in Religion, Ways
of the Spirit and Other Essays
1883 Unas 100 personas por un huracán que destruye la ciudad de Rochester, en Minnesota.
1869 Casto Méndez Núñez, marino español, héroe de la batalla de El Callao.
1864 Many Confederates and some Union troops, at the Battle of Globe Tavern. Confederate General A.P. Hill attacks Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at the Weldon railroad. His attack is repulsed, resulting in heavy Confederate casualties.
1836 Navier, mathematician
1771 Fontaine des Bertins, mathematician
1762 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, author. LADY MONTAGU ONLINE: Selected Prose and Poetry Selected Prose and Poetry
1757 Samuel König, mathematician
1629 Camillo Procaccini, Italian painter born in 1548 approximately.
1245 Alexander of Hales, 59. English scholastic theologian, founder of the Franciscan school of theology. a Franciscan who was one of the first to attempt to understand all of the recovered work of Aristotle with its implications for theology.
1157 Alfonso VII, rey de Castilla y León.
| Births which
occurred on a 21 August:
1999 Hua Mai, panda, one of the few born in a zoo. The mother, Bai Yun, 9, on loan from China, will give birth to another panda on 19 August 2003.
1949 Marilyn Manuel, in the Philippines. After moving to Queens, NYC, she had been working for the UN for 18 years when she was at the UN's Baghdad headquarters when a terrorist truck bomb kills 22 persons there on 19 August 2003 and she would be listed among the dead. But on her 54th birthday she would phone her relatives in Queens and tell them that she only suffered an eye injury, for which she was hospitalized in Baghdad.
1936 Fernando Abril Martorell, político español.
1936 Wilt(on) Chamberlain NBA great center basketball player (LA Laker, 5 time MVP, Basketball Hall of Famer, only player to score 100 points in a professional basketball game).
1909 C. Dillon Douglas Geneva Switz, US Secretary of Treasury (1961-65)
1907 Dr. Roy K Marshall Glen Carbon Ill, TV scientist (Nature of Things)
1901 Edward Copson, expert in Complex Analysis, Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews from 1950 until 1969.
1896 Roark Bradford writer/humorist (Ol' Man Adan an' His Chillun)
1886 Andrés González Blanco, escritor español.
1884 Rómulo Gallegos, escritor y político venezolano.
1878 The American Bar Association is founded, in Saratoga, N.Y.
|1875 Hanson Duvall Puthuff, US painter who died in 1972.
ON PUTHUFF AT ART 4 AUGUST
puny reproduction of Grand Canyon. — fall
landscape with trees and mountains — Flame
of Sunset — Southern
California Hills — Desert
Rampart — From
my Terrace — Summer
Evening — Mountain
Landscape with Stream
1872 Aubrey Beardsley England, artist (Salome)
1858 Lovis Corinth, German artist who died in 1925. LINKS Ecce Homo Samson Blinded Das trojanische Pferd Am Walchensee: Bildnis Fritz Proels Am Walchensee: Blick auf den Walchensee St. Michael Selbstbildnis Walchesee Selbstbildnis Selbstbildnis mit Gattin (sein Frau) Soothsayer (Prophecy) Riders, from the Campo Santo, Pisa Der Kuss
1848 Egisto Lanceretto, Italian artist who died on 31 May 1916.
1841 Venetian blind is patented by John Hampson
1839 Otto Bache, Danish artist who died in 1927.
1820 Joseph Allen, co-author of An Elementary Course in Analytic Geometry and of Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges.
1805 Nicolaas Johannes Roosenboom, Dutch artist who died in 1880.
1790 Joaquín Vizcaíno Martínez, marqués de Pontejos, fundador del Monte de Piedad y de la Caja de Ahorros de Madrid.
1789 Augustin-Louis Cauchy, French mathematician who pioneered the study of analysis, both real and complex, and the theory of permutation groups. He also researched in convergence and divergence of infinite series, differential equations, determinants, probability and mathematical physics.
1765 William IV king of England (1830-37)
1725 Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French Rococo era painter who died on 21 March 1805. MORE ON GREUZE AT ART 4 AUGUST LINKS Self~Portrait (ZOOM) Portrait d'une Jeune Fille Le Citoyen Bernard Dubard (ZOOM) Tête d'un Jeune Garçon Un Garçon et son Chien Le Conte Stroganov enfant (ZOOM) Le Paralytique (ZOOM) La Malédiction Paternelle (ZOOM) — Un écolier endormi sur son livre (ZOOM) — Le Geste Napolitain (ZOOM) — Le Cordonnier Ivre (ZOOM) — Indolence aka La Paresseuse Italienne (ZOOM) — Jeune Fille Pleurant son Oiseau Mort (ZOOM) Le Pot Cassé (ZOOM) _ see Le Vase Cassé by Bouguereau [30 November 1825 19 August 1905] The Broken Mirror— The Broken Eggs Complaining about the Watch Votive Offering to Cupid George Gougenot de Croissy Innocence The Village Betrothal Study of a Young Boy
1660 Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote the first book on bridge building