a 29 August:
2002 The US Food and Drug Administration approves the Enox test of Pharmanetics Inc (PHAR). On the NASDAQ its stock rises phar above its previous close of $4.31 to an intraday high of $7.50 and closes at $6.20. PHAR started trading on 30 November 1998 at $5.63 and traded as high as $10.00 on 09 January 2002. But then it dropped as low as $2.80 on 17 July 2002 (not phar from its all-time low of $2.63 on 22 March 1999). [3~year price chart]
2002 CNN reports that a couple is suing for $15 million for the loss of their cat on a flight from Toronto to San Francisco. The suit is against Air Canada, their cargo holding company, and San Francisco International Airport. They are suing for negligence, negligent infliction of emotional distress, fraud and false advertising. The couple says that it is “not about the money.” Their lawyer is the same person who tried to save from the death penalty Hera, one of the two Presa Canario mastiffs who attacked and killed Diane Whipple in San Francisco on 26 January 2001.
2000 Pope John Paul II sets moral guidelines for medical research in the 21st century, endorsing organ donation and adult stem cell study, but condemning human cloning and embryo experiments.
1999 Chechnya war: Russian forces open second stage of conflict by attacking strongholds of Islamic fundamentalists in Karamakhi and Chabanmakhi villages after their population refuses calls to disarm.
Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov dismisses Movladi Udugov from Chechnya's National Security Council, accuses him of "large-scale ideological sabotage against the Chechen state." Udugov has been serving as a spokesman for Shamil Basayev. http://www.cdi.org/issues/Europe/aug.html
1997 Dell offers to lease computers. Dell announces a program to allow customers to lease computers. The move aimed to increase Dell's business among home users. Leasing gave consumers some measure of protection against purchasing equipment that quickly became obsolete.
1995 Georgian leader Eduard Shevardnadze survives an assassination attempt when a car explodes near his motorcade.
1992 Thousands of Germans demonstrate against a wave of racist attacks aimed at immigrants.
1991 In a stunning blow to the Soviet Communist Party, the Supreme Soviet legislature votes to suspend the activities of the organization and freeze its bank accounts because of the party's role in the failed coup.
1990 Saddam Hussein declares America can't beat Iraq.
1972 Vietnam: President Nixon sets 01 December as the target date for reducing US troops strength in Vietnam by 12'000, to 27'000, an all-time low since the American troop buildup began in 1965.
1953 USSR explodes its 1st hydrogen bomb.
1952 In the largest bombing raid of the Korean War, 1403 planes of the Far East Air Force bomb Pyongyang, North Korea.
|1950 US State Department official discusses "captive
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs Edward W. Barrett declares that most of the "captive populations" in Soviet satellite nations oppose the Russians. Barrett called for an accelerated program of US propaganda designed to capitalize on this weakness in the communist bloc. Speaking before a luncheon for the Overseas Writers Organization, Barrett said, "Stalin has completely failed to win over the satellite populations even though he has them under his complete control." The citizens of these "satellites" the nations of Eastern Europe occupied by Soviet forces after World War II hated their Russian masters. "Despite four years of intensive Soviet propaganda, any informed visitor will tell you that between 60 and 90% of the captive populations are today anti-Soviet."
Barrett reassured his audience that despite the recent massive Soviet propaganda efforts around the world, the United States was winning the war of words. It was "high time for Americans to stop being defeatist about the so-called propaganda war. We have not lost it; we are not losing it. We can win it." Despite the fact that the Soviets seemed to be scoring some propaganda successes (such as attacks against America's racism and treatment of its African-American population), Barrett believed that the Russians "have increasingly proved that they are blunderers in this field." Most notably, the Soviets had wasted "hundreds of millions of dollars" trying to unsuccessfully portray the United States as the aggressor in the Korean War.
Barrett's comments indicated that the United States was prepared to engage more actively and aggressively in the propaganda war with Russia. In the years that followed Barrett's speech, the Department of State committed more and more resources to the "war of words" with the Soviet Union. Accordingly, the United States Information Agency was established in 1953 to serve as America's worldwide publicist. In the Cold War, the battle for the "hearts and minds" of people was often as important as the military confrontations.
|1949 Soviets explode nuclear fission device
At a remote test site at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, the USS.R. successfully detonated its first atomic bomb, code-named "First Lightning." In order to measure the effects of the blast, the Soviet scientists had constructed buildings, bridges, and other civilian structures in the vicinity of the bomb. They had also placed animals in cages nearby so that they could test the effects of nuclear radiation on human-like mammals. The atomic explosion, which at twenty kilotons was roughly equal to "Trinity," the first US atomic explosion, destroyed these structures and incinerated the animals.
According to legend, the Soviet physicists who worked on the bomb were honored for their achievement based on the penalties they would have suffered had the test failed. Those who would have been executed if the bomb failed to detonate were honored as "Heroes of Socialist Labor," and those who would have been merely imprisoned were given "the Order of Lenin," a slightly less prestigious award.
On 03 September, a US spy plane flying off the coast of Siberia picked up the first evidence of radioactivity from the explosion. On 22 September the United States, Britain, and Canada announce they have detected the Russian bomb.
In late December, Klaus Fuchs, a German-born physicist who had helped the US build its first atomic bombs, was arrested for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviets. While stationed at US atomic development headquarters during World War II, Fuchs had given the Soviets precise information about the US atomic program, including a blueprint of the "Fat Man" atomic bomb later dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, and everything that the Los Alamos scientists knew about the hypothesized hydrogen bomb. The revelations of Fuchs's espionage, coupled with the loss of US atomic supremacy, led President Truman to order development of the fusion bomb, a weapon theorized to be hundreds of times more powerful than the fission bombs dropped on Japan.
On 01 November 1952, the United States successfully detonated "Mike," the world's first hydrogen bomb, on the Elugelab Atoll in the Pacific Marshall Islands. The 10.4-megaton thermonuclear device instantly vaporized an entire island and left behind a crater more than a mile wide. Two years later, on 22 November 1954, the Soviet Union detonated its first hydrogen bomb on the same principle of radiation implosion. Both superpowers were now in possession of the so-called "superbomb," and the world lived under the threat of thermonuclear war for the first time in history.
| 1945 US airborne troops land in transport planes at
Atsugi airfield, southwest of Tokyo, beginning the occupation of Japan.
1944 15'000 US soldiers marched down the Champs Elysées avenue in Paris as the French capital continued to celebrate its liberation from the Nazis.
1943 Responding to a clampdown by Nazi occupiers, Denmark managed to scuttle most of its naval ships.
1929 German airship Graf Zeppelin ends a round-the-world flight
1914 Arizonan is 1st vessel to arrive in SF via Panama Canal
| 1909 AH Latham of France sets world airplane altitude
record of 155 m
1883 Seismic sea waves created by the Krakatoa eruption create a rise in the English Channel 32 hrs after the explosion.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues.
1862 Union General John Pope's army is defeated by a smaller Confederate force at the Second Battle of Bull Run.
1862 Battle of Aspromonte Italian royal forces defeat rebels.
1862 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) begins.
1862 Battle of Brawner's Farm (Groveton), Virginia.
1861 Capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark, North Carolina
1842 The unequal treaty of Nanking ends the first Opium War (1839-42). Under the terms of this agreement, China pays the British an indemnity, cedes the territory of Hong Kong, and agrees to establish a "fair and reasonable" tariff. Moreover, British merchants, who were previously allowed to trade only at the South China port of Canton, are now allowed to trade at five ports (called treaty ports), including Canton and Shanghai.
1793 Slavery is abolished in Santo Domingo.
1852 The Latter Day Saints first published their doctrine of "celestial marriage," popularly known as polygamy. The Mormon Church maintained this teaching until the Manifest of 1890 (and later Congressional legislation) outlawed the practice.
1776 General George Washington retreats during the night from Manhattan to Westchester
1758 1st indian reservation established
1708 Haverhill, Massachusetts, destroyed by French & Indians
1526 Battle of Mohacs: Ottoman Suleiman the Magnificent crushes a Hungarian army under Lewis II.
0284 Origin of Era of Diocletian (Martyrs)
0070 After a 9-month siege, Romans burn the gates and enter the Temple courtyards of Jerusalem. The temple is destroyed by fire. Within a month, Jewish resistance ends. The refusal of many Christian Jews to join the futile resistance, which they felt had been foretold by Christ, led to tension between Jew and Christian and a final parting of paths.
5502 -BC- Origin of Alexandrian Era
which occurred on a 29 August:
2003 Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, 63, and some 75 others, by car bomb at the Imam Ali mosque [photo below] in Najaf, Iraq, at 14:00 (10:00 UT) just after the end of Friday prayers. Some 140 persons are wounded. The mosque is one of those most holy to Shi'ite Moslem and its Ayatollah Baqir al-Hakim [photo below], born in 1939, was the moderate leader of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) based in Tehran, which is in a power struggle with other Shi'ite factions. Imam Ali was the son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad and the first leader of the Shi'ites. Najaf is one of Iraq's holiest cities.
Ruwaida al-Hajien, 45, her sons, Ashraf, 23, and Mehad, 17, and a cousin,
Mohammed, 20, Palestinian Beduins, shortly after midnight, by Israeli
tank shells which fired at their shack in the Gaza Strip coastal village
Sheikh Ijleen near the Jewish enclave settlement Netzarim. Ruwaida's son
Khaled Said al-Hajien, 4 [photo >], is critically wounded;
her husband and two others are wounded. The family was planning to get up
at 04:00 to harvest figs before the heat of the day. According to Reuters
the al-Aqsa intifada body count is now at least 1516 Palestinians
and 589 Israelis.
2002 (+ or 1 day) California Condor #186 of the California Condor Recovery Program, murdered. Rewards of up to $21'000 would be offered for information. The male condor died in the Kaibab National Forest in northwestern Arizona. It was hatched at the Los Angeles Zoo on 15 April 1998 and set free at the Peregrine Fund's Hurricane Cliffs release site, with eight other condors, on 18 November 1998. This condor was expected to begin breeding at the normal age (6 or 7 years). On 01 September 2002, there were 205 California condors in the world, 73 of them in the wild in California and Arizona.
2001 Leticia Aguilar, 31, her children Claudia, 12, Zach, 11, Larry, 9, Lisa, 7, and Michael, 6, and Ronald Fish, 58.
In Sioux City, Iowa, they are brutally murdered by Adam Matthew Moss, 23, Leticia Aguilar's boy friend. He is arrested on 31 August 2001. Fish was the owner of a tire store and service station, whose body would be found on 30 August 2001 at his home in a country club neighborhood. The Aguilars' bodies would be found at the same time, 3 km away in their home in a poor area of the city's west side.
2001 Yolanda Paternina, 50, shot twice as she was returning home from work in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. She was a prosecutor investigating state complicity in a January 2001 massacre in which dozens of paramilitary gunmen hacked to death 26 people in the northern village of Chengue after accusing them of collaborating with leftist guerrillas. The massacre raised fresh doubts about the government's willingness to rein in the paramilitary Autodefensa Unida de Colombia (AUC). The 8000-strong AUC is responsible for the most of the human rights atrocities committed in Colombia in its 37-year civil war. Two investigators working with Paternina on the case disappeared in June 2001 and are feared dead.
1998 Robert Duncan Macdonald, 2, baked strapped in his car seat in the car of his mother, Jennifer Pillsbury, 27, who had left him sleeping in there at 04:00, with the engine running and the heater on, while she went back into the home of her friends where she had been drinking vodka and smoking marijuana since the previous evening and now stayed until 06:00, in Skowhegan, Maine. Due to some malfunction the heater overheated so much (possibly to nearly 100ºC) that it melted plastic parts inside the car. In May 2000, Pillsbury would be convicted of endangering the welfare of a child, but found not guilty of manslaughter. On 24 June 2000, she would be sentenced to 520 hours of community service.
1975 Eamon de Valera, 92, great Irish independence leader and statesman
Born in New York in 1882, de Valera emigrated to Ireland as a child and joined the Easter Rebellion of 1916 against British rule. Saved from execution because of his American citizenship, he was released under a general amnesty in 1917. The same year, he became leader of Sinn Fein, a political party dedicated to achieving a unified and independent Ireland.
In 1919, Sinn Fein achieved an electoral majority in Ireland and de Valera was imprisoned, but he escaped to the United States. During his exile, he was elected president of Ireland by the Dail Eireann, a revolutionary parliament that proclaimed Irish independence. When he returned to Ireland in 1920, Sinn Fein and the Irish volunteers were engaged in a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces. The same year, a cease-fire was declared and in 1922, Arthur Griffith and other former Sinn Fein leaders broke with de Valera in signing a treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining part of Great Britain. De Valera deplored the period of civil war that followed, but maintained his opposition to the British government.
In 1926, he left Sinn Fein, which had become the unofficial political wing of the underground movement for Northern independence, and entered Irish Free State politics. He formed the Fianna Fail political party, and in 1932, was elected Irish president as the party gained control of the Irish Free State government. For the next sixteen years, President de Valera pursued a policy of complete political separation from Great Britain, including the introduction of a new constitution declaring Ireland a fully sovereign state and a policy of neutrality during World War II. In 1948, he narrowly lost a reelection vote and was forced to resign, but in 1951, he returned as Irish prime minister, and in 1959, as president. On 24 June 1973, de Valera, then the world's oldest statesman, retired from Irish politics at the age of ninety.
1970 A Philadelphia police officer, in confrontation with Black Panthers
1967 George Rockwell, US Nazi party leader, murdered
1960 Hazza el-Majali, PM of Jordan, assassinated
1942 Alfred Wallis, British artist born on 18 August 1855.
1941 Henri Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves, Résistance fighter, executed by the Germans.
1937 Otto Hölder Hölder worked on the convergence of Fourier series and in 1884 he discovered the inequality now named after him. He became interested in group theory through Kronecker and Klein and proved the uniqueness of the factor groups in a composition series.
1916 Some 1000 drowned as steamer Hsin Iu sinks off China coast.
1873 Hermann Hankel, 34, mathematician.
1797 Joseph Wright of Derby, British painter born on 03 September 1734. MORE ABOUT WRIGHT AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS The Dead Soldier _ detail Shakespeare's The Tempest Act VI Scene 1 Experiment with the Air~Pump The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers' Stone Earthstopper at the Bank of Derwent Indian Widow A Philosopher Lecturing with a Mechanical Planetary Miravan Opening the Grave of his Forefathers Landscape with Rainbow
1777 Charles Joseph Natoire, French painter born on 03 Mars 1700. MORE ABOUT NATOIRE AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS — The Rest by a Fountain (ZOOM) — Vénus demande à Vulcain une arme pour Énée (ZOOM) — Bacchanal (ZOOM) — La Toilette de Psychée (ZOOM) Le Siège de Bordeaux (Histoire de Clovis) Télémaque dans l'Ile de Calypso Truth
1769 Edmond Hoyle games expert.
1653 Gysbert-Gilliszoon d'Hondecoeter, Dutch painter of birds, born in 1604.
1625 John Fletcher, author. FLETCHER ONLINE: Studies on Slavery, in Easy Lessons, co-author of Philaster: or, Love Lies A-Bleeding, and of The Two Noble Kinsmen
| Births which
occurred on a 29 August:
1936 John McCain, would become a US Senator (R-Ariz.), would campaign on a campaign finance reform platform for the 2000 Republican presidential nomination, celebrate his 65th birthday by undergoing surgery for a benign prostate enlargement.
1929 Thom Gunn Kent England, poet (The Wound)
1909 Roy Reuther Wheeling WV, labor leader
1904 Roth, mathematician
1899 Lyman L Lemnitzer US Army General (WW II), Chief of Staff, US Army and Nato Commander
1885 The motorcycle
The world’s first motorcycle, made by Gottlieb Daimler, is patented. The two-wheeled vehicle would gain immense popularity after 1910, when it would used extensively by all branches of the armed forces during World War I.
The motorcycle’s popularity lagged during the Great Depression, but came back with a vengeance after World War II and remains popular today. Often associated with a rebellious image, the vehicle is often used for high-speed touring and sport competitions.
Daimler registers his Reitwagen ("Riding Carriage") with a "Gas or Petroleum Engine" as patent DRP No. 36423. The "Reitwagen" is the world's first motor cycle.
| 1881 Valery Nicolas Larbaud France, novelist/translator
1855 Erik Ludwig Henningsen, Danish artist who died in 1930.
1844 Edward Carpenter, author. CARPENTER ONLINE: The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women (zipped), Ioläus: An Anthology of Friendship, Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning, Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning (another site)
1826 Émile Lévy, French Academic painter who died on 04 August 1890. — Photo of Lévy MORE ABOUT LÉVY AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS LINKS — La Lettre d'Amour — Mort d'Orphée — The Dizzy Spell — Le Vertige, Idylle — Young Mother Feeding Her Baby — Morning Glories
1815 Anna Ella Carroll US, civil war writer (Reconstruction)
1811 Henry Bergh, first president of SPCA.
1780 Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, in Montauban, France, great neoclassical painter, specialized in portraits and orientalism, who died on 14 January 1867. MORE ON INGRES AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Self~Portrait — Copy of Ingres's 1804 Self-Portrait Self~Portrait The Artist and his Wife Jeanne d'Arc au Sacre de Charles VII dans la Cathédrale de Reims (ZOOM) M. Bertin Le Bain Turc — Virgin of the Adoption — Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne _ detail — The Death of Leonardo da Vinci (8135kb!!!) — Vicomtesse Othenin d'Haussonville, née Louise-Albertine de Broglie _ detail — Venus Anadyomène — La Source — Oedipus and the Sphinx — Half-figure of a Bather — Paolo and Francesca — Antiochus and Stratonice — Jupiter and Thetis — Baronne James de Rothschild, née Betty von Rothschild Bonaparte as First Consul The Apotheosis of Homer _ detail: Poussin and Corneille _ detail: Racine, Molière, Boileau Countess D'Haussonville _ detail: head Raphael and the Fornarina Paganini (1819) Molière
1701 Félix Anton Scheffler, German artist who died on 10 January 1760.
1609 Giovanni-Battista Salvi il Sassoferrato, Italian artist who died on 8 August 1685. MORE ON SALVI AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS — Le Sommeil de l'Enfant Jésus The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine The Virgin in Prayer Madonna and Child Monsignor Ottaviano Prati — The Holy Family — Head of a Woman