|On an 30
2001 First free elections in East Timor, for the 88-member assembly that will write the country's constitution. The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin), which led the country's independence struggle, wins 55 seats in the assembly. This leaves Fretilin short of the 60 seats it would need to pass its draft constitution without support from other parties. In second place, the Democratic Party wins seven seats in the assembly, and third the Social Democratic Party with six seats. The election is a key step in preparing East Timor for independence after centuries of Portuguese colonial rule, 24 years of Indonesian occupation, and two years of a transitional U.N. government. The United Nations will gradually turn over the running of the government to the new authorities over the next six to eight months. After the constitution is adopted, Xanana Gusmao, leader of the resistance guerrilla army against the Indonesian occupiers, is expected to be elected president.
1999 East Timor votes for independence from Indonesia. The Indonesian military and their militia allies will be soon to react by massacres during September 1999, until.a multinational peacekeeping force arrives to restore order and force the Indonesian withdrawal.
1995 Un centenar de aviones de la OTAN, durante la intervención más importante de la Alianza Atlántica en el conflicto de los Balcanes, bombardean objetivos serbios en Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, Pale y Gorazde, en represalia por la masacre serbia en un mercado de Sarajevo.
|1994 IBM drops opposition to trademark
IBM announces that it will not oppose Microsoft's attempt to trademark the name "Windows." Microsoft had lobbied for four years to trademark the term. The words "windows" and "windowing" had become common in the software industry to describe the portioning off of the monitor screen to display several different programs simultaneously.
In February 1993, the US Patent and Trademark Office had rejected Microsoft's attempt to register the trademark. The agency reversed its decision in December 1993. Several major software companies including IBM, Novell, and Sun indicated they might oppose the move, but Novell and Sun chose not to oppose the matter. IBM's decision to drop the issue cleared the way for Microsoft's trademark.
| 1991 El Soviet Supremo de Azerbaiyán aprueba la declaración
de su independencia de la URSS, perdida en 1920, y levanta el estado de
emergencia. Azerbaijan declared its independence, joining the stampede
of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 Mike Powell establece en Tokio la plusmarca mundial de salto de longitud en 8,95 metros, en los Campeonatos del Mundo de Atletismo.
1986 Soviet authorities arrested Nicholas Daniloff (US News World Report)
1982 El presidente de la OLP, Yasir Arafat, es obligado a salir de Líbano por las tropas de ocupación israelíes.
1957 In an effort to stall the Civil Rights Act of 1957 from passing, Senator Strom Thurmond (D-S.C.) filibusters for over 24 hours. The bill passed, but Thurmond's filibuster becomes the longest in Senate history.
1956 White mob prevents enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas
1945 Hong Kong liberated from Japan.
1944 Soviet troops enter Bucharest Romania
1941 Siege of Leningrad by Nazi troops begins during WW II
1939 NY Yankee Atley Donald pitches a baseball a record 152 km/h.
|1918 Lenin shot, survives vengefully
After speaking at the Michelson factory in Moscow, Soviet dictator Vladimir Lenin is shot by Fanya Kaplan and her sister Dora, both supposedly members of the Social Revolutionary Party. Lenin is only wounded, but the assassination attempt sets off a wave of reprisals by the Bolsheviks against the Social Revolutionaries and other political opponents. Thousands would be executed as Russia falls deeper into civil war.
Born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov in 1870, Lenin was drawn to the revolutionary cause after his brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III. He studied law and took up practice in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), where he associated with revolutionary Marxist circles. In 1895, he helped organize Marxist groups in the capital into the "Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class," which attempted to enlist workers to the Marxist cause. In December 1895, Lenin and the other leaders of the Union were arrested. Lenin was jailed for a year and then exiled to Siberia for a term of three years.
After the end of his exile, in 1900, Lenin went to Western Europe, where he continued his revolutionary activity. It was during this time that he adopted the pseudonym Lenin. In 1902, he published a pamphlet titled What Is to Be Done? which argued that only a disciplined party of professional revolutionaries could bring socialism to Russia. In 1903, he met with other Russian Marxists in London and established the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDWP). However, from the start there was a split between Lenin's Bolsheviks (Majoritarians), who advocated militarism, and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians), who advocated a democratic movement toward socialism. These two groups increasingly opposed each other within the framework of the RSDWP, and Lenin made the split official at a 1912 conference of the Bolshevik Party.
After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Lenin returned to Russia. The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in 1907 Lenin was again forced into exile.
Lenin opposed World War I, which began in 1914, as an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches. For Russia, World War I was an unprecedented disaster: Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and in March 1917 riots and strikes broke out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Demoralized army troops joined the strikers, and on March 15 Nicholas II was forced to abdicate, ending centuries of czarist rule. In the aftermath of the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar), power was shared between the ineffectual Provisional Government and the soviets, or "councils," of soldiers' and workers' committees.
After the outbreak of the February Revolution, German authorities allowed Lenin and his lieutenants to cross Germany en route from Switzerland to Sweden in a sealed railway car. Berlin hoped (correctly) that the return of the anti-war Socialists to Russia would undermine the Russian war effort, which was continuing under the Provisional Government. Lenin arrive in Petrograd on 16 April 1917 and called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government by the soviets, and he was condemned as a "German agent" by the government's leaders. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland, but his call for "peace, land, and bread" met with increasing popular support, and the Bolsheviks won a majority in the Petrograd soviet. In October, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd, and on November 7 the Bolshevik-led Red Guards deposed the Provisional Government and proclaimed soviet rule.
Lenin became the dictator of the world's first Marxist state. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry, and distributed land but beginning in 1918, had to fight a devastating civil war against czarist forces. In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and on 30 December 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established. Upon Lenin's death in early 1924, his body was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum near the Moscow Kremlin. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor. After a struggle of succession, fellow revolutionary Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin as dictator of the Soviet Union.
| 1916 Paul Von Hindenburg becomes chief-of-General-Staff
| 1904 Thomas Edison (11 Feb 1847 18 Oct 1931)
applies for a US patents for a Method and Apparatus for Making Sound-Records
(#970615), which would be granted to him on 20 September 1910.
1892 The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brings cholera to the United States.
1887 Thomas Edison receives one of his US patents for a system of electrical distribution (#369280) for which he had applied on 5 February 1880.
1885 13'000 meteors seen in 1 hour near Andromeda
1881 Thomas Edison applies for US patents for a dynamo~electric machine (#251537), an electric lamp (#251543), a system of electric lightning ( #251551), a webermeter ( #252558). They would be granted to him, under the numbers shown, on 27 December 1881. He applies also for patents on an electric chandelier (#263137), a Magneto or Dynamo Electric Machine (#263143), a vacuum apparatus (#263147) which would be granted to him on 22 August 1882. He applies also for patents on an incandescent electric lamp (#264657, one of his many), which would be granted to him on 19 September 1882; for electric~lighting systems (#439389) which would be granted to him on 28 October 1890.
1879 Thomas Alva Edison presenta su primer aparato telefónico, que superó el antiguo sistema de Felipe Heiss, perfeccionado por Alexander Graham Bell.
1878 Thomas Edison receives US patent # 203015, one of his several for speaking telegraphs. He had applied for it on 28 August 1877.
1862 Battle of 2nd Manassas Pope defeated by Lee.
1862 Battle of Altamont Confederates beat Union forces in Tennessee
1860 The first British tramway is inaugurated at Birkenhead by not-quite-aptly surnamed George Francis Train, of the US.
1850 Honolulu, Hawaii, becomes a city
1800 Executing a conspiracy conceived by Gabriel Prosser, more than 1000 armed slaves mass for a rebellion near Richmond, but are thwarted by a violent rainstorm. The slaves are forced to disband, and 35 would be hanged, including Gabriel.
1782 French fleet arrives in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution.
1757 Battle of Gross-Jaegersdorf: in the Seven Years War, Russians under General Apraksin defeat the Prussians force under von Lehwaldt.
1645 Dutch and Amerindians sign peace treaty.
1617 Rosa de Lima of Peru becomes the first American saint to be canonized.
0257 St Sixtus II begins his reign as Pope.
31 -BC- Origin of Era of Augustus.
| Deaths which
occurred on an 30 August: ^top^
2002 Rajaa Ibrahim, 18, Palestinian woman, killed late in the day by al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militants in Tulkarem, West Bank, who say that she planted a bomb given to her by Israeli secret services, which killed their local leader Raed Karmi on 13 January 2002.
2002 Paulo Roberto Freitas Tavares, pilot; Paulo Roberto Nascimento, co-pilot; Kátia Regina Figueiredo Barbosa, flight attendant; and passengers Ildefonço Cordeiro, 56; his wife Arlete Soares de Souza; Luís Marciel Costa; José Waldeir Rodrigues Gabriel; Francisco Darichen Campos; Maria de Fátima Soares de Oliveira; Walter Teixeira da Silva; Francisco Cândido da Silva; Ailton Rodrigues de Oliveira; Carina Matos de Pinho; José Edilberto Gomes de Souza; Maria Alessandra de Andrade Costa; Geane de Souza Lima; Rosimeire dos Santos Lobo; Raimundo Araújo Souza; Maria Raimunda Iraide Alves da Silva; Maria José Pessoa Miranda; João Alves de Melo; Rosângela Pimentel Cidade Figueira; Clenilda Nogueira; aboard a Brazilian-made Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia bimotor turboprop of Rico Linhas Aereas, which crashes at 18:30 in heavy rain and wind in Bujari, 1.5 km from the runway at Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, where it was about to land. The flight originated from Cruzeiro do Sul. Cordeiro was a Congressman of the centrist Social Democratic Party of Brazil (PSDB). The 8 survivors, who are injured, were in the rear of the plane. They are: Maria Célia Rocha (advogada médica, grave), João Gaspar (empresário e candidato a deputado estadual, grave), Napoleão Silva, Racene Cameli, Teodorico Melo Neto (empresario), Maria de Fátima Almeida,Maria José Albuquerque, Luiz Wanderlei Silva.
2002 Tadayoshi Saito and all other 13 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a small An-28 plane which crashes 3 km south-west of Ayan, Russia, on the Okhotsk Sea, while attempted to land there in heavy fog, proceeding from Khabarovsk, 827 km to the south. Two children, ages 8 and 12, are among the dead. Saito was Japanese.
1991 Jean Tinguely, escultor kinético y pintor suizo que nació el 22 de mayo de 1925. Swiss sculptor and experimental artist, noted for his machinelike kinetic sculptures that destroyed themselves in the course of their operation. LINKS
1986 Urho Kaleva Kekkonen, ex presidente de Finlandia.
1981 Mohammad Ali Rajai and Mohammad Javad Bahonar president and prime minister of Iran, assassinated with a bomb. El presidente y el primer ministro de Irán, Alí Rayai y Mohamed Bahonar, respectivamente, mueren al estallar una bomba en la sede de la jefatura del Gobierno en Teherán.
1974: 153 persons as express train runs full speed into Zagreb, Yugoslavia, rail yard.
1967 Ad[olph Frederick] Reinhardt, US Abstract Expressionist / Minimalist painter, born on 24 December 1913. LINKS .
1935 Henri Barbusse, French author. BARBUSSE ONLINE: (in English translation): Under Fire: The Story of a Squad
1932 Emma Wolf, author. EMMA WOLF ONLINE: Other Things Being Equal
1930 William H Taft 27th US President
1928 Franz von Stuck, German Symbolist / Expressionist painter, sculptor, engraver and architect, born on 23 February 1863. MORE ABOUT STUCK AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Sensuality The Murderer Sin The Kiss of the Sphinx Franz and Mary Stuck as a God and Goddess The Kiss of the Sphinx Boy Bacchus Riding on a Panther Pietà Fighting Fauns Innocence The Guardian of Paradise Wild Chase
1928 Wien, mathematician.
1895 Ely Samuel Parker, 67, Iroquois chief (Hasanoanda) and Union officer. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white man's world at large. Through the Civil War and Reconstruction he strove to serve both worlds as best he could. Collaborated with anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan in the research for League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois (1851)
1888: 1070 grouse, killed by Lord Walsingham in a single day
1885 Joseph Alden, author. ALDEN ONLINE: Alden's Citizen's Manual: A Text-Book on Government, For Common Schools, A Text-Book of Ethics for Union Schools and Bible Classes
1883 Más de 30'000 personas en Java y otras islas del archipiélago de la Sonda al abrirse 16 nuevos volcanes que hundieron en el mar islas enteras.
1813 Over 500 whites massacred by Creek Indians, at Fort Mims Alabama.
1483 Louis XI, 60, king of France (1461-83)
| Births which occurred on an 30 August:
1930 Warren Buffett author (The Midas Touch)
1918 Leonor Fini, Italian artist who died in 1996.
1913 John Richard Nicholas Stone, británico, Premio Nobel de Economía.
1906 Taussky-Todd, mathematician
1901 Roy Wilkins, civil rights leader: Executive Director of NAACP
1901 John Gunther Chicago Ill, author/host (John Gunther's High Road)
1896 Raymond Massey, (The President's Plane is Missing, McKenna's Gold, How the West was Won. The Great Impostor, Battle Cry, The Naked and the Dead, East of Eden, Abe Lincoln in Illinois, Dr. Kildare)
1893 Huey Pierce Long Winn Parish La, Louisiana Democrat who served as governor and US senator, known as "The Kingfish."
1891 Jacques Lipchitz, Lithuanian~French cubist sculptor who died on 27 May 1973. LINKS
1884 Theodor Svedberg Sweden, chemist, worked with colloids (Nobel '26)
1883 (or 03 August?) Christian Emil Marie Küpper Theo Van Doesburg, Dutch Neoplasticist painter, decorator, poet, and art theorist, a leader of the de Stijl movement, who died on 07 March 1931. MORE ABOUT KÜPPER AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Composition XI Composition XXII Countercomposition Simultaneous Countercomposition Composition in Gray (Rag-time) (Contra-Compositie XIII)
1881 Agustín González de Amezua, escritor español.
1879 Llewellyn Lloyd, Italian [?!] artist who died in 1950.
1871 Ernest Lord Rutherford, England, physicist who discovered and named alpha, beta and gamma radiation and was the first to achieve a man-made nuclear reaction. físico neozelandés.
1870 Maria Montessori (educator: The Montessori School)
1856 Carle Runge Runge worked on a procedure for the numerical solution of algebraic equations and later studied the wavelengths of the spectral lines of elements.
1852 Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff Neth, physical chemist (Nobel 1901)
1852 Julian Alden Weir, US painter who died on 08 December 1919. MORE ABOUT WEIR AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Alex Webb Weir The Muse of Music Landscape Lady with a Mandolin — 51 prints at FAMSF The Oldest Inhabitant
1828 (or 1831) Pierre Henri Théodore Tetart van Elven, Dutch artist who died on 5 January 1908.
1819 Serret, mathematician
1811 Théophile Gautier, periodista, poeta y novelista francés.
1748 Jacques-Louis David, French Neoclassical painter, specialized in Historical Subjects, who died on 29 December 1825. MORE ABOUT DAVID AT ART 4 2~DAY LINKS Laure-Emilie-Felicité David, La Baronne Meunier La Bonne Aventure Napoléon in His Study Madame Seriziat with toddler Self Portrait La Mort de Marat Le Serment du Jeu de Paume Paris et Hélène Monsieur et Madame Lavoisier La Mort de Socrate Le Serment des Horaces Andromache Mourning Hector Alphonse Leroy The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons Madame Récamier The Sabine Women Enforcing Peace by Running Between the Combatants The Battle Between Mars and Minerva
1735 Thomas-Germain-Joseph Duvivier, French artist who died on 04 April 1814.
1734 Gaetano Gandolfi, Italian artist who died on 30 June 1802. LINKS
1589 Abraham Govaerts, Flemish artist who died on 9 September 1626. LINKS
1334 Pedro I, llamado "el Cruel", rey de Castilla y León.