a December 08:
2002 Presidential election in Serbia. Vojislav Kostunica [photo >] gets most votes, as he did did in the 13 October 2000 runoff election, but, again, the election is declared invalid because less than 50% of eligible voters cast a ballot (44% this time). Again Kostunica would unsuccessfully challenge that, alleging fraud by the partisans of his rival, former ally in the overthrow of Milosevic, Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic.Kostunica, a moderate nationalist with pro-democratic views who advocates cautious reforms, gets 58% of today's votes, in which his opponents are two extremists: Vojislav Seselj (36% of the votes) of the ultranationalist Serbian Radical Party — an ally of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein; and Borislav Pelevic of the Serbian Unity Party (3.4% of the votes), founded by late Serb warlord Zeljko Raznatovic, better known as Arkan. Kostunica’s current position as President of Yugoslavia, now reduced to Serbia and Montenegro, is soon to disappear as the two republics split, while maintaining a loose union still called Yugoslavia. Slow economic and social reforms, scandals and perpetual power struggles between Kostunica and Djindjic have disillusioned Serbs, who are more concerned with their low living standards and high unemployment. A new president of Serbia was supposed to succeed Milan Milutinovic, whose term ends in January. The law being unclear as to what to do after this second failed election, Milutinovic is likely to be replaced temporarily by Serbian parliament speaker Natasa Micic. Milutinovic was indicted by the UN tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, along with Milosevic for war crimes in Kosovo and likely faces extradition once his mandate expires. Djindjic will try to get the election law changed so as to get one of his buddies elected President by parliament. Djindjic, however, has hinted he wants to change the election law, and install an ally of his own to the post of president by changing the law to allow presidential elections by parliament. To bring down Djindjic’s government in the Serbian parliament, Kostunica would have to make an alliance with Milosevic’s followers.
2001 Last probable sighting of Osama bin Laden by outsiders, villagers of Tangi, Afghanistan, close to the Pakistan border near the Tora Bora region, shortly before the end of two weeks of intensive bombing of caves by the US (which failed to secure all escape routes, for fear of casualties). They say he was on horseback with 20 other Arabs, on his way to Pakistan.
2000 A divided Florida Supreme Court ordered, four to three, an immediate hand count of about 45'000 disputed ballots and put Democrat Al Gore within 154 votes of George W. Bush in the state's lingering presidential contest.
2000 In the series of US 25 cent coins commemorating each state's entry into the union, it is the turn of New York. Its quarter features the Statue of Liberty and the Erie Canal.
1999 NASA announces that it has all but given hope that the Mars Polar Lander is not lost.
1997 The Union Bank of Switzerland and the Swiss Bank Corp. announce plans to merge, creating the world's second largest bank with assets of some $600 billion.
1997 Jenny Shipley is sworn in as the first woman prime minister of New Zealand.
1996 The Serbian Supreme Court ruled against opposition parties who said Slobodan Milosevic had robbed them of an election victory in Belgrade.
| 1987 Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories
start "intifadah" (uprising) against Israel
1987 President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty which provides for the dismantling of all US and Soviet missiles with ranges of 480 to 5500 km
1981 In one of its major rulings regarding the issue of the separation of Church and State, the US Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of student organizations holding religious services at public colleges and universities.
1981 Mitsubishi Motors, of the huge Mitsubishi conglomerate of Japan, begins selling cars in the US under its own name. Previously, it had done business in the US only in partnerships with American automakers.
1979 The Oneida Nation files suit in an effort to regain control of the over one million hectares taken by New York state.
1966 The United States and the Soviet Union sign a treaty to prohibit nuclear weapons in outer space.
| 1963 3 fuel tanks explode when jetliner is struck by
lightning crashing near Elkton, Maryland. Only case of lightning caused
1952 Hundreds of persons in London, choked by the Great Killer Fog which settled on 05 December and fed by intensified millions of home coal fires, as the temperature drops, has only gotten worse.
1943 Le général De Gaulle, qui préside à Alger le Comité français de libération nationale, prévient de son intention de reconquérir l'Indochine après la défaite de Hitler et de son allié japonais. Dépités, les résistants vietnamiens se préparent à de nouvelles luttes.
1944 The United States conducts the longest, most effective air raid on the Pacific island of Iwo Jima.
1941 Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita begins his attack against the British army at Singapore.
1931 Coaxial cable patented
1929 Ship-to-shore mobile telephone commercial service is initiated as the president of AT&T in New York City called the SS Leviathan at sea. Later that day, an advertising executive calls a passenger aboard the ship, in the first-ever private ship-to-shore call. Calls cost between $7 and $11 per minute.
1920 President Woodrow Wilson declines to send a representative to the League of Nations in Geneva.
1902Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. is named Associate Justice on the US Supreme Court.
1896 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of Missing 3 Quarter
1886 The American Federation of Labor (AFL) is founded at a convention of union leaders in Columbus, Ohio, with Samuel Gompers elected the first president.
1861 CSS Sumter seizes Northern whaler Eben Dodge in mid-Atlantic. The American Civil War is now affecting the Northern whaling industry.
1860 Angered by Abraham Lincoln's election to the residency, Howell Cobb resigns as Secretary of the Treasury. The politician from Georgia then becomes a leader in the Confederacy movement and later serves as a major general in the rebel army.
1854 Pope Pius IX defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in his apostolic letter, Ineffabilis Deus. It asserted that by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, Mary was freed from original sin "in the first instant of conception.
1776 George Washington's retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania. [Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's 1851 painting of [Washington Crossing the Delaware, in the other direction to attack the Hessians at Trenton on 25 December 1776].
1630 John Williams embarks secretly on a ship bound for American, hoping to escape the persecution that has plagued him in England. Persecuted also in the New World, he flees into Indian territory, purchases land, and founds Providence, later to become the capital of the state Rhode Island.
which occurred on a December 08:
| 1939 Jean Grave, French anarchist, author of La
société mourante et l'anarchie (1892), for which he was sentenced to
two years in prison, and Mouvement libertaire sous la IIIe république.
1919 Julian Alden Weir, painter, etcher and lithographer; born on 30 August 1852, one of earliest US impressionists. MORE ON WEIR AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1914 German cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Liepzig, sunk by a British force in the Battle of the Falkland Islands.
1910 Jean-Baptiste Robie, Belgian artist born on 21 November 1821.
1894 Pafnuty Chebyshev, mathematician.
1881 Some 640 to 850 people in fire and stampede at Vienna's Ring Theater, started when a lamplighter brushes the scenery on the stage.
1859 Thomas De Quincey, 74, at Lasswade, near Edinburgh, author of Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. / http://wsrv.clas.virginia.edu/~bpn2f/opium.htm / http://nepenthes.lycaeum.org/Ludlow/People/deq.html http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/dequinc1.htm / http://www.who2.com/thomasdequincey.html
1818 Friedrich-Heinrich Füger, Austrian painter born on 05 November 1751. MORE ON FÜGER AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1681 Gerard Ter Borch II, Dutch painter born in 1617. MORE ON TER BORCH AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1596 Luis de Carvajal, and his mother and sisters, Mexican Jews, burned at the stake.
1292 John Pecham, Archbishop of Canterbury and science popularizer.
| Births which
occurred on a December 08:
1922 Lucian Freud Berlin German artist. MORE ON FREUD AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1919 Julia Robinson, mathematician.
1913 Delmore Schwartz US, poet/short story writer/critic (Shenandoah)
1908 John Volpe (Gov-Mass)/US Secretary of Treasury (1969-73)
1906 Richard Llewellyn Wales, novelist (How Green Was My Valley)
1902 Wilfredo Lam, Cuban artist who died in 1982. — more with links to images.
1889 William Hervey Allen Jr., in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,.poet, biographer, and novelist who had a great impact on popular literature with his historical novel Anthony Adverse, a rambling work set in Europe, Africa, & the Americas during the Napoleonic era. Allen died on 28 December 1949.
1883 Lugwig Berwald, mathematician.
1882 Manuel Maria Ponce Fresnillo Mexico, composer (Estrellita)
1881 Padraic Colum Irish poet / novelist (Collected Poems). COLUM ONLINE: The Boy Who Knew What the Birds Said, The Golden Fleece and the Heroes Who Lived Before Achilles
1881 Albert Gleizes, French artist who died on 24 June 1953. — more with link to images.
1858 Vincenzo Migliaro, Italian artist who died in 1938.
1851 Claude Emile Schuffenecker, French artist who died in August 1934.
1850 Luigi Nono, Italian artist who died on 17 October 1918.
1861 William Crapo Durant, who would found General Motors.
1861 Georges Méliès, à Paris. Magicien, il va découvrir le cinéma inventé par les frères Lumière et fera de cette attraction de foire un Septième Art.
1832 Björnstjerne Björnson Norway, novelist (Nobel--1903).BJORNSON ONLINE: A Happy Boy.
1828 Joseph Dietzgen, near Cologne, Germany. Important socialist theorist whose writings exerted considerable influence on the workers' movement. Wrote The Nature of Human Brain-Work (1869). He said: "While the anarchists may have mad & brainless individuals in their ranks, the socialists have an abundance of cowards. For this reason I care as much for one as the other.
1826 Silvestro Lega, Italian painter who died on 21 September (21 Nov?) 1895 MORE ON LEGA AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
| 1815 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel,
German Realist painter who died on 09 February 1905. — more
with links to images.
1765 Eli Whitney, inventor: cotton gin and uniformity method of musket manufacturing: beginning of mass production.
1708 Francis I Holy Roman emperor (1745-1765)
1632 Albert Girard, mathematician.
1632 Lansberge, mathematician.
1626 Christina queen of Sweden (1644-54)who abdicated after becoming Catholic
1614 (baptism) Gonzales Coques, Flemish painter specialized in portraits, who died on 18 April 1684. MORE ON COQUES AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1587 Marten Ryckaert, Flemish artist who died on 11 October 1631. — LINKS