|On a December
2002 At the Los Alamos National Laboratory John C. Browne, director since November 1997, and Joseph Salgado, principal deputy director, resign effective on 06 January 2003, accused of mismanagement resulting in equipment disappearing, official credit cards used for personal expenses, and coverup, including the November 2002 firing of internal investigators Glenn Walp and Steven Doran.
1991 Germany recognizes Croatia and Slovenia as independent countries.
1990 Slovenians vote to secede from Yugoslavia
|1987 Québec a 16 nouvelles
Le gouvernement du Québec décide le partage du territoire provincial en seize nouvelles régions administratives, afin de permettre un rééquilibrage. Mais cela ne peut empêcher que les trois régions de Montérégie, Montréal et Québec rassemblent 52,5% des habitants et affirment un poids économique qu’il est vain d’espérer contrebalancer. Un rapide survol de ces seize régions permet de mieux cerner forces et faiblesses.
La région Abitibi-Témiscamingue, mitoyen de l’Ontario, est le pays de l’or, du cuivre et du bois, au nord-ouest de l’Outaouais. Alors que l’Abitibi est une vaste plaine argileuse (clay belt ) légèrement inclinée vers la baie d’Hudson, le Témiscamingue forme une longue dépression bordant le lac homonyme. Val-d’Or et Rouyn-Noranda sont nés de l’exploitation des gisements miniers.
Le Bas-Saint-Laurent est formé en son centre par les Appalaches, mais les altitudes demeurent modestes. Forêts, tourbières et vastes battures sont la trilogie du paysage naturel. Il s’agit d’une région en difficulté, à l’économie peu performante.
La région Chaudière-Appalaches (encore appelée Québec-Sud) est connue pour être le pays des érablières. Appalaches et plaine de Beauce se partagent l’espace. L’extraction de l’amiante, autour de Thetford Mines, est de loin la principale source de revenus.
La Côte-Nord, s’identifiant au Nord-Est québécois, est le pays de la forêt, du fer et de l’énergie hydroélectrique. Baie-Comeau et Sept-Îles y concentrent l’essentiel de l’activité économique. Mais la région est victime de son éloignement.
L’Estrie correspond à la région la plus appalachienne du Québec. Vaste plateau, elle a été fortement marquée par les loyalistes. Aujourd’hui, Sherbrooke commande un arrière-pays riche autant par son agriculture que par les ressources de son sous-sol.
La Gaspésie, tout à l’est, est une vaste péninsule, fière de porter le point culminant de la province, le mont Jacques-Cartier (1 248 m). Éloignée, c’est aussi une région en difficulté, en dépit des ressources minières et d’un tourisme prometteur.
La région de Lanaudière s’étend des rives du Saint-Laurent au cœur de la Mauricie, mais la vie économique se concentre sur les basses terres en bordure du fleuve. On y note le plus fort taux de croissance de la population entre 1981 et 1991, par suite du débordement de Montréal.
Les Laurentides sont par excellence le domaine des lacs, des rivières et de la forêt omniprésente. Le relief est peu accidenté et les altitudes faibles, mais la nature se prête à la pratique des sports de plein air, le ski surtout. Ici également, la proximité de Montréal se fait de plus en plus sentir.
Laval, la plus petite région administrative québécoise, n’a que 245 kilomètres carrés. Après Montréal, elle se classe pourtant à la deuxième place pour la population. C’est surtout un espace résidentiel et dévolu aux activités commerciales.
La région Mauricie - Bois-Francs est souvent appelée le " cœur " du Québec car elle s’étend de part et d’autre du Saint-Laurent. C’est le domaine de riches terres agricoles mais aussi d’industries prospères autour de Trois-Rivières et Bécancour.
La Montérégie est partagée entre les premières pentes des Appalaches et la plaine de Montréal. C’est avant tout la banlieue sud-est de Montréal. L’économie y est diversifiée et la ville principale, Longueil, est en pleine expansion.
L’île de Montréal est un territoire très densément peuplé et occupé en son entier. Tout autour du mont Royal, sur 1% de la superficie de la province vit plus du quart de sa population. S’y trouve la deuxième métropole canadienne après Toronto.
Le nord du Québec est le pays du froid et de la toundra, en même temps que celui de la prometteuse baie de James. Sur une superficie supérieure à la moitié de la province vit à peine 1% de la population.
L’Outaouais, en plein Bouclier, doit une grande partie de sa richesse à l’exploitation des forêts. Mais le voisinage de la capitale fédérale, Ottawa, influence de plus en plus le développement.
La région de Québec, autour de la capitale provinciale, est particulièrement variée. Outre la fonction administrative et la présence de l’industrie, le tourisme y connaît un essor, entre autres dans le comté de Charlevoix.
Enfin, la région Saguenay-lac Saint-Jean voit la majeure partie des habitants se regrouper entre La Baie et Jonquière. L’hydroélectricité et la fabrication d’alumine sont les deux piliers de l’économie.
La palette offerte par ces seize régions administratives est loin de traduire la réalité géographique du découpage régional contemporain du Québec. Le vrai partage de l’espace s’effectue entre un heartland et un hinterland . La centralité s’identifie à la linéarité du corridor laurentien bien homogène, alors que la périphérie est très étendue en direction du nord. Ce qui doit être avant tout souligné, c’est l’extraordinaire complémentarité des composantes de ce binôme heartland-hinterland. Exprimé autrement, c’est tout ce que peut représenter le Bouclier pour le Québec : gigantesque réserve de ressources du sol et du sous-sol, renouvelables ou non, il est la pièce essentielle du développement contemporain et futur, une sorte de coffre-fort géant recelant la matière première à utiliser durant plusieurs millénaires.
L’ouverture économique que procure au Québec l’A.L.E.N.A. ne peut que conforter la province dans ses aspirations, alors que les mutations profondes de sa géopolitique la placent à la croisée des chemins.
1973 6 Persian Gulf nations double their oil prices
1972 Earthquake destroys central Managua, Nicaragua
1953 Après 13 tours de scrutin du Congrès, qui est la réunion de la Chambre et du Sénat, René Coty, 71 ans, est élu président de la République française, par 477 voix contre 329 au socialiste Marcel Naegelen. Il prend la succession de Vincent Auriol.
1950 Pope Pius XII declared that the tomb of St. Peter had been discovered beneath St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
1947 Transistor invented by Bardeen, Brattain & Shockley in Bell Labs
1947 President Harry S Truman grants a pardon to 1523 who had evaded the World War II draft.
1945 General Dwight D. Eisenhower confirms the death sentence of Private Eddie Slovik, the only American shot for desertion since the Civil War.
1941 While the Military Strikes, Workers Won't A conference of industry and labor officials agrees that there would be no strikes or lockouts in war industries while World War II continued.
1940 Chiang Kai-shek dissolves all Communist associations in China.
1939 The first Canadian troops for WW II arrive in Britain.
1937 London warns Rome to stop anti-British propaganda in Palestine.
1933 Pope Pius XI condemns the Nazi sterilization program.
1920 Ireland divided into 2 parts, each with its own parliament
1919 Great Britain gives a new constitution to India.
|1912 Magazine rejects Proust's À
la Recherche du Temps Perdu
The Parisian literary review, La Nouvelle Revue Francaise, rejects an excerpt from Remembrance of Things Past by Marcel Proust, 41.When complete, the seven-volume novel will profoundly influence the development of the modern novel.
Marcel Proust was the first of two sons born to a well-to-do Parisian family in 1871. His father was a prominent doctor and professor of medicine from a Catholic family, and his mother was a highly educated, sensitive woman whose family was Jewish.
Proust developed asthma as a child and spent holidays at the seaside for his health. He became a great student. After graduating with honors from high school, he attended the Ecole des Science Politiques. Despite his asthma, he was able to perform his required year of military service in Orleans.
Back in Paris, Proust associated with many young writers and artists, and his social connections landed him invitations to most of Paris' most exclusive literary and artistic salons. He published a collection of stories called Les Plaisirs et les jours in 1898. He became an active supporter of unjustly imprisoned Jewish soldier Alfred Dreyfus during the Dreyfus Affair (1897-1899).
Proust's asthma became more severe in the early 1900s, about the same time that both his parents died. He moved into a pollen-proof, cork-lined room at 102 Boulevard de Haussman in Paris, where he lived for the next 13 years, rarely emerging except for late-night dinner parties with friends. There, he began writing his masterpiece, À La Recherche du Temps Perdu, in 1909. The first volume, Du Côté de Chez Swann, was finished in 1912, but was rejected not only by magazines for excerpt, but also by publishers. Proust published it at his own expense in 1913. The book was a success, but World War I postponed the publication of the novel's further volumes. In 1919, À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs was published, followed by Le Côté de Guermantes in 1921 and Sodome et Gomorrhe in 1922. The remaining three volumes, La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), and Le Temps retrouvé (1927)(PROUST ONLINE:), were published after Proust's death in Paris in 1922. Together, the books present an elaborate psychological study of time and identity, and deeply influenced the works of later European novelists.
À la recherche du temps perdu is the story of Proust's own life, told as an allegorical search for truth. At first, the only childhood memory available to the middle-aged narrator is the evening of a visit from the family friend, Swann, when the child forced his mother to give him the goodnight kiss that she had refused. But, through the accidental tasting of tea and a madeleine cake, the narrator retrieves from his unconscious memory the landscape and people of his boyhood holidays in the village of Combray. In an ominous digression on love and jealousy, the reader learns of the unhappy passion of Swann (a Jewish dilettante received in high society) for the courtesan Odette, whom he had met in the bourgeois salon of the Verdurins during the years before the narrator's birth. As an adolescent the narrator falls in love with Gilberte (the daughter of Swann and Odette) in the Champs-Élysées. During a seaside holiday at Balbec, he meets the handsome young nobleman Saint-Loup, Saint-Loup's strange uncle the Baron de Charlus, and a band of young girls led by Albertine. He falls in love with the Duchesse de Guermantes but, after an autumnal visit to Saint-Loup's garrison-town Doncières, is cured when he meets her in society. As he travels through the Guermantes's world, its apparent poetry and intelligence is dispersed and its real vanity and sterility revealed. Charlus is discovered to be homosexual, pursuing the elderly tailor Jupien and the young violinist Morel, and the vices of Sodom and Gomorrah henceforth proliferate through the novel. On a second visit to Balbec the narrator suspects Albertine of loving women, carries her back to Paris, and keeps her captive. He witnesses the tragic betrayal of Charlus by the Verdurins and Morel; his own jealous passion is only intensified by the flight and death of Albertine. When he attains oblivion of his love, time is lost; beauty and meaning have faded from all he ever pursued and won; and he renounces the book he has always hoped to write. A long absence in a sanatorium is interrupted by a wartime visit to Paris, bombarded like Pompeii or Sodom from the skies. Charlus, disintegrated by his vice, is seen in Jupien's infernal brothel, and Saint-Loup, married to Gilberte and turned homosexual, dies heroically in battle. After the war, at the Princesse de Guermantes's afternoon reception, the narrator becomes aware, through a series of incidents of unconscious memory, that all the beauty he has experienced in the past is eternally alive. Time is regained, and he sets to work, racing against death, to write the very novel the reader has just experienced.
Proust's novel has a circular construction and must be considered in the light of the revelation with which it ends. The author reinstates the extratemporal values of time regained, his subject being salvation. Other patterns of redemption are shown in counterpoint to the main theme: the narrator's parents are saved by their natural goodness, great artists (the novelist Bergotte, the painter Elstir, the composer Vinteuil) through the vision of their art, Swann through suffering in love, and even Charlus through the Lear-like grandeur of his fall. Proust's novel is, ultimately, both optimistic and set in the context of human religious experience. I realized that the materials of my work consisted of my own past," says the narrator at the moment of time regained. An important quality in the understanding of À La Recherche du Temps Perdu lies in its meaning for Proust himself as the allegorical story of his own life, from which its events, places, and characters are taken. In his quest for time lost, he invented nothing but altered everything, selecting, fusing, and transmuting the facts so that their underlying unity and universal significance should be revealed, working inward to himself and outward to every aspect of the human condition.
Proust projected his own homosexuality upon his characters, treating this, as well as snobbism, vanity, and cruelty, as a major symbol of original sin. His insight into women and the love of men for women (which he himself experienced for the many female originals of his heroines) remained unimpaired, and he is among the greatest novelists in the fields of both heterosexual and homosexual love.
Taking as raw material the author's past life, À la recherche du temps perdu is ostensibly about the irrecoverability of time lost, about the forfeiture of innocence through experience, the emptiness of love and friendship, the vanity of human endeavour, and the triumph of sin and despair; but Proust's conclusion is that the life of every day is supremely important, full of moral joy and beauty, which, though man may lose them through faults inherent in human nature, are indestructible and recoverable. Proust's style is one of the most original in all literature and is unique in its union of speed and protraction, precision and iridescence, force and enchantment, classicism and symbolism.
Citations de À la recherche du temps perdu http://perso.wanadoo.fr/proust/proust/tout.htm
1863 Fight at Culpeper Court House, Virginia
1783 George Washington returns home to Mount Vernon, after the disbanding of his army and his resignation as US Army's commander-in-chief, following the US War of Independence.
1776 Continental Congress negotiates a war loan of $181'500 from France.
1690 John Flamsteed observes Uranus without realizing it's undiscovered.
0619 Boniface V is consecrated Pope. He would establish the see of Canterbury in England and be known for his love of the clergy and mild disposition.
which occurred on a December 23:
2003 An Iraqi driver, shot by US soldiers, shortly before midnight, after he failed to stop at the checkpoint they are manning in Mosul, Iraq.
2003 An Iraqi policemen, by gunmen who attack the patrol of which he is part, in the evening in Mosul, Iraq. Three policemen are wounded.
2003 Three Sunni Muslims shot on their way to a mosque in the densely populated old district Washash in Baghdad, Iraq. Relatives accuse a Shiite militia of the assassinations. In Saddam Hussein's Iraq, the 10 million Sunnis lorded it over the 15 million Shiites, who now tend to vent their resentment.
2003 Mohammed Ajeel, shot by US soldiers as he approaches the Mosul, Iraq, house of sheik Ghazi Hanash, leader of al-Ta'ee tribe, being raided by the soldiers, who terrified the only people there, women, who called their cousin, Ajeel, for help. Hanash, suspected of assisting former Vice President Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri in organizing resistance against the US occupation, is arrested the same day at his apartment in Baghdad along with a son and two aides.
2003 Dale Gross, 34; Leigha Gross, 10; Cally Gross, 4; Katlin Cavanaugh, 7 weeks; Jerry Knight, 9; and his uncle Donald Knight, 43, who, passing by, saw the house on fire in which the others were trapped and ran in to try and rescue them, at 04:00, in Canton, Ohio.
2003 Ahmed Majar, 32; Ala Bakhloul; 23; and six other Palestinians, early in the day, by Israeli attack, including 40 tanks and armored vehicles, on the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip. Majar, shot in the head, was a policeman heading to his job at the Rafah border crossing with Egypt. Bakhloul, shot twice in the abdomen, was one of the five militants killed. 42 other persons, including 9 children, are wounded.
2003 Some 200 persons, poisoned by hydrogen sulfide gas, denser than air, spreading into an area of 25 square kilometers after escaping due to an explosion in a natural gas well in the Chuandonghei gas field near Gaogiao town, Kaiaxian county, China, of the China National Petroleum Company. More than 9000 persons are injured, of which dozens die in the succeeding days, while the gas, though set on fire 24 hours later, continues to escape until the well is capped on 27 December 2003. Most farm and wild animals in the area die. Some 40'000 persons are evacuated from the area.
2002 All aboard a Ukrainian An-140 plane, including 46 scientists, as the plane crashes while preparing to land near Isfahan, Iran.
2000 Kazuhiro Sugiyama, 57, at about 11:45 in Shimizu, Shizuoka Prefecture, stabbed in the chest with a kitchen knife by a 14-year-old second-year middle school emotionally disturbed boy, apartment building neighbor, whose father often drunkely quarreled with Sugiyama, who lived alone.
1989 Richard Rado, mathematician.
1953 Lavrenti P. Beria soviet minister of internal security, and six of his associates, shot for treason following a secret trial.
1950 General Walton H. Walker, the commander of the Eighth Army in Korea, is killed in a jeep accident. Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgeway is named his successor.
1948 Hideki Tojo Japan PM & 6 other Japanese hanged by US for war crimes by US.
1912 Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Détaille, French Parisian Academic painter born on 05 October 1848. MORE ON DÉTAILLE AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1909 King Leopold II of Belgium
1890 Edward Sang, mathematician.
1840 Jean-Pierre-Henri Elouis, French artist born on 20 January 1755.
1722 Varignon, mathematician.
1615 Bartolomeo Schedoni (or Schidone), Italian painter and draftsman born on 23 January 1578. MORE ON SCHEDONI AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
| Births which
occurred on a December 23:
1974 The B-1 bomber makes its first successful test flight.
1933 Akihito (Emperor of Japan)
1926 Robert Bly US, poet/editor/translator (Loving a Woman in 2 Worlds)
1918 Helmut Schmidt Chancellor of Germany (1974- )
1908 Yousuf Karsh portrait photographer (Life Magazine)
1896 Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa Sicilian writer (Der Leopard)
1891 (23 Nov Julian) Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rodchenko, Russian painter, sculptor, designer, and photographer, who died on 04 (03?) December 1956. — more with links to images.
1880 The Edison Electric Light Company of Europe is incorporated by Thomas Edison.
1872 Pfeiffer, mathematician.
1870 John Marin, US painter and printmaker who died on 02 (01?) October 1953. MORE ON MARIN AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1867 Shlomo Zalman Dov “Boris Schatz”, Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine, who died on 23 (22?) March 1932. — more
1858 Andrea Tavernier, Italian artist who died on 15 November 1932.
1841 Handley C.G. Moule, Anglican theologian. He succeeded B.F. Westcott in 1901 as Bishop of Durham. A profound scholar, he could nevertheless speak and write for ordinary people, and published commentaries on nearly all of Paul's letters in the New Testament.
1834 The Hansom Cab is patented by Joseph Hansom. -- Dépôt du brevet d'un nouveau type de cabriolet, le "Hansom Cab". Cette invention de l'architecte nommé Joseph Hansom, fut l'un des plus grands succès du monde. En effet, cette voiture à cheval et à deux roues sera construite à des millions d'exemplaires au XIX ème siècle.
1823 A Visit from St. Nicholas, poem now attributed to Clement C. Moore (" 'Twas the night before Christmas...") is published in The Troy Sentinel (Troy NY). [research on early editions putting in doubt the Moore authorship of the 1823 version]
1812 Samuel Smiles Scotland, a writer who was all Smiles. SMILES ONLINE: Character -- Industrial Biography: Iron-Workers and Tool-Makers -- Jasmin: Barber, Poet, Philanthropist -- The Life of Thomas Telford, Civil Engineer, with an Introductory History of Roads and Travelling in Great Britain -- Men of Invention and Industry -- Self-Help: With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance
1805 Joseph Smith Jr Sharon Vt, would found Mormon church
1804 Charles-Augustin de Sainte-Beuve France, SAINTE-BEUVE ONLINE: Port-Royal. tome 1 tome 2 tome 3 tome 4 tome 5 -- Les cahiers -- Tableau de la poésie française au XVIe siècle. Tome premier Tome second -- La chaumière indienne
1790 Jean-François Champollion. In 1822 he successfully decoded the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone (uncovered in 1799), and is recognized today as the founder of modern Egyptology.
1777 Alexander I Tsar of Russia (1801-25)
1732 Sir Richard Arkwright inventor (spinning frame).
1727 Pieter Jan van Liender, Dutch artist who died on 26 November 1779.
1648 Robert Barclay, Scottish Quaker theologian. He published his most famous work, An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, in 1676, making him the most prominent theologian in the early Quaker Church.
1597 Martin Opitz Germany, poet "Father of Modern German Poetry"