Luke 2:1-20 (13 versions in English) In those days Cæsar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world. (This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.) And everyone went to his own town to register.
So Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to Bethlehem the town of David, because he belonged to the house and line of David. He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child.
While they were there, the time came for the baby to be born, and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.
And there were shepherds living out in the fields nearby, keeping watch over their flocks at night. An angel of the Lord appeared to them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. But the angel said to them, Do not be afraid. I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people. Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord. This will be a sign to you: You will find a baby wrapped in cloths and lying in a manger.
Suddenly a great company of the heavenly host appeared with the angel, praising God and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men on whom his favor rests.
When the angels had left them and gone into heaven, the shepherds said to one another, Let's go to Bethlehem and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has told us about. So they hurried off and found Mary and Joseph, and the baby, who was lying in the manger.
When they had seen him, they spread the word concerning what had been told them about this child, and all who heard it were amazed at what the shepherds said to them. But Mary treasured up all these things and pondered them in her heart. The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things they had heard and seen, which were just as they had been told.
The Christmas that went BOOM!!!
Not a date, but an island.
Jesus in History Links
In what year was Jesus Christ born?
What seems to be well established is that:
1. he was born, and:
2. that it was not 2000 years ago in the year 1 on 25 December, nor 2001 years ago, but a few years more than 2000 years ago. One line of reasoning places the birth of Jesus of Nazareth not prior to 6 BC and no later than Spring of 4 BC:
a December 25:
2307 Solar eclipse, the first one on this date since 2000.
2002 The twice-weekly Powerball lottery jackpot (tickets sold in 23 US states, DC, and the Virgin Islands) is announced to reach $314.9, a deceptive figure since it would be payed in 30 yearly instalments. Instead the winner or winners may choose a lump sum payment of $170 before takes, $111 after. Then the drawing comes up with the winning numbers 5-14-16-29-53 and Powerball 7. There is a single winner, but he realizes it only on 26 December. He is Andrew Jackson Whittaker Jr., 55 [photo >], a contractor from Scott Depot, West Virginia, who chooses the lump sum payment. He had bought $100 of tickets.
2001 Russian interior forces, special services, the military commandant office, the police, and puppet Chechen law enforcement agencies, blockade the village of Chechen-Aul in the Grozny rural of Chechnya and search all houses and other buildings for Chechen resistance fighters, weapons, ammunition, and explosives.
2001 In Makhachkala, Russian Dagestan's Supreme Court on Tuesday sentences Chechen terrorists (i.e. patriot fighters) Salman Raduyev to life imprisonment in a high-security correction colony, Turpalli Atgeriyev to 15 years, Husein Gaisumov to 8 years, and Aslanbek Alkhazurov to 5 years, for their role in a raid on the Dagestani town of Kizlyar in January 1996 (which was intended to prevent or delay an impending Russian aggression against Chechnya).
2001 At noon Buffalo, New York, registers a 24-hour snowfall of 64 cm, second only to a record 96 cm in 1998.
2001 The New York Times reports that archeologists excavating the ancient city of Gordion in Anatolia have discovered artifacts and human and animal remains confirming that the place was settled by Hellenized Celts, the Galatai, who practiced human sacrifices (such as for the druids to divine the future from the last movements of the victims). Gordion is otherwise known as the capital of Phrygian King Midas (8th century BC) and where Alexander the Great cut a knot (332 BC). According to the Roman historian Livy a king in Anatolia hired Celts as mercenaries to re-enforce his own army. They arrived in 278 BC, 20'000 of them, including provisioners and merchants as well as their families, in a caravan of 2000 baggage wagons.
2000 Partial eclipse of the sun, maximum at about 16:30 UT, visible in parts of North America.
2000 Vishwanathan Anand es proclamado en Teherán campeón mundial oficial de ajedrez tras derrotar al ajedrecista español de origen letón Alexéi Shírov.
1998 Los presidentes de Rusia, Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, y de Bielorrusia, Alexandr Lukashenko, firmaron una serie de documentos dirigidos a profundizar sus lazos y formar un Estado unificado (previo referéndum), con leyes y moneda comunes.
1992 In the US, Christmas shopping season retail sales are up 8% over the year before.
1992 El neocomunista Slobodan Milosevic es reelegido presidente de Serbia.
Japanese scientists achieve -271.8ºC, coldest temp ever recorded
1985 Ladrones consiguen sustraer del Museo Nacional de Antropología de México 140 joyas arqueológicas, entre ellas la máscara zapoteca del dios murciélago. [dios murciélago zapoteco >]
1985 David Turner and Tim Pickhard arrive in John o' Groat's, Scotland, the northernmost point in Great Britain. They had set out four days earlier from Land's End, the southernmost point in Britain, in a battery-powered Freight Rover Leyland Sherpa driven by a Lucas electric motor. They traveled 1408 km on a single battery charge, completing the longest battery-powered drive in history.
1987 Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, who escaped 2 days earlier, recaptured
1979 Egypt begins major restoration of the Sphinx.
1978 Comienza el ataque vietnamita a Camboya.
1977 Israeli PM Menachem Begin meets in Egypt with Egyptian President Sadat
1974 Cyclone Tracy destroys most of Darwin Australia
1973 ARPANET crashes
A massive crash paralyzed the fledgling ARPANET, which connected dozens of universities and research institutions around the country. The network, constructed in 1969 through the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency, had been online for four years. However, the system still used the same code to route messages as it had in 1969, when a handful of initial message processors were installed at several pilot universities. On this day in 1973, a hardware bug at the Harvard server caused all messages on the network to be sent to the Harvard server, which quickly became overloaded and stopped sending messages on through the network. The network remained paralyzed until Harvard was essentially cut off from the network. Such problems were not unusual on the early ARPANET: Finally, the Christmas Day freeze and other similar incidents led Harvard graduate student John McQuillan to rewrite most of the software governing the traffic on the ARPANET entirely. The ARPANET evolved into the Internet in the early 1970s, when Dr. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn were commissioned by the federal government to extend the network for military, government, and academic use.
| 1973 Tommy Chambers (Scotland) finishes 51 year cycle
tour (1'286'520 km)
1961 La bula pontificia Humanae Salutis anuncia el concilio Vaticano II para 1962.
1954 Partial eclipse of the sun, the last one on this date until 2000. It is visible in southern Africa and the south Pacific.
1949 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa incrementa la lucha contra la prensa de la oposición Argentina, prohibiendo los periódicos de provincias.
| 1946 Chiang Kai-shek offers a new Chinese constitution
pledging universal suffrage.
1944 Prime Minister Winston Churchill goes to Athens to seek an end to the Greek civil war.
1939 Montgomery Ward introduces Rudolph the 9th reindeer.
1932 La I.G. Farbeindustrie alemana, en la que trabajaba Gerhard Domagk, solicita en esta fecha la patente del "prontosil", primera aplicación médica de las sulfamidas.
1927 The Mexican congress opens land to foreign investors, reversing the 1917 ban enacted to preserve the domestic economy.
1926 Hirohito became emperor of Japan (1926-1989) El príncipe heredero del Japón,Hirohito, sucede a su padre, Yoshihito, como emperador.
1925 US troops in Nicaragua disarm insurgents in support of the Diaz regime.
1918 A revolt erupts in Berlin.
1912 Italy lands troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
1898 The first continental council of the Latin American Roman Catholic church is convened in Rome. It would issue 998 canons and try to check anti-Christian influences. 13 and 41 bishops are present.
| 1882 Por primera vez un árbol de Navidad es iluminado
con lámparas eléctricas, en el hogar de Edward Johnson, un socio de Thomas
Alva Edison, en Estados Unidos.
1837 Battle of Okeechobee-US forces defeat Seminole Indians.
1833 Durante la primera guerra carlista, Baldomero Espartero consigue deshacer la fuerte partida del cabecilla Magranell en Valencia, que dominaba las tierras de Játiva y Onteniente.
1833 El pretendiente carlista al trono de España, Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, es coronado rey en Loyola, con el nombre de Carlos VII.
1818 "Silent Night," by Franz Joseph Gruber and Joseph Mohr is sung for first time, at the Church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorff, Austria.
1812 José Gervasio Artigas, jefe de las fuerzas independentistas de la Banda Oriental de Uruguay, se niega a reintegrarse con sus hombres a las fuerzas porteñas que sitian Montevideo, en poder de los españoles.
1800 Austria signs the armistice of Steyr with the victorious French.
1780 El sultán de Marruecos ratifica el tratado de amistad con Carlos III, firmado por Francisco Antonio Moñino conde de Floridablanca y el embajador marroquí, Sidi Mohammed ben Otmán, que obliga a los navíos ingleses a abandonar la costa de Tetuán y el puerto de Tánger.
1758 Halley's comet 1st sighted by Johann Georg Palitzsch during return
1745 Treaty of Dresden gives much of Silesia to the Prussians
1651 The General Court of Boston levies a five shilling fine on anyone caught "observing any such day as Christmas.
1356 El emperador Carlos IV promulga en Metz la Bula de Oro, ley constitucional fundamental del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico.
1223 St. Francis of Assisi assembles one of the first Nativity scenes, in Greccio, Italy.
1185 Urban III is elected pope. He spent most of his pontificate in exile owing to his insistence that the pope, not the Roman Senate should govern the papal estates.
| 1066 William the Conqueror, crowned king of England
1003 John XVIII is consecrated Pope. An administrator, he would resign six years later and retired to a monastery.
1001 Etienne 1er est couronné roi de Hongrie par le pape Sylvestre II. Le peuple hongrois s'intègre à l'Europe quelques décennies à peine après son irruption dans la plaine du Danube.
0525 Easter tables by Dioysius Exiguus wrongly give December 25th as the date of Christ's birth.
0336 Earliest known year that Jesus' nativity was celebrated on 25 December, as mentioned in the Philocalian Calendar of A.D. 354. Jesus' birth was commemorated on 06 January in Greek Orthodoxy, although by the 400s most of the Eastern churches had accepted the Roman date. antes se conmemoraban conjuntamente el nacimiento y el bautizo de Jesús el 06 Jan.
occurred on a 25 December:
2003 Rashidi Ahmad Boone Simmonds, 33, shot in the neck at 23:50, just south of Sacramento as he was driving his pickup truck which then crashes.
2003 Matthew Seivert, 19, of gunshots to the head and chest he suffered on 24 December before 02:00 as he was driving in Sacramento, California, his vehicle then crashing.
2003 Katrine Juarez, 7; her mother Rosa Juarez, 40; George Monzon, his wife Clara Monzon, their children Wendy Monzon, 17, Racquel Monzon, 10, and Jeremiah Monzon, 6 months. ; and 7 others , most of them children; at 13:30 by a sudden 70 km/h, 2 to 4-meter-high mud flood in the Waterman Canyon of the San Bernardino Mountains in California, where 27 persons, mostly Guatemalan immigrants, were having a Christmas gathering at the closed Greek Orthodox Saint Sophia camp with Monzon, the caretaker. Some 15 cm of rain washed down the mountain slopes bared by wildfires in October and November 2003. Some horses, mules, donkeys, cattle, bears, and other animals are also killed by the mudslides in the canyon.
2003 Janice Arlene Stout-Bradley, 60, and Carroll Eugene Nuss, 57, by a mudslide in the Waterman Canyon of the San Bernardino Mountains in California, where Stout-Bradley was the manager of a KOA campground (8 km from the Saint Sophia camp) near Devore.
2003 Makled Hamid, 39, head of the Islamic Jihad's military wing in the Gaza Strip, two other Islamic Jihad members and two bystanders, by at least two missiles fired by Israeli helicopter gunships at a car driving between Gaza City and the nearby Jabalya refugee camp, in the evening. About 12 persons are wounded.
2003 Four Israeli and suicide bomber Said Hanani, 18, of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, at a bus stop under the Geha bridge on Jabotinsky Street, between Petah Tikva and Bnei Brak, east of Tel Aviv. 18 persons are wounded.
2003:: 139 of the 161 aboard the Boeing 727 jetliner of United Transit Airlines Flight 141 taking off from Cotonou, Benin, after the back of the plane hits a building at the end of the runaway at 14:55 (13:55 UT) and the plane breaks up and crashes into the ocean 500 m away. The plane was Guinean-owned plane had been chartered by a Mr. Khazen and another Lebanese businessman to take some Lebanese workers home. The flight started in Conakry, Guinea, and landed in Freetown, Sierra Leone, with 76 passengers, and took on more passengers there. It then left for Cotonou, picking up 61 Lebanese, including three children, and three non-Lebanese. The plane was scheduled to arrive in Beirut at 23:00 (21:00 UT). A few of the 139 dead survived the crash but died later of their injuries. The 22 survivors include the pilot. [the broken-off cockpit ends up on the beach >]
2002 Mohammad Shafi Wani, and his two sons, Zahoor Ahmad and Jehangir, in the evening, shot by gunmen inside their home in Gopalpora, Indian-occupied Kashmir.
2002 Najma, 8, and 2 other young girls, by grenade thrown at 20:30 by two burqa-clad attackers into the 40 or so worshippers in a small United Presbyterian church in Chianwala, Daska district, Punjab province, Pakistan. The policeman supposed to guard the church had not come. 13 persons are wounded.
2000 More than 300, mostly from smoke inhalation, in fire which starts at 21:35 in Luoyang, Henan. Most of the dead were in a disco on the 4th floor. Construction workers were on lower floors and may have accidentally started the fire in the basement..
1991 José Guerrero, US painter born Spanish on 29 October 1914. — more
1989 Nicolea Ceausescu, dictator of Romania, and his wife Elena, summarily executed bajo la acusación de genocidio.
1986: 62 personas al estallar un avión iraquí, secuestrado en vuelo entre Bagdad y Amman por miembros de Yihad Islámica.
1983 Joàn Mirò, at his home in Majorca, Catalán surrealist painter and sculptor born on 20 April 1893 in Barcelona. MORE ON MIRÒ AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1977 Charlie Chaplin dies in Switzerland at 88
1976 Over 100 Muslims, as their boad sinks returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca.
1971: 156 in worst hotel fire in history, Taeyokale Hotel in Seoul
1961 Dr Rheinhold Rudenberg inventor of the electron microscope
1953 Some 150 by lava flow (Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand)
1951 Harry T Moore Florida NAACP official, killed by bomb.
1950 Xavier Villaurrutia, escritor mexicano.
1939 Day 26 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. [Talvisodan 26. päivä]
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
1933 Francesc Macià (1859-1933) Primer President i restaurador de la Generalitat moderna (1931-1933) [foto >].
Dirigent del partit Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), després d'una gran victòria electoral en les eleccions municipals del 14 d'abril de 1931, proclamà la República Catalana des del Palau de la Generalitat a Barcelona.
Tres dies més tard, i com a conseqüència d'una negociació amb representants del Govern de Madrid, s'acordà que la nova institució d'autogovern rebria el nom de Generalitat de Catalunya.
Francesc Macià, governant d 'una enorme popularitat, morí exercint el càrrec de president de la Generalitat el dia de Nadal de 1933.
1932 Some 70'000 persons in 7.6 magnitude earthquake in Gansu, China, with epicenter at 39º42'N, 97º00'E.
1926 Yoshihito, emperador de Japón.
1913 Alberto Aguilera Velasco, alcalde de Madrid.
1901 Joseph Noël Paton, Scottish painter, illustrator, sculptor, and collector, born on 13 December 1821. MORE ON PATON AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1898 James Alexander Walker, British artist born in 1841.
1889 William Wyld, British artist born in 1806.
1881 Ignacio Suárez Llanos, pintor español.
1861 Jakob Joseph Eeckhout, Flemish artist born on 06 February 1793.
1761 Empress Elizabeth .
1669 Giovanni Andrea Ferrari, Italian artist born in 1598.
1717 Theodore Maas, Dutch artist born on 12 September 1659. — more
1406 Enrique III, rey de Castilla y León.
0795 Adrian I, Pope. At his consecration, the Lombards had vowed to bring him in chains to their court. Charlemagne rode to the rescue, crushing the Lombards forever and making the Donation of Charlemagne which confirmed a grant made to the popes by the Frankish king Pepin.
| Births which
occurred on a December 25:
1947 Aid to the Church in Need (Kirche in Not / Osterpriesterhilfe) is founded by Father Werenfried van Straaten [17 January 1913 – 31 January 2003], of the Norbertine order, on the 827th anniversary of its founding by by Saint Norbert [1080 – 06 June 1134]
1944 Kutta, mathematician.
1941 Molien, mathematician
1931 Carlos Castañeda US, writer/mystic (Eagle's Gift, Fire From Within)
1929 MacMahon, mathematician.
1925 Jaime Salom, dramaturgo español.
1921 Bohl, mathematician
1917 Why Marry?, comedy by Jesse Lynch Williams, which would be the first dramatic play to win a Pulitzer Prize (1918), opens at the Astor Theatre in New York City.
1916 Ahmed Ben Bella, presidente de Argelia.
1911 Louise Bourgeois, French / US sculptor LINKS
1906 William McChesney Martin Chairman of US Federal Reserve Bank (1951-70).
1904 Gerhard Herzberg Can, physicist (molecular structure-Nobel 1971)
1902 Manuel Halcón, escritor y periodista español.
1901 Juan Vicente Chiarino Ravenna, político uruguayo.
1887 Conrad Hilton hotel mogul (Hilton Hotels)
1884 Layne Hall of Silver Creek, New York. At his death on 20 November 1990, he had a valid driver's license, making him the oldest legal driver ever.
1883 Maurice Utrillo, French painter who died on 05 November 1955. MORE ON UTRILLO AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1883 Henri Léopold Hayden, French artist who died on 12 May 1870. Paysage Beka
1882 Gonzalo Zaldumbide Gómez de la Torre, escritor y diplomático ecuatoriano.
1876 Mohammed Ali Jinnah Karachi, founded Pakistan (1947)
1875 Manuel Benedito Vives, pintor español.
1874 Carl Fahringer, Austrian artist who died in 1952.
1870 Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-born founder of the Spartacus League which later became the German Communist Party.
1865 Evangeline Cory Booth Salvation Army general.
1852 Lionel Noël Royer, French painter of history, genre, and portraiture, who died on 31 July 1926. — links to three images.
1834 Anders Monsen Askevold, Norwegian artist who died on 22 October 1900.
1821 Clara Barton Oxford Mass, nurse, founded American Red Cross
1814 Solemn Review of the Customs of War by Rev. Noah Worcester, of Brighton Massachussets, an early peace movement pamphlet, is published.
1812 William Henry Haines, British artist who died on 22 June 1884.
1812 Manuel Ancízar, escritor colombiano.
1806 Kaspar Kaltenmoser, German artist who died on 08 March 1867.
1800 José Manuel Francisco Antonio del Pilar Groot, artista colombiano.
1782 Jacques-Noël-Marie Frémy, French artist who died in 1867.
1765 Samuel Drummond, British painter who died in August 1844. — links to and comments on images.
1760 An Evening Thought, poetry by Jupiter Hammon, New York slave, is published —HAMMON ONLINE: An Address to the Negroes in the State of New-York (24 Sep 1786)
1721 William Collins Chichester England, (Mayor-Chichester)/poet
1642 (Julian date, which is 4 January 1643 Gregorian) Isaac Newton, English mathematician and scientist who enunciated the laws of motion and the law of gravity.
1564 Abraham Bloemaert, influential Dutch Mannerist painter and engraver who died on 27 January 1651. MORE ON BLOEMAERT AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1491 Ignatius Loyola, Basque saint, founder of the Jesuits. He died on 31 July 1556. LOYOLA ONLINE: Ejercicios Espirituales. Autobiografía. (in English translation): Spiritual Exercises.
1120 The Canons Regular of Prémontré (= Premonstratensians, = Norbertines) are founded by Saint Norbert [1080 – 06 June 1134] and his companions.
0001 Jesus of Nazareth, according to calendar-maker Dionysus Exiguus
4 --BC- Jesus of Nazareth, religious leader, miracle worker, God born as man, the Christ, the Prince of Peace (estimated year, date on which it would be commemorated)