|On a December
2002 The Washington Post reveals that the CIA tortures terrorism suspects held in secret foreign locations, and turns some of them over to foreign countries notorious for even worse tortures.
2000 In Beijing the foreign ministers of China and Vietnam sign a friendship and cooperation treaty which settles a dispute, left unresolved after a 1989 border war, about fishing rights and the border in the Tonkin Gulf. Disagreement on other sea borders remain to be settled.
2000 La estación espacial orbital Mir pierde contacto con el centro de control durante más de 20 horas.
1999 Alfonso Portillo, a populist lawyer, scored a resounding victory in Guatemala's first peacetime presidential elections in nearly 40 years. — Alfonso Portillo y el Frente Republicano Guatemalteco, fundado por el general golpista Enfrían Ríos Montt, son los ganadores de la segunda vuelta de la elecciones presidenciales de Guatemala.
1998 Irak formaliza su ruptura con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas y exige el fin del embargo petrolífero.
1998 Standard & Poor's announces that America Online will join the S&P 500 Index, replacing retailer Venator Group. The replacement of a retailer with an online service company in the widely regarded stock market index underscores the growing economic importance of Internet stocks.
1991 La Cámara de las Repúblicas del Soviet Supremo soviético declara el fin de la URSS a partir de la ratificación del Tratado de la Comunidad de Estados Independientes (CEI).
1991 El integrista Frente Islámico de Salvación (FIS) obtiene la mayoría absoluta en la primera vuelta de las elecciones argelinas.
1990 Garry Kasparov beats Antatoly Karpov to retain world chess championship.
1983 Yasuhiro Nakasone, es reelegido primer ministro del Japón por la Cámara Baja del Parlamento.
1979 The Soviet Union flies 5000 troops to intervene in the Afghanistan conflict. Osama Bin Laden leaves Saudi Arabia to join the Afghan resistance (mujahedeen).
1978 India's former PM, Indira Gandhi, released from jail
1975 1st supersonic transport service (USSR-Tupolev-144)
| 1962 Eight East Berliners escape to West Berlin in an
armor-plated bus crashing through gates.
1953 The United States announces the withdrawal of two divisions from Korea.
1953 Se realiza en París el primer trasplante de riñón de un donante vivo bajo la dirección del cirujano francés Jean Hamburger. [a surgeon named Hamburger! would you trust him?]
1948 El cardenal primado de Hungría, Jozsef Mindszenty, es detenido, encarcelado y procesado, acusado de espionaje en favor de Estados Unidos.
1947 British transfer Heard and McDonald Islands (Indian Ocean) to Australia.
1945 The United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain end a 10-day meeting, seeking an atomic rule by the UN Council.
1943 El general George Smith Patton recibe una advertencia por haber ordenado que fuesen azotados unos soldados que estaban bajo shock de granadas.
1941 Los británicos toman Bengasi infligiendo una fuerte derrota a las fuerzas italo-germanas de Rommel.
1941 General Douglas MacArthur declares Manila an open city in the face of the onrushing Japanese Army. Tank Battle South of Manila, Losses Heavy: Fighting Is Bitter: Defenders North of the Philippine Capital Strengthen Lines: Oil Afire in Manila: Japanese Planes Go On Bombing Port Area Despite 'Open City'
1941 New Enemy Force 280 km North of Singapore.Chinese Join Battle: British Total of Losses Is Reduced Greatly When 'Lost' Units Appear. British Shift at Singapore Replaces Brooke-Popham.
| 1933 US forswears armed intervention in the Western
1926 The Length of Africa by Motorcar The first overland journey across Africa from south to north was completed when the expedition of Major C. Court Treatt arrived in Cairo, Egypt. Major Treatt had set out from Capetown, South Africa, some twenty-seven months earlier in two military-style Crossley automobiles. After the difficult trek across unmapped regions, the hero's safe arrival in Cairo was a major treat for everyone.
1925 Six US destroyers are ordered from Manila to China to protect US interests in the civil war that is being waged there.
1925 Turkey adopts Gregorian calendar.
1921 The Catholic Irish Free State becomes a self-governing dominion of Great Britain.
1917 As a wartime measure, President Woodrow Wilson places railroads under government control, with Secretary of War William McAdoo as director general.
1916 Joffre es separado del alto mando y sustituido por el general Robert G. Nivelle.
1909 Se celebra en Hamburgo el IX Congreso Sionista.
1884 España anuncia a las potencias extranjeras que tiene bajo su protectorado la costa occidental de África comprendida entre los cabos Bojador y Blanco, territorio comúnmente denominado Sáhara Occidental.
1866 Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke, head of the Department of the Platte, receives word of the Fetterman Fight in Powder River County in the Dakota territory.
1863 Por primera vez se aplica la electricidad en Europa con el alumbrado de los faros costeros del cabo de La Heve (Francia).
1863 Skirmish at Sand Mountain, Alabama
1862 1st US navy hospital ship enters service
1861 Union Major Robert Anderson evacuates Fort Moultrie and occupies Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina
1848 First gold seekers arrive in Panama en route to San Francisco
1848 William and Ellen Craft escape from slavery in Georgia.
1806 After their defeat at the battle of Austerlitz on 02 December 1806, the Austrians sign the peace treaty of Presbourg with the victorious Napoleonic French. — Son armée écrasée à Austerlitz, l’Autriche signe à Presbourg (Bratislava), le 26 décembre 1805, un traité de paix par lequel elle renonce à la Vénétie, tandis que la Bavière, alliée de Napoléon, lui enlève le Tyrol. Par un article secret, François II renonce à son titre d’empereur du Saint Empire romain germanique. Le Reich presque millénaire est condamné à disparaître.
1799 George Washington is eulogized by Colonel Henry Lee as "first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen." [he did not mention a possible exception: Washington's slaves].
1792 José Ocáriz, cónsul español en París, protesta públicamente en una carta por la condición de prisionero a que se ve sometido Luis XVI.
1786 Daniel Shay leads a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt.
1776 After crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, George Washington leads an attack on Hessian mercenaries at Trenton, and takes 900 prisoners. Las tropas británicas son derrotadas por las estadounidenses en la batalla de Trenton (New Jersey), durante la Guerra de Independencia de Estados Unidos.
1773 Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia
1713 Felipe V firma un Real Decreto, redactado por Jean Orry, por el que España queda dividida en 21 provincias, con fines administrativos y tributarios.
1653 Oliver Cromwell se erige en protector (dictador) de Inglaterra.
1620 Plymouth Colony was settled by the "Mayflower"colonists. (In 1691 Plymouth joined other neighboring settlements to form the royal colony of Massachusetts.)
which occurred on a December 26:
2003 Rod Newberry, 20, Adam Merz, 18, and Mike Hebert, 19, in the afternoon by a triple avalanche in in the Aspen Grove area of Provo Canyon, Utah, where they were snowboarding since morning with Matt Long and another friend. 74 cm of snow had fallen there in 24 hours.
2003 Some 35'000 persons in 6.6 magnitude earthquake at 05:27 (01:57 UT) with epicenter 10 km deep at 29º01'N 58º17'E, in Kerman province, southeastern Iran, 12 km SSE of dowtown Bam (29º07'N 58º20'E), a city which had 80'000 inhabitants. Some 60'000 persons are injured in the region. 70% of the buildings in Bam are destroyed or damaged beyond repair, including its two hospitals and its main tourist attraction, a 2000-year-old adobe citadel and town complex [pre-quake photo below] that used to protect the Silk Road. A magnitude 5 aftershock occurs at 06:36 (03:06 UT) with epicenter 10 km deep at 28º50'N 58º22'E (80 km north of Bam). Some of the persons trapped under collapsed buildings die slowly in the following days; the three survivors trapped the longest are pulled out alive on 01 January 2004.
Bam's citadel was the largest and oldest adobe structure in the world. Built entirely of adobes and the trunks of palm trees, the city's old quarter dates back to pre-Islamic Sassanian period (224-637), although most of the monuments were from Iran's modern heyday under the Safavid rulers (1502-1722). Then, the city occupied six square kilometres, was surrounded by a rampart with 38 towers, and had a population of between 9000 and 13'000. Located in a vast plain between the Barez and Kabudi mountain ranges, Bam prospered because of pilgrims visiting its Zoroastrian fire temple (dating to early Sassanian times) and as a commercial and trading center on the Silk Road between the Far East and Europe. Upon the site of the Zoroastrian temple the Jame Mosque was built during the Saffarian period (866-903) and adjacent to this mosque is the tomb of Mirza Naiim, a mystic and astronomer who lived three hundred years ago. The five-story citadel, constructed entirely from adobes, had undergone frequent repairs over the years but traced its origins back to the Parthian era about the time of Christ. An oasis in the arid Dasht-e Kavir region known as the Emerald of the Desert, Bam has extensive underground water reserves, which have allowed the planting of rich palm groves and citrus gardens. The city is renowned for its oranges, tangerines, sweet lemons, and dates. Bam declined in importance following an Afghan invasion in 1722 and another by invaders from the region of Shiraz in 1810. The city was used as a barracks for the army until 1932 and then completely abandoned. Intensive restoration work began in 1953 and had continued until today. The city has been declared a world heritage site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
|2002 Jamal Nadr, 28, head of an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
cell, killed by Israeli Border Police in Tul Karm, West Bank.
2002 Bassam al-Ashkar, 25, and Fanal Shilani, respectively of Hamas and of Tanzim, unarmed, in a car, shot multiple times by Israeli secret police disguised as Palestinians, on a street in Ramallah, West Bank. The Palestine Monitor reports its Palestinian body count of the al-Aqsa intifada as being 2104, including 185 targeted assassinations such as this, and 76 of the 185 having been bystanders or killed by mistake.
2002 Mahadi Obayad, 19, unarmed Palestinian Ramallah traffic policeman, shot by Israeli soldiers firing at a nearby crowd of Palestinians who was throwing stones in protest for the assassination of al-Ashkar and Shilani.
2002 Hamsa abu Roub, 35, in Qabatiyah, West Bank, local head of Islamic Jihad, in the early hours. Israeli troops had surrounded his home telling those inside to surrender and that they would not be harmed. All came out, Abu Roub last and firing at the Israelis (according to them). They threw grenades into the house, wounding him, then rushed in and shot him dead just inside the main entrance. Later in the morning, Israeli troops destroy the family home.
2002 Manfred “Man” Gnadinger, 66, of a broken heart or melancholy, after the oceanside artwork he had created since he came there from Germany in 1961, was covered by thick black petroleum spilled from the Prestige, in Camelle, Galicia, Spain. He had used stones, driftwood, animal skeletons, and whatever washed up, some of which he painted, to create a sculpture garden that became a popular tourist attraction. On 28 December he would be found dead “since several days”, in the hut where he lived as a hermit, clothed only in a loincloth. [photo >] The tanker Prestige sank off northwest Spain on 19 November 2002, leaking about 20'000 tons of its fuel-oil cargo before sinking and it has been leaking more than 100 tons a of oil a day since then, tarring the Galician shore.
2002 Female elephant, hit by train, in the early morning, at the Pandarphunka railway bridge in Bhubaneswar, Orissa state, India. She was one of seven elephants returning to the Chandaka Wildlife sanctuary after an evening crop raid in Kalarahang village.
2000 Janice Hagerty, 46, office manager; Cheryl Troy, vice president of human resources; Louis Javelle; Craig Wood, 29; Jennifer Bragg Capobianco, 29; Paul Marceau, 36; Rose Manfredi, 48, employees of Edgewater Technology murdered by fellow employee Michael McDermott, 42, "gone postal" with an AK-47-style assault rifle, a 12-gauge shotgun, and a semiautomatic handgun, in Wakefield, Massachusetts, at about 11:00. At his April 2002 trial, McDermott would claim that he thought he was killing Hitler and his staff. The prosecutor would argue that McDermott is faking insanity. On 24 April 2002, the jury would convict McDermott on seven counts of first-degree murder, which means a mandatory maximum sentence under Massachusetts law: life in prison without the possibility of parole.
2000 Andre Beukes, 27, policeman, as his speedboat goes over 50-meter- high Loskop Dam in South Africa. His wife and baby were waiting for him on the shore.
1998 Luan Phi Dawson, from being hit by a piece of flying metal while waiting to board a ride at Disneyland in Anaheim, California, on 24 December 1998. His wife and a Disneyland employee were also injured.
1997 Cahit Arf, mathematician.
1990 Nancy Cruznan, 33. accident victim/right-to-die case
1979 Hasse, mathematician.
1972 Harry Truman, 88, 33rd US President, in Kansas City, Missouri.
1966 Subbotin, mathematician.
1949 Mateo Hernández Sánchez, Spanish sculptor and painter.
1947 Some 80 persons because of weather as snow blankets the Northeast US, burying New York City under 65 cm of snow in 16 hours.
1909 Frederic Sackrider Remington, in Canton, New York, Western painter and sculptor born on 04 October 1861. MORE ON REMINGTON AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1896 Margaretha (Margi) Roosenboom Vogel, Dutch artist born on 24 October 1843.
1862 38 Santee Sioux, hanged in Mankato, Minnesota for their part in the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota. Little Crow has fled the state.
1823 Jean-François Huë, French painter born on 01 December 1751. — more
1676 Dominicus Wanto van Tol, Dutch artist born in 1635.
1686 Henri Mauperché, French artist born in 1602. MORE ON MAUPERCHÉ AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
0418 St Zosimus, Pope
0268 St Dionysius, Pope
| Births which
occurred on a December 26:
2002 “Eve”, first cloned baby is claimed to be born, in undisclosed country, to a 31-year-old US woman, whose husband is sterile and of which the baby is the clone. Clonaid, through its scientific director, Canadian Dr. Brigitte Boisselier, makes the announcement the next day, claiming to have accomplished the cloning process. No proof is given, and, to assess the validity of the claim, consider that Clonaid was founded in the Bahamas in 1997 by Claude Vorilhon “Raël”, a former French race-car driver and auto racing magazine editor, born in 1946, founder of the “Bible-based atheist” (sic) cult of the Raelians, who claim that an extra-terrestrial visiting him in 1973 revealed that his kind had created all life on Earth through genetic engineering.
1949 Moncho Borrajo Domarco, humorista español. [No lo vayan a llamar Mucho Borracho Domecq]
1944 The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, is first performed publicly, at the Civic Theatre in Chicago.
1942 Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo, President of Guatemala (1986- )
1937 John Conway, mathematician.
1937 Etienne Gnassingbe Eyadema, president of Togo.
1907 Leonard Carlitz, mathematician.
1904 Alejo Carpentier, escritor y musicólogo cubano.
1903 Bosanquet, mathematician.
1893 Mao Tse-tung (or Zedong), founding father of the People's Republic of China, who died on 09 September 1976. He wrote Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung (the little red book MAO ONLINE:), PM of China P.R. (1949-76) [Selection in Chinese with translation] — The reverent iconography with Mao's image inside the sun [image >] equates him to god beaming on the people of China, one of many ways in which the revolutionary Mao took on attributes of the abolished emperors. This Mao-worship grew to the point that people paused before each meal to wish him a long life. His image was ubiquitous, on posters and on numerous articles and utensils for daily use. Mao's photograph and his quotations appeared on the first page of every newspaper every day.
1893 Robert Ripley, US newspaper cartoonist; founded "Ripley's Believe It or Not!". He died on 27 May 1949.
1891 Henry Miller US novelist (Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer). He died on 07 June 1980.
1873 Sir Norman Angell, English economist and Nobel Peace Prize winner, who died on 07 October 1967.
1865 Coffee percolator, patented by James H Mason (Mass.)
1861 Engel, mathematician.
1854 Wood-pulp paper 1st exhibited, Buffalo.
1853 René Bazin, escritor francés.
1837 George Dewey, Admiral of the US Navy: Spanish-American War: hero of Manila: ("You may fire when you are ready, Gridley. ). He died on 16 January 1917.
1832 Sergio Camargo, presidente de Gobierno colombiano.
1825 Erie Canal opens.
1820 Dion Boucicault, Irish-born US playwright and actor, who died on 18 September 1890.
1759 Johann Georg von Dillis, German draftsman, painter, engraver, museum director, and teacher, who died on 28 September 1841. — more with links to images.
1755 Balthasar Paul Ommeganck, Flemish artist who died on 18 January 1826.
1734 (15 Dec Julian) George Romney, British painter who died on 15 November 1802. MORE ON ROMNEY AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1615 (26 Oct?) Jean Nocret, French painter who died on 12 November 1672. — more
1194 Frederick II, Iesi, Italy, German Emperor (1212-1250)