|On a February
2001 Paris is nearly paralyzed by a 24-hour strike of transport workers, who are demanding the creation of more jobs, better working conditions, and higher salaries.
2001 Three Scottish judges find Abdel Basset al-Mergrahi guilty of the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, which killed 270 persons. The court said that Megrahi was a member of the Libyan intelligence service. Al-Amin Khalifa, who had been co-accused, is acquitted and freed.
2001 Yeltsin's 70th birthday, spent in the hospital, which he entered two days earlier with an acute viral infection..
2000 Yeltsin's sad 69th birthday
1999 Clinton impeachment trial: conflicting testimony.
|1999 International regulations no longer require ships
at sea to be equipped to call for help in an emergency using Morse code
and the SOS signal. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS),
using satellite and other high-tech communication techniques, replaces the
system which since the early part of the century has saved countless ships
and thousands of lives. http://mirror-us.unesco.org/courier/1999_08/uk/connex/txt1.htm
1996 Visa and MasterCard announce an agreement on technical specifications for the transmission of credit-card information over the Internet. Previously, Visa had worked with Microsoft, and MasterCard had worked with Netscape, with each partnership developing its own payment standards.
1994 It is discovered that 2^859'433 1 is a Mersenne prime (the 33rd) (Mersenne prime numbers are primes of the form 2^n 1, which requires n to be prime; and it is equivalent to [2^(n1)]×(2^n 1) being equal to the sum of its factors other than itself, i.e. a perfect number). . They can all be found (with their date of discovery) at http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/math/prime/mersenne.html.
1994 Large meteorite falls near Kusaie, Pacific Ocean.
1994.,. Jeff Gillooly, Tonya Harding's ex-husband, pleaded guilty in Portland, Oregon, to taking part in the attack on figure skater Nancy Kerrigan. Gillooly struck a plea bargain under which he confessed to racketeering charges in exchange for testimony implicating Harding.
1991 South African President F.W. de Klerk says that he will repeal all apartheid laws
1985 -69ºF (-56ºC), Peter's Sink UT (state record)
1985 -61ºF (-52ºC), Maybell CO (state record)
1984 Ravindara Mhatrem, Indian diplomat, is kidnapped in England. He would be killed on 03 February 1984.
1984 China and Netherlands re-establish diplomatic relations.
1982 Senegal and Gambia form loose confederation (Senegambia).
1982 Las provincias de Asturias y Santander se convierten en Comunidades Autónomas uniprovinciales de Asturias y Cantabria.
1981 French government sends 60 Mirage fighter jets to Iraq.
1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran in triumph
after 15 years of exile.
The shah and his family had fled the country two weeks before, and jubilant Iranian revolutionaries were eager to establish a fundamentalist Islamic government under Khomeini's leadership.
Born around the turn of the century, Ruhollah Khomeini was the son of an Islamic religious scholar and in his youth memorized the Qur'an. He was a Shiite the branch of Islam practiced by a majority of Iranians and soon devoted himself to the formal study of Shia Islam in the city of Qom. A devout cleric, he rose steadily in the informal Shiite hierarchy and attracted many disciples.
In 1941, British and Soviet troops occupied Iran and installed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as the second modern shah of Iran. The new shah had close ties with the West, and in 1953 British and US intelligence agents helped him overthrow a popular political rival. Mohammad Reza embraced many Western ideas and in 1963 launched his "White Revolution," a broad government program that called for the reduction of religious estates in the name of land redistribution, equal rights for women, and other modern reforms.
Khomeini, now known by the high Shiite title "ayatollah," was the first religious leader to openly condemn the shah's program of westernization. In fiery dispatches from his Faziye Seminary in Qom, Khomeini called for the overthrow of the shah and the establishment of an Islamic state. In 1963, Mohammad Reza imprisoned him, which led to riots, and on 04 November 1964, expelled him from Iran.
Khomeini settled in An Najaf, a Shiite holy city across the border in Iraq, and sent home recordings of his sermons that continued to incite his student followers. Breaking precedence with the Shiite tradition that discouraged clerical participation in government, he called for Shiite leaders to govern Iran.
In the 1970s, Mohammad Reza further enraged Islamic fundamentalists in Iran by holding an extravagant celebration of the 2500th anniversary of the pre-Islamic Persian monarchy and replaced the Islamic calendar with a Persian calendar. As discontent grew, the shah became more repressive, and support for Khomeini grew. In 1978, massive anti-shah demonstrations broke out in Iran's major cities. Dissatisfied members of the lower and middle classes joined the radical students, and Khomeini called for the shah's immediate overthrow. In December, the army mutinied, and on 16 January 1979, the shah fled.
Khomeini arrives in Tehran in triumph on 01 February 1979, and is acclaimed as the leader of the Iranian Revolution. With religious fervor running high, he consolidated his authority and set out to transform Iran into a religious state. On 04 November 1979, the 15th anniversary of his exile, students would storm the US embassy in Tehran and take the staff hostage. With Khomeini's approval, the radicals demanded the return of the shah to Iran and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days. The shah died in Egypt of cancer in July 1980.
In December 1979, a new Iranian constitution was approved, naming Khomeini as Iran's political and religious leader for life. Under his rule, Iranian women were denied equal rights and required to wear a veil, Western culture was banned, and traditional Islamic law and its often-brutal punishments were reinstated. In suppressing opposition, Khomeini proved as ruthless as the shah, and thousands of political dissidents were executed during his decade of rule.
In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran's oil-producing province of Khuzestan. After initial advances, the Iraqi offense was repulsed. In 1982, Iraq voluntarily withdrew and sought a peace agreement, but Khomeini renewed fighting. Stalemates and the deaths of thousands of young Iranian conscripts in Iraq followed. In 1988, Khomeini finally agreed to a U.N.-brokered cease-fire.
After the Ayatollah Khomeini died on 03 June 1989, more than two million anguished mourners attended his funeral. Gradual democratization began in Iran in early the 1990s, culminating in a free election in 1997 in which the moderate reformist Mohammed Khatami was elected president.
| 1979.,. Newspaper heiress Patty Hearst, whose prison
sentence for bank robbery had been commuted by President Carter, left a
federal prison near San Francisco, after serving 22 months of a seven-year
sentence for bank robbery.
1965 While protesting against voter discrimination, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and some 700 others are arrested in Selma, Alabama.
1961 Los EE.UU. lanzan el " Minuteman", primer misil intercontinental con carburante sólido.
1960 Extreme right-wing colonialist rebels in Algiers, opposed to independence, surrender to French authorities.
1960 Four Black college students began a sit-in protest at a lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C., where they had been refused service.
1959 Swiss males vote against voting rights for women.
1958 Egypt and Syria announce plans to merge into United Arab Republic. Se funda en El Cairo la República Arabe Unida, posteriormente disuelta.
1955 H. C. Hansen is appointed premier of Denmark.
1954 Appel de l'Abbé Pierre sur RTL en faveur des sans-logis. Pour faire face à l'hiver exceptionnellement froid de 1954, l'abbé Pierre lance un appel aux bonnes volontés afin de secourir des sans-logis toujours plus nombreux. Son appel est un succès. De toute la France, affluent argent, couvertures, hébergement… D'autres invitations pathétiques à la générosité seront lancées durant cette "insurrection de la bonté". Connaissant le milieu politique, pour avoir été député MRP jusqu'en 1951, l'abbé Pierre interpelle et harcèle le gouvernement. Il le fera sans relâche… Dès 1949, l'abbé Pierre créé l'association Emmaüs pour lutter contre la pauvreté. Au fil des années, plus de 200 groupes sont créés en France. L'association des chiffonniers bâtisseurs d'Emmaüs a pour vocation la récupération, la remise en état et la transformation d'objets voués aux ordures. Ouverte aux plus démunis, la communauté lance cette invitation : "Toi qui souffres, qui que tu sois, entre, dors, mange, reprend espoir, ici on t'aime… viens m'aider à aider les autres". En 2 ans, les chiffonniers bâtisseurs construisent 110 maisons pour 110 familles. Dans son film "Hiver 54 - L'abbé Pierre", le réalisateur Denis Amar fait revivre l'histoire de cette émouvante aventure humaine. En 1991, l'abbé Pierre est lauréat du prix Humanité, paix et fraternité entre les peuples. Concernant son action, l'abbé Pierre apporte ce commentaire: "Ce n'est pas une question de charité, c'est une question de justice".
| 1952 General strike against French colonial management
1951 -50ºF (-46ºC), Gavilan NM (state record)
1950 USSR demands condemnation of Emperor Hirohito for war crimes
1950 Urko Kekkonen is elected president of Finland.
1949 RCA releases first single record ever (45 rpm)
1949 The modern state of Israel formally annexed West Jerusalem.
1948 Federation Malaysia forms from 9 sultanates
1947 Alcide de Gasperi forms Italian government of Christian-Democrats, Communists, and Socialists.
1946 Republic of Hungary proclaimed, Zoltan Tildy as Communist president.
1946 Trygve Lie, a Norwegian socialist, becomes first Secretary-General of UN.
1945 US Army arrives at Siegfried Line.
1945 the Soviet-imposed communist Provisional Polish Government moves to Warsaw.
1944 Supreme Soviet enlarges soviet republics' autonomy.
1943 Mussert forms pro Nazi shadow cabinet (Netherlands)
1943 German occupiers make Vidkun Quisling Norwegian puppet premier
1943 The 442d Regimental Combat Team is authorized. Made up almost entirely of Japanese-Americans, it would become one of the US's most highly decorated military units of World War II.
1934 Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss dissolves all political parties but his own
1933 German Parliament dissolves, General Ludendorf predicts catastrophe.
1932 Aisin Gioro Pu Yi [07 febrero 1906 17 octubre 1967], ex-emperador de China, ahora títere de los imperialistas japoneses, proclama el estado independiente de Manchukuo.
1926 Kirghiz Autonomous Region in RSFSR becomes Kirghiz ASSR
1924 New British MacDonald government recognizes USSR
1923 Fascists Voluntary Militia forms in Italy under Mussolini
1923 Allied ultimatum on Lithuanian occupation of Memel.
1923 Regresan a España, tras 18 meses de negociaciones, los presos españoles en poder de Abd-el-Krim.
1921 Carmen Fasanella, 17, of Princeton, New Jersey, obtains his takicab driver's license. Mr. Fasanella would go on to drive his taxi for the next 68 years and 243 days, setting an unofficial record for the longest continuous career for a cabbie. The term "cab" comes from "cabriolet," a single-horse carriage.
1917 Admiral Tirpitz announces unlimited submarine war
1910 Dragoumis government forms in Greece
1906 first federal penitentiary building completed, Leavenworth KS
1905 Hungarian premier Tisza resigns.
1905 El zar Nicolás II recibe a los representantes de los obreros de San Petersburgo.
1904 The first international distress code, the "CQD" call (which preceded the "SOS" distress signal, adopted in 1908), goes into effect. It does not mean Come Quick... Danger! but is a code. CQ designates a call to all stations, in telegraph usage. D signals an urgent message.
1902 China's empress Tzu-hsi forbids binding woman's feet. Se adoptan medidas liberalizadoras y europeizantes en China.
1898 First auto insurance policy in US issued, by The Travelers Insurance Company, to Dr. Truman J. Martin of Buffalo, NY, who paid $11.25 for $5000 to $10'000 of liability coverage. In 1925, Massachusetts would become the first US state to mandate automobile insurance, "requiring owners of certain motor vehicles and trailers to furnish security for their civil liabilities."
1893.,. Inventor Thomas A. Edison completed work on the world's first motion picture studio, his "Black Maria," in West Orange, N.J.
1887 Harvey Wilcox of Kansas subdivides 120 acres he owned in Southern California and starts selling it off as a real estate development (Hollywood)
1867 Bricklayers start working 8-hour days in the US.
1865 General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins
1865 13th amendment to the US Constitution is approved (National Freedom Day)
1864 Battle of Yazoo River, Mississippi
1864 2nd German-Danish war begins
1864 Austrian/Prussian troops occupy Schleswig-Holstein.
| 1810 Seville, Spain, surrenders to the French.
1810 US Population: 7'239'881; Black population: 1'377'808 (19%)
1793 France declares war on England and Netherlands
1788 first US steamboat patent issued, by Georgia to Briggs and Longstreet
1742 Sardinia and Austria sign alliance.
1732 Parliament of Ratisborn accept Pragmatic Sanction, the 17130419 decree promulgated by the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI with the intent that all his Habsburg kingdoms and lands descend as an integral whole without partition. It stipulated that his undivided heritage go to his eldest son, should he have one, or, failing a son, to his eldest daughter and then, if she should die without issue, to his deceased brother Joseph I's daughters and their descendants.
1720 Sweden and Prussia sign peace treaty. Se firma la Paz de Estocolmo entre Suecia y Noruega, con la que se pone fin a la Segunda o Gran Guerra del Norte.
1709 Alexander Selkirk [fictionalized as Robinson Crusoe] rescued from Juan Fernandez island.
1669 French King Louis XIV limits freedom of religion
1539 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and King François I sign anti-English treaty.
0772 Adrian I begins his reign as Pope.
occurred on a February 01:
2004 Carlie Brucia, 11 [photo >], murdered after being abducted at 18:21 (23:21 UT), which the surveillance camera behind Evie's Car Wash in Sarasota, Florida, records [< image]. She was walking the couple of kilometers to her home from the home of a school friend. Police would be tipped off that the abductor is unemployed mechanic Joseph P. Smith, 37, after he is arrested on 03 February 2004 for an unrelated parole violation. Carrie's corpse is found on 06 February 2004 not far from where she was abducted. Smith had been arrested at least 13 times in Florida since 1993, and convicted of drug possession and other charges. He was arrested in 1997 in Manatee County on kidnapping and false imprisonment charges, but was acquitted a year later.
2004 Rodolfo Baudelo Salazar, 19, as his car is hit by that of Laura Embry, 36, into whose path he swerves as they were racing north on Saul Kleinfeld Street in El Paso, Texas, in the evening. Embry suffers serious leg injuries.
2004 Shadi Jaradat (or Milkham), 25, of Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, in Jericho, West Bank, early in the day, by Israeli troops who fire into the house where he is and finally bulldoze it, crushing him. The Israeli's main target was Muhammad Jilayta, who, together with an other militant, is wounded and arrested.
2004:: 244 hadjis, in stampede in Muzdalifah, just outside Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during the ritual, considered un-Islamic by mullahs, of shouting insults and throwing shoes and pebbles at pillars representing the devil. After a sleepless night of prayer, each hadji throws seven pebbles, chanting "bismillah" ("In the name of God") and "Allahu Akbar" ("God is Great"). Of the hundreds injured, 7 would die the next day.
2004 One US soldier, in Humvee which overturns near Haditha, Iraq. Two other US soldiers in the vehicle are injured.
2004 One US soldier, in rocket attack on a support base near Balad, Iraq. 12 US soldiers are wounded.
2004 Shakhawan Abbas, and some 60 others, including a suicide bomber; during a reception for the first day of Eid Al-Adha, at the headquarters of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (of whose leading council Abbas was a member) in Irbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, a few minutes after the suicide bombing at the KDP, 13 km away [next]. Some 100 persons are injured. On 04 February 2004, Jaish Ansar al-Sunna (“Army of the Protectors of the teachings of Muhammad”) would state on an Arabic web site: “Two of our martyrdom-seeking brothers ... broke into two dens of the devils in the city of Irbil" because the two Kurdish parties "paved the way for the American crusader army.”
2004 Irbil Gov. Akram Mintik, Deputy Prime Minister Sami Abdul Rahman, Minister of Council of Ministers Affairs Shawkat Sheik Yazdin, Agriculture Minister Saad Abdullah, all 4 of the Iraqi Kurdistan government; and some 75 other persons, including a suicide bomber; at 11:00 during a reception for the first day of Eid Al-Adha, in a hall on the first floor of the three-story headquarters of the Kurdistan Democratic Party in Irbil. Some 140 persons are injured.
2004 Some 20 Iraqis by explosion, soon after midnight, at a munitions depot in the desert 180 kms southwest of Karbala, Iraq, which they had broken into, in an area assigned to the token Polish contingent of the US-led occupation forces. The extensive storage area, formerly used by Saddam Hussein's army, consists of about 100 bunkers containing munitions such as artillery shells and rockets,
2003 Jeff Trickett, Daniel Arato, Michael Shaw, Scott Broshko, Marissa Staddon, Alex Pattillo, Ben Albert, 10th graders, by a size 3.3 (4 is the maximum) 500-m wide avalanche at 11:50 on the north face of the Mount Cheops in Connaught Creek Valley section of Balu Valley, about 5 km west of the Rogers Pass summit, in Glacier National Park, near Revelstoke, British Colombia, Canada. The dead were part of a group of 3 adult men (2 teacher and a volunteer) and 14 students from the private Strathcona-Tweedsmuir School (located 20 km southwest of Calgary) in an outdoor education class, on their annual cross-country ski trip. One of the surviving students has a broken ankle.
2003 Vissit Erzhnukayev, puppet (of the Russians) police chief of the Oktyabrsky district of Grozny, Chechnia, by a land mine exploding under his car.
|2003 David M. Brown,
Rick Douglas Husband, Laurel Blair Salton Clark, Kalpana Chawla,
Michael P. Anderson, William C. McCool, Ilan Ramon
[left to right in photo below], astronauts
aboard flight STS~107
of space shuttle Colombia, which suddenly disintegrates in flames
at 14:00 UT, at 63'000 m altitude over north-central Texas, traveling at
20'000 km/h as it was on its way to land in Florida at 14:16 UT after 16
days in orbit. The shuttle had started its reentry into the Earth's atmosphere
with the firing of its braking rockets at 07:16 (13:16 UT).
[MORE at NASA]
Colonel Ramon was the first Israeli to fly in space. The other 6 astronauts were from the US. Three had been on previous space flights: Husband (as pilot on flight STS-96, 27 May 99 – 06 June 99), Anderson (on flight STS-89, 22 Jan 98 – 31 Jan 98), and Chawla (on flight STS-87, 19 Nov 97 – 05 Dec 97).
[contrails of pieces of the shuttle as it breaks up >]
Commander Husband, born on 12 July 1957, was an Air Force colonel. The former test pilot was selected as an astronaut in December 1994 on his fourth try.
Pilot McCool, born on 23 September 1961, was a Navy commander, and father of three sons. He graduated second in his 1983 class at the Naval Academy, went on to test pilot school and became an astronaut in 1996.
Payload commander Anderson, born on 25 December 1959, was the son of an Air Force man who grew up on military bases. He was flying for the Air Force when NASA chose him in December 1994 as one of only a handful of Black astronauts. He traveled to Russia's Mir space station in 1998. The lieutenant colonel was in charge of Columbia's dozens of science experiments.
Chawla, 41, emigrated to the US from India in 1980s. She received a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering in 1988 and was selected as an astronaut in December 1994. On only other spaceflight, in 1996, she made mistakes that sent science satellite tumbling out of control. Other astronauts had to go on spacewalk to capture it.
Brown, born on 16 April 1956, was a Navy captain, pilot and doctor. He got his M.D. in 1982 and joined the Navy after a medical internship, went on to fly the A-6E Intruder and F-18. He became an astronaut in 1996.
Clark, 41, was a Navy Commander, a diving medical officer aboard submarines, then flight surgeon. She had received her M.D. in 1987. She was selected as an astronaut in April 1996. She was on board Columbia to help with science experiments. She has an 8-year-old son.
Ramon, born on 20 June 1954, was a colonel in Israel's air force. His mother and grandmother survived the Auschwitz death camp. His father fought for Israel's statehood alongside grandfather. Ramon fought in the Yom Kippur War in 1973 and the Lebanon War in 1982. He served as a fighter pilot in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, flying F-16s and F-4s. On 17 June 1981 Captain Ramon was the youngest pilot of the eight that bombed the Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq. He was chosen as Israel's first astronaut in 1997, and moved to Houston in July 1998 to train for shuttle flight. His wife and four children live in Tel Aviv.
There are survivors: C. elegans worms, a couple of millimeters long, on the shuttle for an experiment, with a life-span of 7 to ten days, not only survive, but reproduce, and their descendants are discovered on 29 April 2003, when their six canisters, recovered from the debris, are opened.
Reproduction of Moon Landscape, by 14-year-old Holocaust victim Petr Ginz, carried by Ramon, perishes in the Colombia disaster. — MORE
This was the 28th space flight of the Columbia, which was the first shuttle orbiter, its first launch was on 12 April 1981. The Challenger exploded on its 10th launch on 28 January 1986. The surviving shuttles are Discovery (30 missions so far, first launch on 30 August 1984), Atlantis (26 missions, first launch on 03 October 1985), and Endeavour (19 missions, first launch on 1992).
2003:: Some 40 persons as a passenger train collides with a freight train carrying flammable liquid and both burst into flames, at 03:00 near Hwange, Zimbabwe. Hundreds are injured.
2003 John Gregg, 45, and Robert Carson, 33, when gunmen fired on them as their taxi was waiting at a traffic light in the downtown docklands area of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Carson was a subordinate of Gregg, one of five “brigadiers” of the outlawed Ulster Defense Association, the largest and most active “loyalist” paramilitary group, to which he was a hero because he had served a prison sentence for the wounding, in an attempted murder, of Gerry Adams, president of Sinn Fein, the political party of the Irish Republican Army, in 1984. Asked later in the Maze prison if he had any regrets, he answered, “Only that I didn't finish the job.” The killings brought to four the number of dead in the current outbreak, which began in October 2002 when the best known brigadier of the Ulster Defense Association, “Mad Dog” Johnny Adair, 39, was banished from the organization by Gregg and the three other brigadiers. This led to the fatal 26 December 2002 shooting of Adair opponent Jonathan Stewart, 22, and the retaliatory 02 January 2003 murder of Adair supporter Roy Green. In January 2003 Britain's Northern Ireland secretary, Paul Murphy, revoked Adair's parole and ordered him back to prison, citing “a litany of terrorist crimes.” It was the second time Adair had been returned to prison since his original early release from a 16-year sentence on terrorism charges in 1999, under the terms of the Northern Ireland peace agreement. He went back in August 2000, accused of inciting violence, and gained release in May 2002. He is now due to remain imprisoned until 2005, but he has the ability to direct operations of his faction from behind bars. The UDA's feuding has to do with who controls the drug dealing, money laundering, gun-running, extortion schemes, and racketeering that the loyalist groups have turned to since the 1998 Northern Ireland peace agreement put an end to organized sectarian violence. These are people who set themselves up to be protectors of the Protestant people, but in fact, over the last couple of years, they have murdered more Protestants than Catholics. The neighborhoods in the grip of the dispute are Protestant working-class housing projects where the walls are painted with the colors of the British flag, militant slogans and murals featuring gloved fists and masked men firing assault weapons.
2003 Mohammed Alamgir, 38, born in Banglahesh, shot at 20:45 at his Dhaka Market grocery store at 153~52 Hillside Avenue in Jamaica NY, by one of three attackers, who had demanded cash but got none.
2002 Osama Qmeil, murdered it Jenin, West Bank. He was a Palestinian security officer who had killed some collaborators with Israel during the late 1980s and early 1990s intifada. On 05 February 2002 three Palestinians would be convicted of the murder by a Palestinian military court and immediately afterwards be murdered by Palestinian gunmen.
2002 Three Palestinian murderers, murdered by some 15 Palestinian gunmen, shortly after two of the three were sentenced to death and the third to 15 years hard labor by a Palestinian military court for killing on 01 February 2002 Osama Qmeil, a Palestinian security officer who had killed some collaborators with Israel during the late 1980s and early 1990s intifada. The gunmen enter the Jenin, West Bank, Chamber of Commerce, one dressed in a policeman's uniform and the others pretending to be plainclothes officers. The Chamber of Commerce was serving as courthouse, since all the Palestinian security installations in Jenin had been bombed in Israeli air strikes. The gunmen took custody of the prisoners on the pretext they were taking them back to their prison cells. Instead they took the three to a bathroom where they shot them dead before fleeing, At the time, real policemen were fending off hundreds of friends and relatives of Qmeil, who mistakenly believed that no death sentences had been imposed and were trying to storm the courthouse.
1991: 35 people, as a USAir jetliner crashes atop a commuter plane on a runway at Los Angeles International Airport.
1991 Más de 300 muertos, por un terremoto de 6,8 grados en la escala de Ritcher en el norte de Pakistán. También causa unos 500 heridos y destruye numerosas poblaciones.
1986 Alva Myrdal, Swedish diplomat, Nobel peace prize winner (1982), born on 31 January 1902.
1976 Werner C. Heisenberg, 74, mathematician, physicist (Nobel 1932, field theory).
1974 Lynda Ann Healy, University of Washington student, disappears from her apartment and is killed by Ted Bundy, a serial killer.
1970 Alfréd Rényi, 48, mathematician (If I feel unhappy, I do mathematics to become happy. If I am happy, I do mathematics to keep happy.)
1968 Viet Cong officer, of a pistol shot to the head from Saigon police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan. [recorded in a famous news photo >].
1966 Elda Furry Hedda Hopper, 75, Hollywood gossip columnist, author of The Whole Truth and Nothing But! (1962).
1962 Moisés de la Huerta, escultor español.
1957 Friedrich von Paulus, 66, German field marshal who, on 31 January 1943, surrendered at Stalingrad against Hitler's orders to fight to the death.
1953: 1835 personas tras un diluvio de varios días y fuertes vientos: sube enormemente la marea, que rompe varios diques y provoca las inundaciones más trágicas de la historia de los Países Bajos, causando tambiés1 300'000 damnificados.
1946 René François Xavier Prinet, French artist born on 31 December 1861..
1944 Piet[er Cornelis] Mondrian (or Mondriaan), Dutch Neo-Plasticist painter born on 07 March 1872. MORE ON MONDRIAN AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
^ 1940 Day 64 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Preparations for the pending enemy offensive involve an unprecedented number of bombers
Karelian Isthmus: fighting intensifies on the Isthmus. At 10.50 in the morning the Russian artillery begins shelling the main defensive position of the Finnish 3rd Division in Summa, and later on also shells positions further back.
Preparations for the pending enemy offensive involve an unprecedented number of bombers.
Shortly after noon the enemy begins a massive offensive supported by tanks and aircraft. The enemy infantry follow the tanks, either by running or by creeping along behind armored shields drawn by the tanks.
12 Squadron locates about 100 enemy artillery batteries in the Kuolemanjärvi-Kaukjärvi-Muolaanjärvi-Summa area of the Isthmus.
Enemy aircraft strafe the area around Pyhäjärvi railway station.
The Taipale sector is bombed by at first 50, and then 80 aircraft. At the same time another 30 aircraft bomb Haparainen village.
The enemy also bombs the southern coastal towns of Hamina, Loviisa, Porvoo, Hanko, Karjaa and Tammisaari.
Southern Ostrobothnia: the 1940 session of Parliament opens in Kauhajoki.
Abroad: the Board of the Swedish Red Cross urges the International Committee of the Red Cross to investigate attacks on Finnish civilians by the Soviet Air Force and to consider possible countermeasures.
The Soviet news agency Tass claims Sweden has emptied its prisons to allow convicts to go off to Finland as volunteers.
In London, prayers are said on behalf of Finland in St Paul's Cathedral. Those present include the Archbishop of Canterbury and all the Nordic ambassadors.
^ Vihollisen hyökkäyksen valmisteluissa on mukana ennen näkemätön määrä pommikoneita Talvisodan 64. päivä, 01.helmikuuta.1940.
Taistelut kiihtyvät Karjalan kannaksella. Aamulla klo 10.50 venäläinen tykistö alkaa tulittaa Summassa 3.Divisioonan alueella ensin pääpuolustustusasemaa ja myöhemmin myös taempia asemia.
Vihollisen hyökkäyksen valmisteluissa on mukana ennen näkemätön määrä pommikoneita.
Puolenpäivän jälkeen alkaa vihollisen massiivinen hyökkäys panssareiden ja lentokoneiden tukemana. Vihollisen jalkaväki seuraa panssareita juosten tai panssarikilpien takana ryömien.
Lentolaivue 12 paikantaa Kannaksella Kuolemanjärven-Kaukjärven-Muolaanjärven-Summan alueella noin 100 vihollisen tykkipatteria.
Viholliskoneet tulittavat Pyhäjärven asemanseutua konekiväärein.
Taipaleen lohkoa pommittaa ensin 50 ja sitten 80 pommikonetta. Samanaikaisesti 30 viholliskonetta pommittaa Haparaisten kylää.
Vihollinen pommittaa Haminaa, Loviisaa, Porvoota, Hankoa, Karjaata ja Tammisaarta.
Vuoden 1940 varsinaiset valtiopäivät avataan Kauhajoella.
Ulkomailta: Ruotsin Punaisen Ristin ylihallitus kehottaa Kansainvälisen Punaisen Ristin komiteaa tutkimaan Neuvostoliiton ilmavoimien väärinkäytökset siviiliväestöä vastaan Suomessa ja harkitsemaan mahdollisia vastatoimenpiteitä.
Neuvostoliiton tietotoimisto Tass väittää Ruotsin vapauttaneen kaikki rikosvangit, jotta he voisivat lähteä vapaaehtoisiksi Suomeen.
Lontoossa St.Paulin katedraalissa järjestetään rukoustilaisuus Suomen puolesta. Tilaisuudessa ovat mukana mm. Canterburyn arkkipiispa sekä kaikkien Pohjoismaiden lähettiläät.
^ Flera bombplan än någonsin tidigare deltar i fiendens anfallsförberedelser Vinterkrigets 64 dag, den 01 februari 1940
Striderna rasar allt häftigare på Karelska näset. På morgonen kl. 10.50 börjar det ryska artilleriet beskjuta huvudförsvarsställningarna och senare också de bakre ställningarna på den 3. Divisionens område i Summa.
Fler bombplan än någonsin tidigare deltar i fiendens anfallsförberedelser.
På eftermiddagen inleder fienden en massiv anstormning med stöd av pansrar och flygplan. Infanteriet följer pansrarna springande eller krypande bakom pansarsköldar.
Flygdivision 12 lokaliserar ungefär 100 ryska artilleribatterier på Näset kring området Kuolemanjärvi-Kaukjärvi-Muolaanjärvi-Summa.
Fiendens bombplan beskjuter stationsområdet i Pyhäjärvi med maskingevär.
Taipaleavsnittet bombas först av 50 och senare av 80 ryska plan. Samtidigt bombar 30 plan byn Haparainen.
Fienden bombar Fredrikshamn, Lovisa, Borgå, Hangö, Karis och Ekenäs.
Den egentliga riksdagen för år 1940 öppnas i Kauhajoki.
Utrikes: Överstyrelsen för Sveriges Röda Kors uppmanar Internationella Röda Korsets kommitté att undersöka det sovjetiska luftvärnets missbruk gentemot civilbefolkningen i Finland och att överväga eventuella motåtgärder.
Sovjetunionens nyhetsbyrå Tass hävdar att Sverige har frigett alla brottsfångar för att dessa ska kunna åka som frivilliga till Finland.
I St. Paul's Cathedral i London arrangeras en bönestund för Finland där bl.a. ärkebiskopen av Canterbury och alla de nordiska ambassadörerna deltar.
| 1938 Armando Palacio Valdés, escritor español.
1924 Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Canadian US Impressionist painter born in 1859. MORE ON PRENDERGAST AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1920 Andrew Carrick Gow, British artist born is 1848. — links to images.
1917 Gustav Schönleber, German artist born on 03 December 1851.
1903 George Stokes, mathematician.
1873 Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, poetisa española.
1851 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English author born on 30 August 1797, daughter of the radical feminist Mary Wollstonecraft (who died 10 days after her birth) and the philosopher William Godwin (author of Caleb Williams). In July 1814 she eloped with poet Percy Bysshe Shelley [04 Aug 1792 – 08 Jul 1822]. In Italy she wrote Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, finishing it on 17 April 1817. Her father read the book in November of that year and he was highly impressed. Frankenstein was published anonymously on 11 March 1818 and soon became a success. After Shelley's death, Mary stayed for a while in Italy close to Lord Byron, before returning to England in 1823. There she raised their only surviving son Percy Florence and wrote poems (like The Choice: a Poem on Shelley's Death), books and essays. The Last Man (1826) is a frightening account of a new plague eating away mankind. She also wrote Valperga: or the Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca (1823), The Fortunes Of Perkin Warbeck (1830), Lodore (1835), Falkner (1837), The Mortal Immortal, Proserpine and Midas: Two Unpublished Mythological Dramas, Rambles in Germany and Italy in 1840, 1842 and 1843 (1844).
1733 August II the Strong, 62, King of Poland (355 children)
after 1708 Jacob Koninck (or Koningh) I, Dutch artist born in 1616. brother of Philips Koninck [1619-1688] and cousin of Salomon Koninck [1609-1656].
1691 Alexander VIII [Pietro Ottoboni], 80, Italian Pope (1689-91)
1598 Scipione il Gaetano Polzone (or Pulzone, Pultoni), Italian artist born in 1545 give or take 5 years.
1328 Charles IV le Bel, King of France (1322-28)
1204 Alexius IV Angelus regent of Byzantium (1203-04), murdered
0656 Sigebert III, 25, king of Austrasia
0525 Saint Brigid of Kildar, Irish nun
| Births which
occurred on a February 01:
1972 Hewlett-Packard HP-35, first scientific hand-held calculator, is introduced ($395)
1949 First 45-RPM record is released by RCA.
1948 El transistor, aplicable a la radio, comunicaciones y fabricación de ordenadores, es inventado por tres físicos estadounidenses.
1917 José Luis Sampedro, economista y escritor español.
1913 Grand Central Station opens in New York City, NY. It is at the time the largest train station in the world.
1905 Emilio Segrè, Italian-born US physicist who died on 22 April 1989.
1904 S.J. (Sidney) Perelman (humorist/writer: Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, One Touch of Venus, Strictly from Hunger, Westward Ha!, Around the World in 80 Clichés) He died on 17 October 1979.
1902 James Mercer Langston Hughes, Black US poet and writer, prominent in the Harlem Renaissance, who became one of the foremost interpreters of racial relationships in the United States. Influenced by the Bible, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Walt Whitman, Hughes depicted realistically the ordinary lives of black people. He died on 22 May 1967.
1900 Stephen Potter, humorist/writer (School for Scoundrels, Shipbuilders)
1900 Burkill, mathematician
1887 Charles Bernard Nordhoff, US novelist and writer of adventure and travel books. Charles Nordhoff wrote with his friend James Norman Hall a three-volume novel about the famous eighteenth-century mutiny, in which the crew of the H.M.S. Bounty, a British war vessel, arose against their cruel commander, Captain William Bligh. The work had a huge success. Author of California: For Health, Pleasure, and Residence California: For Health, Pleasure, and Residence Northern California, Oregon, and the Sandwich Islands
1885 Camille Chautemps, premier, France.
1884 Oxford English Dictionary, first edition, first volume (A-Ant), is published.
1881 La Vanguardia: publicación del primer número de este diario barcelonés, uno de los de mayor circulación en España.
1874 Hugo von Hofmannsthal Loris, Austrian poet, dramatist, and essayist, who became internationally famous for his collaboration with the German composer Richard Strauss. After World War I Hofmannsthal founded with Max Reinhardt the Salzburg Festival, which have given regularly performances of Hofmannsthal's plays. He died in 1929.
1861 (01 Jan?) Jacques-Émile Blanche, French painter who died on 20 September 1942. — more with links to images.
1849 Albert-Marie-Charles Lebourg, French painter who died on 07 January 1928. MORE ON LEBOURG AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1845 José Echena, Spanish artist who died in 1909.
1838 Joseph Keppler, Austrian born US caricaturist and magazine founder who died on 19 February 1894.
1827 Alphonse de Rothschild French banker
1791 Charles J Sax Belgian music instrument builder
1801 Thomas Cole, English US Hudson River School painter, specialized in Landscapes, who died on 11 February 1848. MORE ON COLE AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.