|On a 12 February:
2003 The Belgian Cour de Cassation (Supreme Court) rules that current Israeli Defense Ministry director-general Amos Yaron can be prosecuted for his involvement in the 16 September 1982 Sabra and Chatila massacres of some 800 Palestinians in Beirut, by Phalangist troops who were Israeli allies in Beirut, when Yaron was commander of the Israeli forces in Beirut, and that current Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon can be put on trial for his involvement in that war crime (when he was Defense Minister), but only after he ceases to be prime minister, when he no longer has diplomatic immunity. Belgium has a law that enables its legal system to prosecute suspected international war criminals, even those with no connection to Belgium. The law and the ruling apply equally to any other war crime suspect, such as Irak's Saddam Hussein, Cuba's Fidel Castro, Palestine's Yasser Arafat, or Chad's ex-dictator (07 June 1982 – 01 December 1990) Hissène Habré-Abeche.
2003 Tamao Nishi, 2, is granted documents of residency in the Nishi ward of Yokohama, Japan. He immigrated undocumented in September 2002, and has become a local celebrity, staying in the Katabira River, far from the Bering Strait from where others of his species of seal do not stray.
2001 Sentenced to death 17 years earlier, innocent Black man is freed at last, but not completely.
Earl Washington Jr, 40, IQ 69, Black, is released from a Virginia prison, but still confined to a half-way house, years after he ought to have been completely free. He had been falsely sentenced to death for the murder of Rebecca Lynn Williams on 04 June 1982, exculpated by a 1993 DNA test, then kept in prison on technicalities related to a lesser crime he did commit, but which carries a penalty of many years less in prison than he had already served.
First ever descent of a spacecraft onto an asteroid.
NASA's 487 kg (exclusive of propellant) Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft [image >], launched at 20:43 UT on 17 February 1996, approaches at 1.9 m/s and comes to rest on the surface of asteroid Eros (a first) just outside the saddle-shaped depression Himeros, at about 20:00 UT, though it was not designed for landing.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission is the first of NASA's Discovery missions and the first mission ever to go into orbit around an asteroid. The spacecraft is powered by 1800 W solar panels. It is equipped with an X-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, a near-infrared imaging spectrograph, a multispectral camera fitted with a CCD imaging detector, a laser altimeter, and a magnetometer. A radio science experiment will also be performed using the NEAR tracking system to estimate the gravity field of the asteroid.
[< final image taken from 120 m away, showing about 6 m width of the surface of Eros]
The ultimate goal of the mission was to rendezvous with and achieve orbit around the near Earth asteroid 433 Eros in January, 1999, and study the asteroid for approximately one year.
A problem caused an abort of the first encounter burn and the mission had to be rescoped for a 23 December 1998 flyby of Eros and a later encounter and orbit on 14 February 2000.
Eros is an S-class asteroid about 13 x 13 x 33 km in size. Studies will be made of the asteroid's size, shape, mass, magnetic field, composition, and surface and internal structure. Periapsis of the orbit will be as low as 24 km above the surface of the asteroid. Prior to its encounter with Eros NEAR flew within 1200 km of the C-class asteroid 253 Mathilde on 27 June 1997. It then flew by the Earth on 23 January 1998. The spacecraft has the shape of an octagonal prism, approximately 1.7 m on a side, with four solar panels and a fixed 1.5 m X-band high-gain radio antenna.
2000 Spacecraft NEAR takes these pictures of asteroid Eros tumbling through space, at a distance of 1800 km. [>]
1999 IMPEACHMENT TRIAL: CLINTON ACQUITTED BY SENATE
The five-week impeachment trial of Bill Clinton comes to an end, with the Senate voting to acquit the president on both articles of impeachment: perjury and obstruction of justice.
In November 1995, Clinton began an affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 21-year-old unpaid intern. Over the course of a year and a half, the president and Lewinsky had nearly a dozen sexual encounters in the White House. In April 1996, Lewinsky was transferred to the Pentagon. That summer, she first confided in Pentagon co-worker Linda Tripp about her sexual relationship with the president. In 1997, with the relationship over, Tripp began secretly to record conversations with Lewinsky, in which Lewinsky gave Tripp details about the affair.
In December, lawyers for Paula Jones, who was suing the president on sexual harassment charges, subpoenaed Lewinsky. In January 1998, allegedly under the recommendation of the president, Lewinsky filed an affidavit in which she denied ever having had a sexual relationship with him. Five days later, Tripp contacted the office of Kenneth Starr, the Whitewater independent counsel, to talk about Lewinsky and the tapes she made of their conversations. Tripp, wired by FBI agents working with Starr, met with Lewinsky again, and on January 16 Lewinsky was taken by FBI agents and US attorneys to a hotel room where she was questioned and offered immunity if she cooperated with the prosecution. A few days later, the story broke, and Clinton publicly denied the allegations, saying, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky."
In late July, lawyers for Lewinsky and Starr worked out a full-immunity agreement covering both Lewinsky and her parents, all of whom Starr had threatened with prosecution. On 06 August, Lewinsky appeared before the grand jury to begin her testimony, and on August 17 President Clinton testified. Contrary to his testimony in the Paula Jones sexual-harassment case, President Clinton acknowledged to prosecutors from the office of the independent counsel that he had had an extramarital affair with Ms. Lewinsky.
In four hours of closed-door testimony, conducted in the Map Room of the White House, Clinton spoke live via closed-circuit television to a grand jury in a nearby federal courthouse. He was the first sitting president ever to testify before a grand jury investigating his conduct. That evening, President Clinton also gave a four-minute televised address to the nation in which he admitted he had engaged in an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky. In the brief speech, which was wrought with legalisms, the word "sex" was never spoken, and the word "regret" was used only in reference to his admission that he misled the public and his family.
Less than a month later, on September 9, Kenneth Starr submitted his report and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the House of Representatives. Released to the public two days later, the Starr Report outlined a case for impeaching Clinton on 11 grounds, including perjury, obstruction of justice, witness-tampering, and abuse of power, and also provided explicit details of the sexual relationship between the president and Ms. Lewinsky.
On October 8, the House authorized a wide-ranging impeachment inquiry, and on December 11 the House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment. On December 19, after nearly 14 hours of debate, the House approved two articles of impeachment, charging President Clinton with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice. Clinton, the second president in US history to be impeached, vowed to finish his term.
On 07 January 1999, in a congressional procedure not seen since the 1868 impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson, the trial of President Clinton got underway in the Senate. As instructed in Article 1 of the US Constitution, the chief justice of the US Supreme Court (William Rehnquist at this time) was sworn in to preside and the senators were sworn in as jurors.
Five weeks later, on 12 February, the Senate votes on whether to remove Clinton from office. The president is acquitted on both articles of impeachment. The prosecution needs a two-thirds majority to convict but fails to achieve even a bare majority. Rejecting the first charge of perjury, 45 Democrats and 10 Republicans vote “not guilty” and on the charge of obstruction of justice the Senate is split 50-50. After the trial concludes, President Clinton says that he is "profoundly sorry" for the burden his behavior imposed on Congress and the US people.
(1) The Senate returns to open session shortly after 12 noon EST, and Majority Leader Trent tells told Chief Justice William Rehnquist the Senate is ready to vote.
| (2) After the impeachment votes, Sen. Dianne
Feinstein (D-California) attempts to enter her motion to censure. But Sen.
Phil Gramm of Texas objects and since unanimous consent is required to consider
the censure motion, Feinstein asks that the Senate rules be suspended.
| (3) White House Press Secretary Joe Lockhart
tells reporters Clinton was in the White House residence during the vote
but does not watch it on television. According to her associates, Monica
Lewinsky does watch the vote on television.
(4) Secretary of State Madeleine Albright receives the certified document of the Senate judgment in the president's impeachment trial this afternoon from Gary Sisco, Secretary of the Senate.
| (5) Clinton then comments on the end of
the Senate impeachment trial:
| (6) 20-year-old Penn State sophomore Alysia
DeAntonio and her professor claim The New Yorker magazine appears
to have ripped off her concept of Monica Lewinsky as the Mona Lisa.
| (8) Impeachment is over, but Independent
Counsel Kenneth Starr is not finished. There are presidential friends to
be tried, a leaks case to resolve and a momentous decision: whether to indict
1999 Granny get your gun... NOT!
When workers for the town of North Greenbush NY come to cut overgrown trees at the home of Hildegard von Waldenburg, 81, she tries to deter them by threatening them with a shotgun. Prosecutors would pursue her for the misdemeanor of second-degree menacing, during 22 months, in three different courts before five different judges, until, on 12 December 2000, North Greenbush Town Justice Raymond Elliott dismisses the case as an act of mercy, saying a delay in justice is no justice.
| 1998 US district judge T. Hogan declares line-item
veto law unconstitutional
1997 South Korea announced that a secretary with North Korea's ruling Workers (Communist) Party had sought asylum at the South Korean consulate in Beijing, China. Hwang Jang Yop was the highest-level official ever to defect from North Korea.
1995 PRI loses / PAN wins Mexican regional elections
1994 As the 17th Olympic Winter Games open in Norway, the US Olympic Committee allows Tonya Harding to compete in the women's figure skating competition, despite claims that she was involved in the assault on rival skater Nancy Kerrigan the month before.
1993 About 5000 demonstrators march on Atlanta's State Capitol to protest the Confederate symbol on the Georgia state flag.
1991 Iceland recognizes Lithuania's independence
| 1981 Cape Verde amends its constitution.
1981 Admiral Bobby R Inman, USN, becomes deputy director of CIA
1973 first US POWs in N. Vietnam released; 116 of 456 flown to Philippines
1962 Bus boycott starts in Macon GA
1958 General Miguel Ydegoras Fuentes elected President of Guatemala
1957 Researchers announce Borazan (harder than diamonds) been developed
1955 Soviets decides space center built in Baikonur, Kazakhstan
1955 President Eisenhower sends first US advisors to South Vietnam
1953 USSR breaks diplomatic relations with Israel after terrorists bombed the Soviet legation in Tel Aviv.
1950 Albert Einstein warns against hydrogen bomb.
1947 Daytime fireball and meteorite fall seen in eastern Siberia.
1944 Wendell Wilkie (R) enters presidential race.
1942 3 German battle cruisers escape via Channel to Brest N Germany.
1934 France hit by a general strike against fascists and royalists
1933 German vice-chancellor von Papen demands Catholic aid for Nazis
1927 British expeditionary army lands in Shanghai
1925 Estonia forbids Communist Party
1924 The first advertising-sponsored radio program is broadcast. "The Eveready Hour," was sponsored by the National Carbon Company and broadcast in New York, Washington, and Providence. Sponsored programs, which would later give way to spot advertising, provided much of the economic impetus behind the growth of radio and television.
1921 Soviet troops invade Georgia (theirs, not ours)
1921 Winston Churchill becomes British minister of Colonies
1913 El embajador de EUA en México, señor Henry Lane Wilson, en compañía de los ministros de Alemania e Inglaterra, se entrevista en Palacio Nacional con el presidente Madero, para pedirle garantías para las propiedades de extranjeros en estos momentos de convulsión interna.
1912 China adopts the Gregorian calendar
1912 Last Ch'ing (Manchu) emperor of China, Henry P'u-i, abdicates
1886 2nd British government of Salisbury forms
1879 News about slaughtering of Isandlwana reaches London
1877 The first telephone news dispatch is called into the Boston Globe in Boston from Salem, Massachusetts, using equipment provided by Alexander Graham Bell.
1874 King David Kalakaua of Sandwich Island HI, is first king to visit US.
1873 Congress abolishes bimetallism and authorizes $1 and $3 gold coins
1861 State troops seize US munitions in Napoleon AK.
| 1839 Boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick
leads to Aroostook
1825 Unequal Creek Indian treaty signed; tribal chiefs are forced to agree to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by 1 September 1826
1818 Chile gains independence from Spain
1772 Yves de Kerguelen of France discovers Kerguelen Archipelago, India.
1762 English fleet occupies Martinique
1624 English parliament comes together.
1577 Spanish land guardian Don Juan of Habsburg signs "Eternal Edict"
1528 Treaty of Dordrecht between emperor and ecclesiastical power
1502 Granada Moslems forced to convert to Catholicism
1130 Pope Innocent II elected
1111 German King Henry V arrives at St Peter, Rome
1049 Bruno count of Egesheim and Dagsburg crowned Pope Leo IX
which occurred on a February 12:
2003:: 3 Islamic Jihad Palestinians including Jadi Suleiman, 18, and Abdel Rahman Hamadiyeh, 20, both of the Jabalya refugee camp; two killed by Israeli tank fire and one by small arms fire are he was coming to the assistance of the other two; near the enclave settlement Dugit in the north of the Gaza Strip, before the three had a chance to use the hand grenades and knives which the Israeli say they were carrying; in the early morning.
2003 Fourteen hajjis trampled in Mina, Saudi Arabia, during the devil-stoning ritual of the three pillars.
2003 Twenty demonstrators in plaza Murillo of La Paz, Bolivia, between 13:16 and 18:00 as government troops [photo below] (including snipers on rooftops) fire at some 7000 striking policemen demanding a 40% raise and protesters against a project of income tax announced by president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada on 09 February (designed to reduce the government's budget deficit to the 5.5% called for by an agreement with the International Monetary Fund). Striking firemen let burn the fires set by the rioters. Sánchez de Lozada withdraws the tax proposal, but looters and vandals rampage through the night.
| 2001 Six soldiers in one of two US Army
Black Hawk helicopters which crashed in heavy rain during a nighttime exercise
over Kahuku on the island of Oahu. The two helicopters may have collided.
11 others were injured while four of the 17 soldiers on the two aircraft
2001 Ziyad Abu Swai, 20, Palestinian shot in the chest by Ziyad Abu Swai, 20 by Israeli soldiers firing on a bus taking Palestinian workers to jobs in Israel via a back road to elude the army blockade of West Bank communities. Near the village of al-Khader, the bus encounters an Israeli army bulldozer, and soldiers order the driver to turn back. The back window of the bus is shattered by bullets. Another passenger, Mohammed Barmeel, is seriously injured in the neck This brings to 389 the number of people killed (close to 90% of them Arabs) during the 4-month-old al-Aqsa intifada provoked by Ariel Sharon.
James Bulger, 35 months old, tortured to death by two 10-year-olds.
A small boy [photo >] who was to turn three in March was taken from the Strand shopping center in Bootle, Liverpool, by two 10 year old boys. Jamie Bulger walked away from his mother for only a second and Jon Venables took his hand and led him out of the mall with his friend Robert Thompson. They took Jamie on a walk for over 2 and a half miles, along the way stopping every now and again to torture the poor little boy who was crying constantly for his mommy. Finally they stopped at the railway line at Walton Lane, Liverpool. where they brutally kicked him and threw stones at him and rubbed paint in his eyes and pushed batteries up his anus. They then left his beaten small body on the tracks so a train could run him over to hide the mess they had created.
Denise Bulger's statement, made before James' body had been found, contained the words of a mother who believed her child was still alive. She used the present tense. James's hair 'is ready for cutting,' she said. 'His eyes are blue but in the right eye is a brown streak. He has a full set of baby teeth.' Mrs. Bulger, 25, remembered, as only a mother who had dressed her child that morning could, that he was wearing a Noddy T-shirt, and that his white underpants had 'a yellow stripe and a black stripe which is very thin, almost a pencil line'. She told - a truly horrendous irony - how James 'loved anything to do with trains'. Then she described the moment she realized he had gone. She was in the butcher's shop, A. R. Timms. 'James had been at my side while I was being served. But as I looked down he had gone. I panicked and ran to the security office.'
[< the abduction, from security video tape]
At the trial ( 1 Nov 24 Nov 1993):
7 Nov 1993: Mrs. Bulger, of Kirkby, Merseyside, was not in court for the first week of the trial, expected to last four weeks. She was at home, avoiding newspapers, television, anything that would add to her pain. Her husband Ralph, 26, was in court.
5 Nov 1993: Mrs. Z cried as she told how two boys had tried to abduct her son shortly before James disappeared. Lorna Brown, 43, cried as she told how she had seen James with a fresh bump on his forehead, being led by two boys.
Kathleen Richardson, 45, told how she was traveling on the 67a bus and had seen two boys swing James high into the air. She shouted: 'What the hell are those kids doing to that poor child. What kind of parents have they got to allow them out with a child like that?' Kathleen Richardson said she cried out in anger when she saw how roughly a baby was being treated by two older boys. She was on the 67a bus traveling home. At about 15.50, as the bus reached a roundabout about a mile from the New Strand, she saw out of the bus window two boys with a young child between them. The boys were holding the child's hands. One let go as the other swung the child high above his shoulder. She saw the child's white shoes as he came up. 'I shouted out in the bus: 'What the hell are those kids doing to that poor child! What kind of friggin' parents have they got to let them out with a child like that?' Under cross-examination, Mrs. Richardson added: 'They were being rough with him. That's what made me shout out. It will never leave me because it upset me so much.'
5 Nov 1993: Others came closer to stopping the hike to the railway line. Irene Hitman, 63, told how she had spoken to two boys and expressed concern about the little boy with them. The toddler 'had a lump on his forehead and a terrible lump on the top of his head'. He was struggling. 'His little legs seemed to be giving out under him,' she said. But again the boys moved on relentlessly towards Walton Lane.
Earlier, the court heard that by the time James had reached the Leeds and Liverpool canal, a quarter of a mile from the New Strand, he was in a distressed condition. Malcolm Walton said he saw a child, whom he later identified as James, clearly upset. 'He was crying his eyes out.'
4 Nov 93:
The jury in a packed courtroom in Preston crown court watched in silence as the drama of the last seconds leading up to James Bulger's alleged abduction by two 11-year-old boys flickered in front of them on video screens. In what the prosecution described as a 'compilation video', the court was shown a sequence of frames which captured the vital moments before James went missing. They were taken on February 12 by 16 video cameras set up around the New Strand shopping precinct in Bootle. The frames, staggered by intervals of two or three seconds, made the images jump like an early silent movie. The video, the prosecution alleged, gave a detailed account of how the two-year-old was lured to his death. The boys, who can be named only as child A and child B, deny the charges.
The prosecution used a single white arrow superimposed on the footage to direct the gaze of jurors. The film, blurred and of poor definition, started at 12.23 when two boys could be seen walking towards the camera. Richard Henriques QC, prosecuting, said the boy in a dark coat was child A, while child B wore a lighter jacket. The footage cuts between shots of the boys in the shopping center Some show them close together, jostling or playfully kicking each other. In other frames they have wandered apart. At 15.14 the video captured them hanging around a book stall in the center of the precinct square. After a couple of minutes, they moved on again. At 15.37 James Bulger and his mother, Denise, came into view walking towards the camera positioned outside AR Timms butchers. The following seconds caught the instant when James disappeared. At 15.38, while his mother was paying for some sausages, he was captured on the bottom right-hand corner of the screen standing on his own. He appeared to glance around him, then walked out of the field of vision. A minute and a half later, Denise rushed out of the shop. She was seen hurrying in several directions searching for her son. By 15.41 the first shots were taken of James walking across the precinct square in close proximity to the two boys. In one frame he was holding the hand of the one said to be child B. The three boys were filmed moving away out of the main exit of the precinct's upper level. The final frame, taken at 15.43, showed them fading into the distance.
The Crown's witnesses added flesh to this skeleton account of events. Angela Higgins described how she and her two sons, who were convalescing from chickenpox, had visited the New Strand on the day James went missing. She saw two boys 'messing around' with a fire hydrant and thought they should have been at school. Without her noticing, her younger son, aged four, went up to the boys to ask them what they were doing. When she called him back the taller of the two boys appeared to be talking to him. Hearing her voice, the taller boy looked at her. 'He held my stare. Then he turned to his friend, muttered something and wandered off.' The testimony jumped forward in time to about 15.15 when Pamela Armstrong, a nurse, was running a health information stall in the central square of the precinct. She saw a young boy approach the stall and pick up a book. He leafed through some pages, then 'put the book back roughly'. She said the boy, who was wearing a beige anorak and dark trousers, was then joined by a second boy, and they both began 'tormenting an old lady'.
Ms Armstrong's mother, Hilda, who was also at the stall, said she saw the boys shoving each other. 'I was speaking to a lady about a medical problem and they were grabbing at our books as if to take them. They gave cheek until we could take it no longer and this lady swung her bag at them and said: 'Clear off you cheeky brats.' They moved off.' Anthony Flaherty, a sales manager, said he was with his wife outside Toymaster. He saw a boy come out of the toy shop holding what he assumed to be a stolen tin of modeling paint. He described the boy with the paint as carrying a light, beige-colored jacket over his arm. He was joined by a boy wearing a dark jacket. Brian Walsh QC, defending child B, referred Mr. Flaherty to the police statement he had made 10 days after the incident. It said the boy holding the paint carried a dark jacket while the other's was beige. 'You got it completely the wrong way round,' Mr. Walsh said. 'Yes sir, I am very, very nervous,' Mr. Flaherty replied. Another shopper, Janet Naylor, said she saw two boys, who she identified as the defendants from photographs, in front of the side entrance of Timms butchers. One dropped a small tin of paint, spilling some of it. Ms Naylor then entered the butcher's and a few minutes later a woman came in shouting: 'I cannot see him outside.' She was referring to her son. The trial continues today. (4 Nov 93)
3 Nov 1993: Mrs. Bulger goes to hospital for a routine test on her pregnancy. Everything is fine. The baby is due in December.
“All little boys are nice until they get older.” Robert Thompson, age 11
On 22 June 2001, the British authorities announced that Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, both then 18, would be released, because a parole board ruled they were no longer a danger to the public. They would be given new homes and identities, which a court order bars the British media from revealing. Foreign media vowed to publish the information, and many expect the evil pair to be murdered.
| 1980 Hille,
1977 Cunningham, mathematician
1958 Marcel Cachin, 88, first communist French senator
1958 Hartree, mathematician.
1948. Héctor Pérez Martínez muere en el puerto de Veracruz, polifacético campechano, odontólogo, periodista, literato y político. Fue gobernador de su Estado y secretario de Gobernación con el presidente Alemán. Aparte de diversos poemas y estudios literarios, dejó las obras: Juárez el impasible y Cuauhtémoc, vida y obra.
1942 Avraham Stern, 34, killed by British as they discover the Tel Aviv hiding place of the extremist Zionist terrorist founder of LEHI (Lohamei Herut Yisrael), better known as the Stern Gang..
^ 1942 Grant Wood, 49, US painter [American Gothic >]
Grant Wood adopted the precise realism of 15th-century northern European artists, but his native Iowa provided the artist with his subject matter. American Gothicdepicts a farmer and his spinster daughter posing before their house, whose gabled window and tracery, in the American Gothic style, inspired the painting's title. In fact, the models were the painter's sister and their dentist. Wood was accused of creating in this work a satire on the intolerance and rigidity that the insular nature of rural life can produce; he denied the accusation. American Gothic is an image that epitomizes the Puritan ethic and virtues that he believed dignified the Midwestern character. MORE ON WOOD AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to more images.
^ 1940 Day 75 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Fierce fighting continues in Summa
Northern Finland: Colonel Dolin, commander of the enemy ski brigade bearing his name, is killed in a skirmish with a Finnish patrol in Kuhmo.
Karelian Isthmus: the Red Army enlarges its breakthrough in the Lähde sector.
The enemy fails to break through in other sectors of the front.
The enemy continues to attack on the Muolaanjärvi-Punnusjärvi isthmuses.
The Kirvesmäki stronghold in Taipale is lost and attempts to retake it prove unsuccessful.
Heavy fighting continues in Summa.
Referring to the aid Finland is expecting from the international community, Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner issues a statement in his own name via the Finnish News Agency in which he denies claims of attempts to broker a peace.
Prime Minister Ryti and Minister without Portfolio J.K. Paasikivi describe Tanner's statement as ill-considered.
While in Turku en route for a secret trip to Stockholm, Tanner receives details from Chargé d'Affaires Erkko of the Soviet Union's terms for peace. The Soviet terms are passed on to the Finnish Government.
The Ministry of Supply announces new maximum prices for coffee: the maximum permitted retail price for roasted ersatz containing at least 25% coffee is 20 markkaa per kilo, with Rio blend at 34 markkaa, the Central American Santos blend 32 markkaa and Quality blend at 50 markkaa per kilo.
Abroad: Karl J. Ewerts, the director of volunteer recruitment in Sweden, returns from a trip to the Karelian Isthmus and issues a statement to the press calling for weapons, men and vehicles to be sent to Finland.
The first 10 Finnish flying cadets arrive in Stockholm for training provided by the Royal Swedish Aero Club.
In the United States, the "one dollar collection" organized by the Finnish committee has already raised over a million dollars
^ Taistelut Summassa jatkuvat ankarina Talvisodan 75. päivä, 12.helmikuuta.1940
Kuhmossa vihollisen hiihtoprikaatin komentaja eversti Dolin kaatuu suomalaispartion kanssa käydyssä kahakassa.
Puna-armeija laajentaa läpimurtoaan Lähteen lohkolla Länsi-Kannaksella.
Muualla vihollisen hyökkäykset torjutaan.
Vihollisen hyökkäykset jatkuvat Muolaanjärven-Punnusjärven kannaksilla.
Kirvesmäen tukikohta menetetään Taipaleessa ja yritys sen takaisin valtaamiseksi epäonnistuu.
Taistelut Summassa jatkuvat ankarina.
Ulkoministeri Tanner viittaa Suomelle ulkomailta tulevaan apuun ja antaa omissa nimissään Suomen Tietotoimiston kautta tiedonannon julkisuuteen, jossa torjutaan tiedot rauhanvälityshankkeista. Pääministeri Ryti ja ministeri Paasikivi pitävät Tannerin lausuntoa harkitsemattomana.
Tanner matkustaa salaiselle matkalle Tukholmaan ja saa jo Turussa tietää ministeri Erkolta Neuvostoliiton rauhanehdoista.
Neuvostoliiton rauhanehdot välitetään Suomen hallituksen tietoon.
Kansanhuoltoministeriö määrää kahville uudet enimmäishinnat: paahdettu kahvinkorvike, jossa on vähintäin 25% kahvia, saa maksaa vähittäiskaupassa enintäin 20 mk kilo, Rio-sekoitus 34 mk, keski-amerikkalainen Santos-sekoitus 32 ja Laatusekoitus 50 mk kilo.
Ruotsin vapaaehtoisen värväys-toiminnan johtaja Karl J. Ewerts palaa Kannaksen vierailultaan ja antaa lehdistölle lausunnon, jossa hän vaatii ennen kaikkea aseiden, miehien ja koneiden toimittamista Suomelle.
Tukholmaan saapuu ensimmäiset 10 suomalaista lento-oppilasta Ruotsin Kuninkaallisen Aeroklubin kustantamaan lentokoulutukseen.
Yhdysvalloissa Suomen komitean järjestämä niin sanottu yhden dollarin keräys on tuottanut yli miljoona dollaria.
^ De häftiga striderna i Summa fortsätter Vinterkrigets 75 dag, den 12 februari 1940
I Kuhmo stupar den fientliga skidlöparbrigadens kommendör överste Dolin i sammandrabbningar med en finsk patrull.
Röda Armén utvidgar sin inbrytning på Lähdeavsnittet på västra delarna av Näset.
På övriga håll avvärjs fiendens attacker.
Fienden fortsätter att anfalla på näsen mellan Muolaanjärvi och Punnusjärvi.
I Taipale går basen vid Kirvesmäki förlorad och försöket att återerövra den misslyckas.
De häftiga striderna i Summa fortsätter.
Utrikesminister Tanner hänvisar till hjälpen som Finland får från utlandet och publicerar ett meddelande i sitt eget namn via Finlands Nyhetsbyrå där han bestrider uppgifterna om försöken till fredsförmedling.
Statsminister Ryti och minister Paasikivi anser att Tanner handlat oöverlagt.
Tanner reser i hemlighet till Stockholm och får redan i Åbo veta Sovjetunionens fredsvillkor av minister Erkko.
Sovjetunionens fredsvillkor förmedlas till Finlands regering.
Folkförsörjningsministeriet fastställer nya maximipriser för kaffe: rostat kaffesurrogat som innehåller minst 25 % kaffe får kosta högst 20 mk/kg i detaljhandeln, Rio-blandning 34 mk/kg, mellanamerikansk Santos-blandning 32 mk/kg och Kvalitetsblandning 50 mk/kg.
Karl J. Ewerts, direktör för värvningen av svenska frivilliga, återvänder från sitt besök på Näset och ger ut ett pressmeddelande där han kräver att framför allt vapen, män och flygplan sänds till Finland.
De 10 första flygeleverna anländer till Stockholm för att delta i flygutbildning på bekostnad av Kungliga Svenska Aeroklubben.
I USA har den såkallade endollarsinsamlingen som arrangerats av den finska kommittén bringat in över en miljon dollar.
| 1919 Harold Gilman, English painter born on 11 February
1876. — a bit more
with link to images.
1916 J. W. Richard Dedekind, 84, German mathematician (Dedekind cuts)
1901 Ramón Valle muere en la ciudad de México, distinguido guanajuatense , poeta, dramaturgo, novelista, periodista y militar, quien luchó contra la intervención francesa; fue diputado local y secretario del Ayuntamiento de la capital de su Estado. Después de estas actividades se retira a la vida privada, termina la carrera eclesiástica y se dedica a la teología y las letras.
1128 Toghtekin slave/atabek of Damascus
| Births which
occurred on a February 12:
1942 Ehud Barak, Israeli Prime Minister.
1930 Arlen Specter (Senator-R-PA, 1981- )
1918 Schwinger, mathematician.
1914 Hanna Neumann, mathematician.
1911 Sylvstre A Guzman Fernandez President (Dominican Republic)
1909 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.
1908 Herbrand, mathematician.
1893 Omar Bradley General of Army WWII "The GI General"
1884 Max Beckmann, German Expressionist painter who died on 27 December 1950. MORE ON BECKMANN AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to images.
1856 Maurycy Moses Gottlieb, Polish painter who died on 17 July 1879. — more
1837 Thomas Moran, US Hudson River School painter, specialized in Landscapes and the US West. See below his The Great Blue Spring of the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone. MORE ON MORAN AT ART 4 FEBRUARY with links to more Moran images.
1828 George Meredith England, poet / novelist (Shaving of Shagpat). MEREDITH ONLINE: The Amazing Marriage The Egoist: A Comedy in Narrative An Essay on Comedy and the Uses of the Comic Spirit Lord Ormont and his Aminta (zipped) Modern Love One of Our Conquerors (zipped) The Ordeal of Richard Feverel Poems volume 1, volume 2, volume 3 A Reading of Life, and Other Poems.
1809 Abraham Lincoln Hodgenville KY, (R) 16th President (1861-65)
1809 Charles Robert Darwin.
On 27 December 1831, British naturalist Charles Darwin had set out from Plymouth, England, aboard the HMS Beagle, on a five-year surveying expedition of the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information proves invaluable in the development of his theory of evolution, first put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants. The Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life would be published in England on 24 November 1859. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants.
The first printing of 1250 copies sells out in a single day. By 1872, it would have run through six editions, and become one of the most influential books of modern times. Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle. By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage. Fearing the fate of other scientists, like Copernicus and Galileo, who had published radical scientific theories, Darwin held off publishing his theory of natural selection for years. He secretly developed his theory during two decades of surreptitious research following his trip on the Beagle. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died in 1882.
Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, and later by English scientist Alfred Russel Wallace, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle during the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his experiments with variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of natural selection. His On the Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip.
By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while also secretly working on his radical theory of evolution.
Knowing that scientists who had published radical theories before had been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off on publishing his theory of natural selection for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published On the Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died on 19 April 1882.
| 1768 Francis II Florence Italy, last Holy Roman emperor
1737 John Hancock
- 1588 John Winthrop English attorney/puritan/first Governor of Massachusetts
Ten Craziest Homework Excuses:
10. Last night I got temporary amnesia and I totally forgot!
9. My older sister couldn't find her same homework from last year.
8. The dog told me the answers, but I figured Woof! woof! arf! arf! wasn't right.
7. When I realized we had run out of toilet paper, it was all I had at hand.
6. It was so hard I cried and my tears smudged all the ink.
5. It is here, it's just in invisible ink!
4. I heard voices telling me not to do it!
3. What I am doing here? Who am I?
2. My dad watched TV all evening instead of doing it.
1. My Mom ate my homework! *
(* important note: do NOT use excuses 7 and 1 together)