|On a January
| 1998 Ramzi Ahmed Yousef is sentenced to life in
prison for his role of mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing
in New York.
1992 President George Bush (Sr., the one who was legitimately elected) collapses during a state dinner in Tokyo, vomiting on Japanese prime minister's lap. White House officials say that Bush is suffering from stomach flu. [not good publicity for Japanese food]
1990 Felix Alfredo Cristiani Burkard reconoce que los jesuitas fueron asesinados por militares salvadoreños.
1990 José Ignacio Pérez Sáez se convierte en el nuevo presidente de La Rioja (España) tras una moción de censura.
1989 Soviet Union promises to eliminate stockpiles of chemical weapons
1988 Dow Jones down 140.58 points
1988 The Presidential Task Force on Market Mechanisms reported that the stock market plunge of 19 October 1987, was caused by automatic trading programs used by large money management firms. A subsequent report tied the crash to futures trading. In February, the New York Stock Exchange announced it would curb the use of electronic trading systems when the Dow Jones industrial average rose or fell more than fifty points.
1987 Dow Jones closes above 2000 for first time (2002.25)
1986 President Reagan freezes Libyan assets in the US
1982 US Telephone system is opened to competition when American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) company is broken up. AT&T agrees to give up 22 local Bell System companies representing 80% of the company's assets.
1982 Dow Jones first tops 2000.
1982 US Justice Department withdraws antitrust suit against IBM, pending since 1969.
1982 Oscar Ribas Reig se convierte en el primer presidente del Principado de Andorra.
1979 Argentina and Chile sign Beagle Canal accord
1979 Vietnamese troops overtook Khmer Rouge and occupy Phnom Penh
1978 Israel's Cabinet votes to `strengthen' settlements in occupied Sinai.
1977 Los acusados de la muerte de dos partidarios de Carlos Hugo Borbón de Parma son puestos en libertad.
1976 Se publica en Buenos Aires el testamento político de Juan Domingo Perón Sosa.
| 1975 Judge Sirica orders release of Watergate's
John W Dean III, Herbert W Kalmbach and Jeb Stuart Magruder from prison
1974 Silver hits record $3.40 an ounce in New York
1974 Gold hits record $126.50 an ounce in London.
1974 La OPEP decide estabilizar el precio del petróleo a condición de que los países industrializados contengan su inflación.
1974. El consejo de guerra celebrado en Barcelona dicta pena de muerte para Salvador Puig Antich, acusado de terrorismo.
1971 Los tupamaros secuestran al embajador británico en Uruguay.
1965 Star of India returned to American Museum of Natural History
1964 European Parliament accepts the Mansholt Plan, a radical restructuring of Western European agriculture that became the basis for the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Economic Community (EEC) and its successor, the European Community (EC).
1964 US President Lyndon B. Johnson's first annual State of the Union address: he declares a "War on Poverty" (but does not claim war powers and violate civil rights, as would, after the 11 Sep 2001 terrorist attack, usurper-President “Dubya” Bush)
1963 Mona Lisa, on loan, unveiled in America's National Gallery of Art [see a reproduction] [hear and read the song]
1962 Se aprueba en El Salvador una nueva Constitución.
1959 Charles de Gaulle inaugurated as President of France's 5th Republic [picture: with Ike, Jan.1959] (ad for a brand of paint in Paris métro: "Les républiques passent, le Ripolin reste")
1959 Fidel Castro Ruz entra triunfalmente en la Habana (Cuba).
1958 (1959?) Cuban revolutionary forces capture Havana
1953 René Mayer (1895-1972) forms French government (lasted until 530521) Membre du premier gouvernement de Léon Blum, il rejoint le général de Gaulle à Alger en 1943. Il a été plusieurs fois ministre des Finances et de la Justice et a également présidé la Haute autorité de la CECA. [< photo]
1953 En Dinamarca se autoriza la sucesión femenina al trono.
1952 Jordan adopts constitution
1951 Thought extinct since 1615, 18 pairs of cahows are discovered nesting on Cooper's islet off of Bermuda. Millions of cahows, or Bermuda petrels (Pterodroma cahow), were exterminated by the early colonists of Bermuda. The surviving cahows are now under strict protection.
1947 General George Marshall becomes US Secretary of State.
1947 El general monárquico español Antonio Aranda Mata es desterrado a las Baleares.
1945 Josip Broz “Tito” reivindica para Yugoslavia, Rijeka y Trieste.
1926 Abdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud becomes king of Hejaz; renames it Saudi Arabia. Ibn Saud es proclamado rey del ex reino independiente de Hedjaz, actualmente incorporado a Arabia Saudí.
1922 Arthur Griffith vuelve a ser presidente de la república irlandesa, tras la dimisión de Eamon de Valera. El parlamento de Dublín ratifica el tratado por el cual Gran Bretaña reconoce la creación de un estado libre en Irlanda del Sur (Eire).
1918 Mississippi becomes first state to ratify 18th amendment (prohibition)
| 1917 Austria-Hungarian troops conquer Forlani Italy.
1889 Dr. Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) receives first US patent for a tabulating machine that was an important precursor of the electronic computer. The machine tallied numbers fed to it on punch cards. The system was first used extensively to compile statistics for the eleventh federal census in 1890. In 1896, Hollerith organized the Tabulating Machine Company, which later grew into the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
1856 Dr John A Veatch discovers borax, Tuscan Springs CA
1838 first telegraph message sent using dots and dashes, New Jersey 1838 Telegraph Code Alfred Vail of Morristown, New Jersey, demonstrated a telegraph code he devised using dots and dashes as letters. A predecessor to Samuel Morse's code, Vail transmitted the message "a patient waiter is no loser."
1811 Louisiana slave revolt by Charles Deslondes at German Coast
1806 Cape colony becomes English colony.
1806 Lewis and Clark find skeleton of 32 m blue whale in Oregon.
1800 Austrians defeat French in 2nd battle of Novi.
1800 In London, the first soup kitchens are opened for the relief of the poor.
1800 An 11-year-old boy is found naked and wild in a French forest. He was entrusted to Dr. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard, who explained the methods that he used (1801-05) in trying to train and educate the boy in Rapports sur le sauvage de l'Aveyron (1807), becoming a precursor of special education.
1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupy Stirling.
1745 England, Austria, Netherlands and Saxon sign anti-Prussian Quadruple Alliance.
1697 L'explorateur français Cavelier de la Salle découvre les Chutes du Niagara. A la présente frontière américano-canadienne, elles sont formées par les eaux du Lac Érié qui se déversent dans le lac Ontario. Ces chutes hautes de plus de 50 mètres sont l'un des grands spectacles de la nature.
1675 first American commercial corporation chartered (New York Fishing Co)
1656 Oldest surviving commercial newspaper begins (Haarlem, Netherlands)
1598 Genoa, Italy, expels Jews.
1558 French troops under duke de Guise occupy Calais.
1499 Louis XII of France after papal divorce marries Anne, Duchess of Brittany to keep the duchy for the crown.
1438 The council of Basle, which had opposed Pope Eugenius IV reconvenes in Ferrara, as ordered by the papal bull of 14370918.
0794 Church at Lindisfarne, England destroyed by Vikings
0624 Moslem army occupies Kurashitische Caravan.
which occurred on a January 08:
2004 All 9 US soldiers aboard (5 passengers and the crew of 4) a US military UH-60 Black Hawk medical evacuation helicopter which is hit by a ground-to-air missile and crashes in flames near Fallujah, Iraq.
2003:: 72 of the 77 aboard a Turkish Airlines RJ-100 (built by British Aerospace) coming from Istanbul, which crashes as it tries to land at Diyarbakir, in Turkish-occupied Kurdistan.
2003 All 19 passengers and 2 crew members aboard Air Midwest commuter Flight 5481, a Beech 1900 twin-engine turboprop which falters in its climb and crashes into a corner of a maintenance hangar at 08:55 as it takes off from Charlotte, North Carolina, bound for Greenville-Spartanburg. This is the first passenger or cargo airliner crash causing fatalities in the US since 12 November 2001 when American Airlines Flight 587 crashed in New York killing 265 persons.
2002 Dave Thomas, 69, just past midnight (or just before on 07 Jan), of liver cancer, founder of Wendy's. Born on 02 July 1932, Thomas was adopted as an infant and became an advocate for adoption, founding in 1992 the Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption. He was 12 when he got his first job delivering groceries. In 1962 he took over four failing KFC restaurants in Columbus, Ohio, and sold them back to KFC for $1.5 million in 1968. In 1969 Thomas opened his first Wendy's Old Fashioned Hamburgers, named after his daughter Melinda Lou, 8, Wendy to her siblings. Since 1989 Thomas became known for his homey, humorous TV commercials, which helped the Wendy's chain grow to 4800 restaurants in the US and 34 countries by 1996 (over 6000 in 2002), the third largest fast food chain in the world. Thomas completed high school (equivalency certificate) in 1993. Thomas wrote Dave's Way' and Well Done! [photo: Thomas in commercial >]
2001 Several dead in military coup attempt in Ivory Coast, which is put down by forces loyal to. President Laurent Gbagbo.
1999 Enrique Gran Villagraz, pintor español, muere en su domicilio madrileño al incendiarse el colchón de su dormitorio.
1998 Walter Diemer, 98, inventor (bubble gum 1928), of heart failure.
1997 Jesús Cuesta Abril, teniente coronel del Ejército de Tierra de España, es asesinado de tres tiros en la cabeza por dos miembros de la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1996 François Mitterrand, President of France (1981-95), dies of cancer at 79, leaving these words which cardinal Lustiger of Paris repeated at the funeral: "Comment mourir? Nous vivons dans un monde que la question effraie et qui s'en détourne. Des civilisations, avant nous, regardaient la mort en face. Elles dessinaient pour la communauté et pour chacun le chemin du passage. Elles donnaient à l'achèvement de la destinée sa richesse et son sens. Jamais peut-être le rapport à la mort n'a été aussi pauvre qu'en ces temps de sécheresse spirituelle, où les hommes, pressés d'exister, paraissent éluder le mystère. Ils ignorent qu'ils tarissent ainsi le goût de vivre d'une source essentielle."
François Mittterand, né en 1916, diplômé en droit, devient avocat. Il est fait prisonnier de guerre en 1940 et s'évade en 1941, date à laquelle il travaille au commissariat aux prisonniers de guerre du Gouvernement de Vichy. En 1943, il entre dans la Résistance. A la Libération, il fonde le Mouvement national des prisonniers de guerre. Elu député centriste de la Nièvre en 1946, il occupe ensuite de nombreux postes ministériels : secrétaire d'État aux Anciens Combattants (1947-1948), ministre de l'Intérieur (1954-1955), ministre de la Justice (1956-1957). Parallèlement, il mène une carrière politique active : il est élu président du Conseil général de la Nièvre (1964-1981), maire de Château-Chinon (1959-1962), sénateur de la Nièvre (1959-1962) puis député de ce département. Il se présente une première fois à la présidence de la République en 1965 mais échoue contre le général de Gaulle. Nommé Premier secrétaire du Parti socialiste (1971-1981), il cosigne en 1972 le programme commun de la gauche avec le Parti communiste. Candidat de l'opposition de gauche, il échoue de nouveau à l'élection présidentielle de mai 1974, face à Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, avant d'être élu à la présidence de la République le 10 May 1981. Après une période de cohabitation avec une majorité parlementaire et un Gouvernement de droite, dirigé par Jacques Chirac (mars 1986-juin 1988), il est élu une seconde fois à la présidence de la République (juin 1988-mai 1995).
1996 Carmen Conde, poetisa española.
1992 Menachem Begin, 78, Israeli PM, of a heart attack.
1990 Jaime Gil de Biedma, poeta español.
1968 Loewner, mathematician.
| 1956 Jim Elliot, 28, Nate Saint, Roger Youderian, Ed McCully,
and Pete Fleming, Plymouth Brethren missionaries speared to death
in Ecuador by Auca Indians they had come to Ecuador in hopes of evangelizing,
and which they had first seen, from a plane at 500 m, on 29 October 1955.Elliot's
widow Elisabeth later published the story of their work and martyrdom in
her book Through Gates of Splendor (1953). Cinco misioneros
protestantes en Ecuador cuando intentaban establecer contacto con los indios
auca, en la selva oriental.
1945:: 23 persons in crash of a Pan Am Martin 130 airplane in Trinidad.
1944 William Kissam Vanderbilt Jr., 65, who devoted much of his share of the family fortune to early automobile racing. He maintained a personal garage of more than 100 cars and 20 mechanics. He built the toll Long Island Expressway to avoid speed limits.
1941 Lord Robert Baden-Powell, 83, founder of the Boy Scout movement. general británico, fundador de los "boy-scouts".
1921 Gérard-Marie-François Girard-Firmin, French artist born on 29 May 1838.
1916 Rembrandt Bugatti, by suicide, Italian sculptor and draftsman, specialized in animals, born on 16 October 1884 (1885?), brother of the designer and builder of artistic luxury cars Ettore Bugatti [15 Sep 1881 – 21 Aug 1947]. — more with a link to images.
1908 Seventeen persons in a train collision in a smoke-filled Park Avenue Tunnel in New York City. 38 are injured. The accident causes a public outcry and increased demand for electric trains.
1896 Paul-Marie Verlaine, 51, French poet (Elégies, Bonne Chanson)
1894 Columbus World's fair in Chicago destroyed by fire
1880 [Joshua] Norton I, 60, Emperor of US, protector of México
1879 Baldomero Espartero, general y político español.
1874 Eduard Schleich II, German painter born on 12 October 1812. — more with a link to an image.
1857 Nicholas Condy, British artist born in 1793.
1848 Austrian soldiers kill 10 students, Pavia
1842 Pierre Earl de Cambronne, 71, French General (Waterloo, Elba)
1713 Arcangelo Corelli, 59, composer / violinist (Concerti Grossi).
0624 Abu Sufjan ibn Harb Kurashite chief, in battle
0482 Severinus German monastery founder/saint.
| Births which
occurred on a January 08:
2001 Noah, at TransOva Genetics in Sioux Center, Iowa, Asian gaur produced from a cell from a dead gaur implanted into a cow's egg (cleared of cow DNA) and gestated by a cow, the first trans-species gestation. Noah would die 2 days later of dysentery.
1988 HP-28S Advanced Scientific Calculator of Hewlett-Packard in introduced
1979 Sequoyah chimpanzee (son of Washoe)
1964 War on Poverty. In his State of the Union address, President Lyndon B Johnson announces, "This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America."
1947 El cielo está cerca, comedia de Víctor Ruiz Iriarte, se estrena en Madrid.
1942 Stephen Hawking, English mathematician, physicist (Black Holes and Baby Universes, The Arrow of Time). At age 22 he would be diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease), for which the average survival time is three to five years from the onset of symptoms. Despite his illness, Hawking earned his doctorate at Cambridge, where he later would hold the same academic chair given to Isaac Newton in 1669. Hawking is best known for his best-seller A Brief History of Time, and among scientists for "Hawking radiation" the theory that black holes are not really black but emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. One of his aims is to prove string theory to explain the universe. Hawking has at times startled colleagues with public statements concerning the existence of extraterrestrials, time travel and the creation of new humans through genetic engineering. He also has predicted the end of humanity from global warming, a new killer virus or a large comet colliding with Earth. [Hawking web site]
1942 George Passmore, in Devon, England, of Gilbert and George performance (?) artists (with Gilbert Proesch, British, Italian-born in1943) LINKS
1935 Spectrophotometer is patented by A.C. Hardy.
1933 Juan Marsé, escritor español.
1926 Soupy Sales [Milton Hines], North Carolina, comedian (Soupy Sales Show)
1924 Cohn, mathematician.
1921 Leonardo Sciascia, escritor político italiano.
1904 Curtis Arnoux Peters “Peter Arno”, New York City NY, US cartoonist whose satirical drawings, particularly of New York café society, did much to establish The New Yorker magazine's reputation for sophisticated humor. He died on 22 February 1968.
1902 Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov, político soviético.
1900 Serge Poliakoff, Russian French abstract painter who died on 12 October 1969. — more with links to images.
1888 Richard Courant German / US mathematician (What is mathematics?)
1881 Henri de Waroquier, French artist who died on 31 December 1970.
1874 Oskar Laske, Austrian artist who died in 1951.
1870 Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, militar y político español.
1867 Emily Greene Balch, a leader of the women's movement for peace during and after World War I. She shared the 1946 Nobel Peace Prize with Dr. John R. Mott. Balch died on 10 January 1961.
1864 Hugo Darien, French artist who died on 07 January 1926.
1862 Frank Nelson Doubleday publisher/founder (Doubleday and Co)
1852 Giovanni Frattini, mathematician.
1843 Nathaniel Sichel, German artist who died on 04 December 1907.
1836 Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch English Pre-Raphaelite painter who died on 25 June 1912. MORE ON ALMA~TADEMA AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1829 Schroeter, mathematician.
1823 Florent Willems, Belgian artist who died in October 1905.
1822 Samuel Bough, English painter who died 19 November 1878. — more with links to images.
1785 Jan Baptiste de Jonghe, Flemish painter and lithographer who died on 14 October 1844. — more with links to two images.
1712 Gabriel Gaspard Grésely (or Gresly), French artist who died in 1756. [Du bon Grésely de bon gré se lit n'importe quel renseignement, mais je n'en trouve pas dans l'internet.]
1696 Étienne Parrocel le Romain, French artist who died in 1776. — more with a link to images.
1638 Elisabetta Sirani, Italian Baroque painter, who, on 28 August 1665, died poisoned (according to her father). MORE ON SIRANI AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1081 Henry V Roman German king/emperor (1098/1111-1125)