a January 29:
2002 USurper President George “Dubya” Bush gives his State of the Union address.
2002 Albanian Prime Minister Ilir Meta hands in his resignation to President Rexhep Meidani. His arch-rival, ruling Socialist Party Chairman Fatos Nano, had criticized Meta for governing with ``fascist methods'' and in December 2001 accused three of his ministers of abuse of power. The ministers said they were innocent but agreed to step down for the sake of stability. Nano loyalists then blocked the appointment of their replacements, and Meta's resignation follows the failure of talks to agree on a reshuffle. The feud discouraged badly needed foreign investment and caused neglect of economic reforms in Albania, which is suffering power cuts of up to 20 hours a day due to an electricity crisis.
2001 El juez Juan Guzmán dicta una orden de procesamiento y arresto domiciliario contra el dictador chileno Augusto Pinochet.
2001 In Bhachau, near Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Sweta Kumar, 7-months-old girl, is pulled out alive from the rubble of her home under which she had stayed buried since the earthquake of 26 January. [< photos >]
2001 In Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Sikh soldiers digging with their hands and crow bars, rescue Cham Paten Seth, 90, who had been trapped in the rubble since the earthquake of 26 January. She survived because her head was protected by an old sewing machine. [< photo, not sure it's the same woman >]
2001 Hetal Visani, a 10 year old Indian girl, survivor of the 26 January earthquake, looks on while sitting at the military hospital in the city of Bhuj, Gujarat, today. [photo >]
2001 Eight-month-old Murtza Ali recuperates in a hospital in Bhuj, today. Murtza was found when members of the Indian Border Security Force in Bhuj were working to remove the body of a dead woman, and discovered Murtza lying in his mothers lap. Murtza Ali spent some 96 hours trapped there covered in his mother's blood.
Doctors say that it was the warmth of the mother's body and the protection it offered that helped the baby survive during nights when temperatures dropped to 7ºC. Relatives were found nearby, and Murtza is expected to survive. [< photo]
2001 In the Gujarat quake region, few are those found alive by now. Many thousands are like this dead woman and child (just its head is seen) trapped under the rubble of the Maruti Apartment building in Bhuj. [photo >]
| 2000 Delegates meeting in Montreal reached an international
agreement on the trade of genetically modified food and other products.
1998 Dieciséis países, entre ellos Rusia, Estados Unidos y Japón, firman en Washington el acuerdo intergubernamental para la construcción de una estación espacial internacional.
1997 America Online agrees to give refunds to frustrated customers under threat of lawsuits. Customers were unable to log on after a surge in their numbers when AOL offered a flat $19.95-a-month rate.
1991 In his State of the Union Address, US President George Bush (Sr.) assures the people of the US that the war against Iraq will be won and that the recession at home will end in short order. (Extraordinary security measures are in effect for the first wartime State of the Union address since the Vietnam era.)
1991 Battle for Khafji in Saudi Arabia (begins)
1991 El Congreso de Somalia Unificada nombra a Alí Mahdi Mohamed nuevo presidente del país.
1991 Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi meet in Durban after 28 years
1991 US President George H. W. Bush's State of the Union address.
1990 Exxon Valdez captain Joseph Hazelwood goes on trial due to oil spill
1989 Dow jumps 38.06 recoups 508-point loss since October 1987; index at 2256.43
1988 United Airlines Boeing 747SP, circles world in 36 hours 54 minutes 15 seconds
1988 Talks break down between Sandinistas and Contras
1987 William J Casey, ends term as 13th director of CIA
1987 Physician’s Weekly announces that the smile on the face of Leonardo DaVinci's Mona Lisa is caused by a "...facial paralysis resulting from a swollen nerve behind the ear."
1986 193.8 million shares traded in New York Stock Exchange
1984 President Ronald Reagan formally announces he will seek a 2nd term.
1981 Adolfo Suárez dimite de sus cargos de presidente del Gobierno español y del partido de Unión de Centro Democrático.
1980 6 Iranian held US hostages escape with help of the Canadians
1979 Graves inundaciones en la provincia de Ciudad Real, España, por las lluvias torrenciales.
Nauru adopts constitution
1967 Pope Paul VI [< photo] and Soviet President Nikolay Viktorovich Podgorny conferred at the Vatican in the first meeting in history between a Roman Catholic pontiff and the head of a Communist state.
1967 Se establece un acuerdo entre Paraguay y Argentina que permite la libre navegación de buques de ambos países por el río Paraguay y el Paraná.
1963 La CE niega el ingreso del Reino Unido.
1949 Britain, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand and Switzerland recognize Israel.
1948 El delegado soviético en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, Andrei Gromyko, pide la destrucción de todas las bombas atómicas existentes.
1944 285 German bombers attack London
1942 Peru and Ecuador sign Protocol of Rio (boundary determination) Ecuador y Perú firman el Tratado de Río de Janeiro, para el arreglo definitivo del pleito de límites en la zona amazónica fronteriza de ambos países, con Argentina, Brasil, Chile y EE.UU como garantes.
1942 Maremoto en Mar de Plata (Argentina), que produjo graves daños materiales.
1942 German and Italian troops occupy Benghazi
^ 1942 Iran becomes ally of UK and USSR
Britain and the Soviet Union secure an agreement with Iran that offers it protection while creating a "Persian corridor" for the Alliesa supply route from the West to Russia. Early in the war, Iran collaborated with Germany by exporting grain to the Axis power in exchange for technicians. But the Allies viewed Iran as a valuable source of oil and conveniently situated as a route for shipping Western war material east to the USSR. On August 25, 1941, both Allied powers invaded Iran (which Prime Minister Winston Churchill preferred to call "Persia," so there would be no confusion between "Iran" and "Iraq"), the Soviets from the north and the Brits from the south. In four days, the Allies effectively controlled Iran.
On September 16, the ruling shah abdicated, and his 23-year-old son, Muhammad, assumed power and pushed through the Iranian parliament the Treaty of Alliance, which allowed the Allies freedom to move supplies through the country and gave them whatever else they needed from Iran to win the war. The new shah also vowed "not to adopt in his relations with foreign countries an attitude which is inconsistent with the alliance." In exchange, Iran was promised wartime protection from Axis invasion-and a guarantee that the Allies would leave Iranian soil within six months of the close of the war.
The alliance started off shakily: the Soviets bought up most of Iran's grain harvest, which caused a bread shortage and riots in the streets. Allied troops put the rebellion down, and the United States shipped in grain to compensate for the losses. The Soviet Union then attempted to agitate for the overthrow of the shah by supporting the Tudeh (Farsi for "masses") party, which the Soviets believed would be more generous in oil concessions. Tudeh forces did manage temporarily to take over northern Iran in December 1944.
When the war ended, the Allies began leaving Iran as promisedexcept for the USSR. Complaints were made to the United Nations, and pressure was applied by the United States and Great Britain, as this was a violation of one of the terms of the Treaty of Alliance. The Soviets finally began pulling out of Iran in April 1946, but as they withdrew, they continued to foster more bloody rebellions between the shah's government and the Tudeh; the Tudeh were decisively defeated in December 1946 when the shah declared martial law.
|1934 Un temblor de tierra en Acapulco daña el 90% de
1933 German President von Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor.
1929 León Trotski llega a Constantinopla tras ser expulsado de la URSS.
1927 4th German government of Marx forms.
1922 Union of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador dissolved.
1919 Secretary of state proclaims the 18th amendment (prohibition)
1916 first bombings of Paris by German Zeppelins takes place.
1912 Martial law declared in textile strike in Lawrence MA.
1895 Se produce en Cuba un levantamiento independentista que fracasó.
1893 Sensacional robo en un hotel de París de cuadros de pintores famosos.
1864 Cavalry skirmish at Medley, West Virginia
1863 Battle at Bear River WA US Army vs Indians
1848 Sicily accepts new Constitution (choose parliament/freedom of press).
1801 Tratado hispano-francés, promovido por Napoleón, para incitar a la guerra a Portugal y separar a este país de Inglaterra.
1788 Australia Day
1641 Tras ser proclamado soberano de Portugal por las Cortes, Juan IV emprende una política de alianzas contra Felipe IV para afianzar su situación frente a Castilla.
1613 Galileo observes Neptune but fails to recognize what he sees.
1587 Deventer and Zutphen surrender to Spain.
1574 Sea battle of Reimerswaal — Admiral Boisot beats Spanish fleet.
which occurred on a January 29:
2004 Eleven persons, including suicide bomber of the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, in the back of Egged bus No. 19, at 08:50 (06:50 UT), on the corners of Arlozorov and Gaza streets in the Rehavia district of downtown Jerusalem, 15 meters from the official residence of Prime Minister Sharon. Some 45 persons are injured.
[three corpses are seen >]
2003 William Gray, Faye Wilkins, and a contract worker, in explosion at 13:27 followed by several hours of fire in Kingston, North Carolina, at the West Pharmaceutical Services plant, which makes plastic syringe plungers and IV supplies, and was found in October 2002 to be guilty of 15 safety violations involving its electrical systems design, wiring and use; portable fire extinguishers; hazardous waste operations; and communications, leading to a settlement on 08 January 2003 for a $9075 fine. 37 persons are injured. The explosion occurs in the factory's automatic compounding system section, which makes molten rubber.
2002 Mim and Alif, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, conjoined twins girls born on 24 January 2002, die 10 hours after being surgically separated.
2001 Mohammad Abu Moussa, 21, Palestinian shot in the stomach by Israeli troops during a confrontation near the Jewish settlement of Neve Dekalim in Gaza. This brings the total killed during the al-Aqsa intifada which began in late September, to at least 313 Palestinians, 48 Israelis and 13 Israeli Arabs.
2001 Courtney Ann Morley-Clarke, 3, [< photo] stabbed once then suffocated soon after being kidnapped at 03:00 from her home on Northwind Avenue, Point Clare near Gosford, New South Wales, Australia, by a 13-year-old boy who was a ward of the state at age 3, adopted at age 6, and attending special schools for the emotionally disturbed since 2000.
1998 An off-duty policeman as bomb explodes at an abortion clinic in Birmingham, AL. A nurse is severely wounded. Eric Rudolph would be charged with this bombing and three other attacks (one of them: 16 January 1997: Two bomb blasts an hour apart at Atlanta building containing abortion clinic, injuring seven persons). Rudolph would go into hiding, be the target of a massive manhunt, but not be caught for years.
1997 Osvaldo Soriano, narrador y periodista argentino.
1989 Carlos Fernández López-Valdemoro, "Pepe Alameda", ensayista y periodista español.
^ 1989 Yugo's US importer goes bankrupt
Global Motors, the American company that imported the Yugo car, filed for bankruptcy. The Yugo was a Yugoslavian-made economy car that sold for thousands of dollars less than its nearest competitor. Its astonishingly low price made it a popular car for a few years in the mid-1980s, but the car’s flaws soon became apparent. It was underpowered, unreliable, and, famously, you could punch holes in the body with a wooden pencil. The cars were also poorly warrantied, to the dismay of thousands of disappointed Yugo owners.
1986 Los 21 ocupantes de un avión DC-3 de Aerocalifornia que se estrella cerca del aeropuerto de Los Mochis (México).
1985 Rafael de la Fuente Benavides, "Martín Adán", escritor peruano.
1984 El teniente general Guillermo Quintana Lacacci, ex capitán general de Madrid, asesinado por ETA.
1984 John Whittaker, mathematician.
1968 Tsuguharu Leonard Fujita, Japanese painter born on 27 November 1886. MORE ON FUJITA AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1966: 165 persons in snow storm in north east US.
1963 Robert Lee Frost, 88, US poet (New Hampshire, 4 Pulitzers)
1963 Gabriel Maura Gamazo, político e historiador español.
1956 H[enry] L[ouis] Mencken, 75, US essayist/critic/satirist (Smart Set), in Baltimore.
1947: All 34 aboard a South American Airways Avro Tudor 4 airplane which disappears near the Azores.
1946 Harry L Hopkins, 55, US New Deal Democratic administrator who personified the ideology of vast federal work programs to relieve unemployment in the 1930s; he was Secretary of Commerce (1938-40) then he continued as President Franklin D. Roosevelt's emissary and closest personal adviser during World War II.US (Loan and Lease law)
1941 Ioannis Metaxas, 69, Greek General/dictator (1936-41), suicide.
1940 Day 61 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Soviet Union willing in principle to discuss peace
Molotov announces through the Swedish Foreign Minister that the Soviet Union is in principle willing to discuss peace.
Northern Finland: at 5 o'clock in the morning Colonel Siilasvuo's 9th Division launches a counteroffensive to destroy the Russian 54th Division in Kuhmo.
Central Isthmus: in Summa, the enemy carries out a probing assault preceded by heavy preparatory artillery fire in the Hanhiojansuu sector. The Finnish defences repulse the assault.
Eastern Isthmus: in Taipale, the enemy breaks through in the Terenttilä area. Intense fighting is still going on.
Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops continue their attacks on the West Lemetti 'motti'. Six Blenheim bombers from 10 Squadron bomb enemy transports at the mouth of the River Taipaleenjoki. When one of the aircraft has to make a forced landing, the others land on the ice and rescue the crew.
Karelian Isthmus: Finnish fighters shoot down two enemy fire control planes.
Häme: an enemy bomber makes a forced landing on Lake Iso Roinevesi in the municipality of Hauho. The Finnish air Force inherits a completely undamaged Russian DB-3 bomber.
Ladoga Karelia: Soviet aircraft bomb Mantsi Fort.
Turku: a late air-raid warning allows enemy bombers to catch the city by surprise and 36 people are killed on their way to the air-raid shelters; most of the victims are hit in front of the main post office.
Finland's Minister of Social Affairs K.-A. Fagerholm travels to Oslo to appeal to Norway to send troops and fighter aircraft to Finland.
Abroad: tickets for the bandy match between Finland and Sweden to raise funds for Finland are sold out. King Gustav V of Sweden is among those who have bought a ticket.
^ Neuvostoliitto on periaatteessa valmis keskustelemaan rauhasta Talvisodan 61. päivä, 29.tammikuuta.1940
Molotov ilmoittaa Ruotsin ulkoministerin välityksellä, että Neuvostoliitto on periaatteessa valmis keskustelemaan rauhasta.
Eversti Siilasvuon komentama 9. Divisioona aloittaa vastahyökkäyksen klo 5 Kuhmossa venäläisen 54. Divisioonan tuhoamiseksi.
Kannaksella vihollinen tekee voimakkaan tykistövalmistelun jälkeen tiedusteluhyökkäyksen Hanhiojansuun suunnassa Summassa.
Suomalaiset torjuvat hyökkäyksen.
Taipaleessa vihollinen tekee sisäänmurron Terenttilän alueella ja taistelut jatkuvat kiivaina.
Suomalaiset jatkavat hyökkäyksiä läntisen Lemetin motin tuhoamiseksiLaatokan Karjalassa. Lentolaivue 10 pommittaa kuudella BL-pommikoneella vihollisen kuljetuksia Taipaleenjoen suulla. Laivue menettää yhden koneen.Laivueen muut koneet laskeutuvat jäälle ja pelastavat pakkolaskun tehneen koneen miehistön.
Kannaksella suomalaisten hävittäjien onnistuu ampua alas kaksi vihollisen tulenjohtokonetta.
Vihollisen pommikone tekee pakkolaskun Ison Roineveden selälle Hauholla.Suomalaiset saavat sotasaaliiksi täysin vahingoittumattoman venäläisen DB-3 pommikoneen.
Neuvostokoneet pommittavat Mantsin linnaketta. Turussa hälytys ilmavaarasta myöhästyy ja vihollisen pommikoneet yllättävät kaupunkilaiset: pommisuojiin pyrkiviä ihmisiä kuolee 36, joista suurin osa postitalon edustalla. Ministeri K. A. Fagerholm matkustaa Osloon ja vetoaa norjalaisiin sotilaiden ja hävittäjäkoneiden saamiseksi.
Ulkomailta: Suomen tukemiseksi järjestettävän Suomen ja Ruotsin välisen jääpallo-ottelun liput on myyty loppuun. Myös Ruotsin Kuningas Kustaa V on lunastanut pääsylipun otteluun.
^ Sovjetunionen i princip redo att förhandla om fred Vinterkrigets 61 dag, den 29 januari 1940
Molotov meddelar på förmedling av Sveriges utrikesminister att Sovjetunionen i princip är beredd att förhandla om fred.
Den 9. Divisionen under ledning av överste Siilasvuo går till motattack kl. 5 i Kuhmo för att utplåna den ryska 54. Divisionen.
På Näset inleder fienden efter häftiga artilleriförberedelser en forcerad spaning i riktning Hanhiojansuu vid Summa. Finnarna avvärjer anfallet.
I Taipale gör fienden en inbrytning i området kring Terenttilä och striderna fortsätter intensivt.
Finnarna fortsätter anfallen för att förinta mottin i västra Lemetti i Ladoga-Karelen. Flygdivision 10 bombar fiendens transporter med sex BL-plan vid mynningen av Taipaleenjoki. Divisionen mister ett plan. De övriga planen landar på isen och räddar besättningen som nödlandat.
På Näset lyckas finska jagare skjuta ner två av fiendens eldledningsplan.
Ett ryskt bombplan nödlandar i Hauho på åsen av Iso Roinevesi. Finland får ett fullständigt oskadat ryskt DB-3-bombplan som krigsbyte.
Ryska plan bombar bunkern i Mantsi. I Åbo dröjer flyglarmet och fiendens bombplan överraskar stadsborna: när människorna försöker ta sig till bombskydd dödas 36 personer, av vilka de flesta framför posthuset.
Minister K.-A. Fagerholm reser till Oslo för att begära norska soldater och jaktplan.
Utrikes: Biljetterna till bandymatchen mellan Finland och Sverige som arrangerats för att stöda Finland är slutsålda. Också Sveriges Kung Gustav V har löst in en biljett till matchen.
| 1938 Armando Palacio Valdés, escritor español.
MORE ON VEDDER AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1906 Christaan IX, King of Denmark (1893-1906)
1900 Boers under Joubert beat English at Spionkop Natal, 2000 killed.
1899 Alfred Sisley, French painter born on 30 October 1839. MORE ON SISLEY AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1895 King Koko's Kopermannen assault on Akassa Niger, 100's killed
1888 Edward Lear, English landscape painter born in 1812. who is more widely known as the writer of an original kind of nonsense verse and as the popularizer of the limerick. His true genius is apparent in his nonsense poems, which portray a world of fantastic creatures in nonsense words. Author of: Laughable Lyrics: A Fourth Book of Nonsense Poems, Songs, Botany, Music, Etc. More Nonsense, Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, Etc. Queery Leary Nonsense: A Lear Nonsense Book. WRITING BY LEAR ONLINE: A Book of Nonsense MORE ON LEAR AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1715 Lamy, mathematician.
1696 Ivan V co-tsar of Russia (1682-89)
1676 Alexei Mijailovitch, Zar de Rusia.
1632 Jan Porcellis (or Parcellis, Persellis, Pourchelles), Flemish painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, born in 1584. MORE ON PORCELLIS AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1614 Ambroise Bosschaert (?) Dubois, French (or Flemish?) artist born in 1543
1499 Katherine von Bora, the former German nun who became Martin Luther's wife in 1525 when he was 41 and she 26. During their 21-year marriage, Katie bore Martin 3 sons and 3 daughters. Her death in 1552 followed six years after her husband's in 1546.
1119 Gelasius II [Giovannis Caetani], pope (1118-19)
0969 Peter tsar of Bulgaria (927-69)
which occurred on a January 29:
1966 Sweet Charity opens at the Palace Theatre in New York City. It wourd run for 608 performances.
1936 Patrick Caulfield, British Pop artist. MORE ON CAULFIELD AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1924 Ice cream cone-rolling machine of Carl Rutherford Taylor of Cleveland is awarded US Patent 1'481'813.
1923 Autogiro, first flight (Juan de la Cierva, Madrid Spain)
1910 Henri Queffélec, écrivain, à Brest.
1908 Adam Clayton Powell (Representative-D-NY, 1945-1970)
1905 Barnett Newman, US Abstract Expressionist and Minimalist painter who died on 04 July 1970. — more with links to images.
1886 Alfonso Rodriguez Castelao, escritor, dibujante y político galleguista español.
1874 John Davison Rockefeller Jr. Cleveland OH,US philanthropist, son of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., and heir to the Rockefeller fortune, who built Rockefeller Center in New York City and was instrumental in the decision to locate the United Nations in that city. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., joined his father in business for a time but from 1910 devoted his energies almost exclusively to philanthropy. He had five sons: John D. III, Nelson A., Laurance S., Winthrop, and David, and one daughter.
1872 Sir William Rothenstein, English painter who died in 1945. — more with links to images.
1868 Albin Egger-Lienz, Austrian artist who died on 04 November 1926.
1867 Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, novelista español.
1866 Romain Rolland, écrivain, à Clamecy (Nièvre). Pendant la Grande Guerre, Rolland se retirera en Suisse. Dans «Au-dessus de la mêlée», il plaidera pour la paix et la sauvegarde de la culture occidentale, ce qui lui vaudra le reproche de trahir son pays. Prix Nobel de littérature 1915. Il mourra le 30 décembre 1944.
1862 Frederick Delius Bradford England, composer (Hiawatha)
1845 The Raven poem is published
Edgar Allan Poe's famous poem The Raven, beginning "Once upon a midnight dreary," is published in the New York Evening Mirror. Poe's dark and macabre work reflected his own tumultuous and difficult life. Born in Boston on 19 January 1809, Poe was orphaned at age three and went to live with the family of a Richmond, Virginia, businessman. Poe enrolled in a military academy but was expelled for gambling. He later studied briefly at the University of Virginia.
In 1827, Poe self-published a collection of poems. Six years later, his short story MS Found in a Bottle won $50 in a story contest. He edited a series of literary journals, including the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond starting in 1835, and Burton's Gentleman's Magazine in Philadelphia, starting in 1839. Poe's excessive drinking got him fired from several positions. His macabre work, often portraying motiveless crimes and intolerable guilt that induces growing mania in his characters, was a significant influence on such European writers as Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and even Dostoyevsky.
On 7 October 1849 Poe would die a tragic death in Baltimore. Never able to overcome his drinking habits, he would be found in a delirious condition outside a saloon that was used as a voting place.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. "'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door- Only this, and nothing more." Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December, And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Eagerly I wished the morrow;- vainly I had sought to borrow From my books surcease of sorrow- sorrow for the lost Lenore- For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore- Nameless here for evermore. And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Thrilled me- filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating, "'Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door- Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;- This it is, and nothing more." Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer, "Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore; But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping, And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door, That I scarce was sure I heard you"- here I opened wide the door;- Darkness there, and nothing more. Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering,fearing, Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before; But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token, And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore!" This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, "Lenore!"- Merely this, and nothing more. Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before. "Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice: Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore- Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;- 'Tis the wind and nothing more." Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter, In there stepped a stately raven of the saintly days of yore; Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he; But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door- Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door- Perched, and sat, and nothing more. Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling, By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore. "Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven, Ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the Nightly shore- Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!" Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore." Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly, Though its answer little meaning- little relevancy bore; For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being Ever yet was blest with seeing bird above his chamber door- Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door, With such name as "Nevermore." POE ONLINE:
But the raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour. Nothing further then he uttered- not a feather then he fluttered— Till I scarcely more than muttered, "other friends have flown before— On the morrow he will leave me, as my hopes have flown before." Then the bird said, "Nevermore." Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken, "Doubtless," said I, "what it utters is its only stock and store, Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore— Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore Of 'Never- nevermore'." But the Raven still beguiling all my fancy into smiling, Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door; Then upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore— What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt and ominous bird of yore Meant in croaking "Nevermore." This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom's core; This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining On the cushion's velvet lining that the lamplight gloated o'er, But whose velvet violet lining with the lamplight gloating o'er, She shall press, ah, nevermore! Then methought the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer Swung by Seraphim whose footfalls tinkled on the tufted floor. "Wretch," I cried, "thy God hath lent thee- by these angels he hath sent thee Respite- respite and nepenthe, from thy memories of Lenore! Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!" Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore." "Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil!- prophet still, if bird or devil!— Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore, Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted— On this home by horror haunted- tell me truly, I implore— Is there- is there balm in Gilead?- tell me- tell me, I implore!" Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore." "Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil- prophet still, if bird or devil! By that Heaven that bends above us- by that God we both adore— Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn, It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore— Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore." Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore." "Be that word our sign in parting, bird or fiend," I shrieked, upstarting— "Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore! Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken! Leave my loneliness unbroken!- quit the bust above my door! Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!" Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore." And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door; And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming, And the lamplight o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor; And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor Shall be lifted— nevermore!
| 1843 William McKinley, Niles OH, (R) 25th US President
(1897-1901, assassinated while in office)
1817 John Callcott Horsley, British painter who died on 18 October 1903. — more with an original limerick and links to images.
1817 Ferrel, mathematician.
1810 Eduard Kummer, mathematician. He died in 1893.
1773 Friederich Mohs, minerólogo alemán, inventor de la escala que mide la dureza de los minerales.
1770 Martinus Schouman, Dutch artist who died on 30 October 1848.
1767 Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, French painter who died on 08 December 1824. MORE ON GIRODET AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
1761 Abraham AA "Albert" Gallatin Switzerland, US minister of Finance (1801-14)
| 1728 The Beggar's Opera of John Gay, is first
performed, at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, London.
1700 Daniel Bernoulli, Basel Switzerland, mathematician (10 time French award)
1688 Emanuel Swedenborg Sweden, religious leader (Angelic Wisdom)