• Canadian independence... • US crushes Philippine independence... • George Sand is born... • Battle of Gettysburg... • Battle of San Juan Hill... • First Battle of the Somme... • Battle of El Alamein... • Vespasien empereur... • Puyi sur le trône de Chine... • Accord des évêques espagnols avec Franco... • Hong Kong reverts to China... • Il Osservatore Romano... • 4~year~old kidnapped... • Gasoline tax for highways... • Bombing of North Vietnam continues... • US compromise on Vietnam recommended... • Containment of USSR advocated...
On a 01 July:
|WorldCom stock price
01 July 1997 01 July 2002
MCI stock price 01 July 2001 01 July 2002
| 2000 Vermont's civil unions law goes into effect, granting
same-sex couples most of the rights, benefits and responsibilities of marriage.
| 2000 On the third anniversary of the reunification of Hong Kong and China, many Hong Kong residents grumble that property values are down, pollution is up, and that the Hong Kong government headed by Tung Chee Hwa, is riddled by corruption and cronyism. In contrast, there are few complaints about the Peking government, which, on the whole, seems to have respected the "one country, two systems" arrangement.
China regains Hong Kong
Hong Kong formally reverts back to Chinese rule during ceremonies attended by Chinese and British dignitaries, including Prince Charles of Wales, heir to the British throne.
In 1839, at the outbreak of the First Opium War, Britain invaded and occupied Hong Kong, a sparsely inhabited island off the coast of southeast China. Two years later, China, defeated in its efforts to resist European interference in its economic and political affairs, formally ceded Hong Kong to the British with the signing of the Chuenpi Convention.
Britain's new colony flourished as an East-West trading center and as the commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China. In 1898, Britain was granted an additional ninety-nine years of rule over Hong Kong under the Second Convention of Peking.
In September of 1984, after years of negotiations, the British and Chinese Communists signed a formal agreement approving the 1997 turnover of the island in exchange for a Chinese pledge to preserve Hong Kong's capitalist system. On 01 July 1997, Hong Kong is peaceably handed over to China. The chief executive under the new Hong Kong government, Tung Chee Hwa, formulates a policy based upon the concept of "one country, two systems," thus preserving Hong Kong's role as a principal capitalist center in Asia. The Chinese Communists hope that a similar formula may lead to reuniting with Taiwan.
New York Times front page story (970701) New Hong Kong leader outlines his program (NYT 970702)
| 1996 US President Bush (Sr.) nominated federal appeals
court Judge Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court, beginning a confirmation
process marked by allegations of sexual harassment.
1994 El líder de la OLP, Yasir Arafat, llega a Gaza tras 27 años de exilio fuera de Palestina.
1991 El Soviet Supremo de la URSS aprueba la ley sobre desestabilización y privatización de la propiedad.
1991 Se disuelve oficialmente el Pacto de Varsovia.
1990 German Democratic Republic accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency Se produce la unión económica, monetaria y social entre la República Democrática Alemana y la República Federal Alemana.
1987 Bork nominated to US Supreme Court, rejected in October by Senate.
1985 The US Supreme Court ruled that public school teachers may not enter parochial school classrooms, to provide remedial or enrichment instruction.
1982 El general Bignone asume la presidencia en Argentina con la promesa de entregar el poder a los civiles antes de abril de 1984.
1982 2100 Unification church couples wed in NYC
1978 Northern Territory of Australia becomes self-governing.
1976 El Rey de España Juan Carlos I cesa a Carlos Arias como presidente del Gobierno.
1970 La Unión Soviética y China Popular reanudan sus relaciones diplomáticas.
| 1968 US, Britain, USSR and 58 other nations sign Nuclear
1968 Se eliminan las últimas barreras aduaneras en la CEE.
1966 Medicare goes into effect in the US
1962 Burundi and Rwanda gain independence from Belgium (National Days).
1961 Haleakala National Park established in Hawaii.
1960 Ghana becomes a republic
1960 Italian Somalia gains independence, unites with Somali Republic.
1959 Se produce una sublevación comunista en el estado de Kerala (India).
1949 Bao Dai's Republic of Vietnam gains independence from France
1948 NYC subway fare goes to 10 cents, bus fare to 7 cents and combo fare at 12 cents
1947 British Dominion Affairs office becomes Commonwealth Relations office
| 1946 Rajah cedes Sarawak to the British crown
1946 US drops atom bomb on Bikini atoll (4th atomic explosion)
1943 First withholding tax from paychecks in the US.
1940 Invaincus, les 22'000 défenseurs de la Ligne Maginot, qui refusaient le cessez-le-feu, se rendent sur ordre du gouvernement et partent en captivité.
1939 El gobierno español establecido en Burgos fija la ración alimenticia diaria de un hombre adulto en 400 g. de pan; 250 de patatas; 100 de legumbres secas; 50 de aceite; 10 de café; 30 de azúcar; 125 de carne; 25 de tocino; 75 de bacalao, y 200 de pescado fresco. A las mujeres adultas les corresponde el 80% de la ración de los hombres.
1932 NY Gov FDR nominated for president at the Democratic Convention in Chicago.
1930 Olaya Herrera se convierte en nuevo presidente electo de Colombia.
1929 Dimite el gobierno Tanaka en Japón y se establece un nuevo gobierno liberal presidido por Hamagushi.
1927 Según los datos del censo francés, el país tiene 42'250'000 residentes, de los que 2'544'000 son extranjeros.
1925 Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs created in UK
1924 Through regular transcontinental airmail service established, NYC-SF
1919 US first class postage drops from 3 cents to 2 cents.
1911 El estadounidense Hiram Bingham descubre las ruinas de la ciudad sagrada de los incas Machu-Picchu, en Perú.
| 1910 Union of South Africa becomes a dominion
1902 Start of Sherlock Holmes Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax
1902 Cesan las hostilidades en Haití entre los generales Firmín y Nord.
1867 Portugal decreta la abolición de la pena de muerte.
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1863 Free city delivery of mail begins in 49 US cities; postage 3 cents per oz
| 1862 Battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia: Union artillery
cuts down Confederate attackers on the last of the Seven Days' battles.
1862 Lincoln appoints Isaac Newton sec of agriculture-no kidding!
1862 Internal Revenue Law, signed by President Lincoln, imposes first federal taxes on inheritance, tobacco and on incomes over $600 (progressive rate)
1859 Balloon covers a record 1302 km over St Louis
1847 first US postage stamps go on sale, 5 cents Franklin and 10 cents Washington, NYC
1823 United Provinces of Central America gain independence from Mexico
1816 French frigate Medusa wrecked; basis of Géricault's Raft of the Medusa.
1795 John Rutledge becomes 2nd chief justice of Supreme Court
1776 first vote on the US Declaration of Independence
1690 Army of England's Protestant King William III defeats Roman Catholic King James II in Battle of the Boyne in Ireland (Now celebrated on July 12 as "The Battle of the Orange" )
1543 England and Scotland sign the Peace of Greenwich.
1535 Sir Thomas More went on trial in England charged with treason.
1431 Las tropas castellanas de Juan II derrotan al ejército andalusí del rey nazarí Muhammad VIII en la batalla de Higueruela.
1217 Fernando el Santo es coronado rey de Castilla.
0987 Le premier capétien. Par la décision d'une assemblée électorale réunie à Noyon par l'archevêque Adalbéron, un Hugues Capet est proclamé roi. Il sera sacré à Reims, deux jours plus tard. La dynastie des capétiens vient de naître et durera très longtemps.
which occurred on a 01 July:
2003 Sheikh Laith Khalil, in the evening, of wounds suffered the previous evening in an explosion at the mosque of which he was the imam, in Fallujah, Iraq, which caused eight immediate deaths and injuries to three persons besides him.
2003 Cpl. Travis J. Bradach-Nall, US Marine born in February 1982, while clearing mines in Iraq.
2002 Alfredo Montez, 2 [photo >], beaten to death for soiling his pants, by Richard Chouquer, 23, in Tampa, Florida. The toddler's body would be found along Interstate 275 on 11 July 2002. Chouquer would be charged with first-degree murder and aggravated child abuse. His mate, Amandy Lawrence, 22, would be charged as an accessory after the fact to first-degree murder. The two would be arrested in Utah on 10 July 2002. On 28 June 2002 Jeatta Swallows, Alfredo's mother (now in jail for violating probation by writing bad checks), had left the boy and his sister, Rheyna, 4, in the couple's care at their mobile home while she went looking for work. After the murder, the couple put the body in the trunk of their car and dumped it near the interstate. Then they drove with Rheyna and their own two children to Georgia. Lawrence returned to Florida to give Rheyna to a cousin on 04 July 2002; police were notified on 08 July 2002. Erica Jones, Florida Department of Children & Families case worker, was assigned to check out a complaint that Alfredo suffered from neglect, and she falsely reported that she visited him on 01 July 2002. Such falsification is punishable by up to 5 years in prison.
2002 All 69 aboard a Tupolev 154 jetliner and the 2 aboard a Boeing 757 cargo jet which collide at an altitude of 10'700 meters, near Überlingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg , Germany, just north of the Swiss and Austrian borders in Lake Constance, at 23:43. The Tupolev was a Bashkirian Airlines charter flight from Moscow headed to Barcelona, with 57 passengers (5 adults and 52 children no older than 16, 8 of them younger than 12) and a crew of 12. The children were from prominent Bashkortostan families and included Bulat Biglov, 11; they were headed for vacations in Catalunya's Costa Dorada; they had missed their connection in Moscow the previous day; one of the adults accompanying them was from the Soglasiye Tourist agency in Moscow. British pilot Paul Phillips, 47, and Canadian co-pilot Brant Campioni, 34, were flying the DHL delivery service Boeing from Bahrain to Brussels. About 45 seconds before the collision, the automatic onboard anti-collision systems directed the Boieng to descend and the Tupolev to climb. But one second later, the Tupolev is told to descend by a Swiss air controler whose automatic collision detection system was off for maintenance and who's companion was taking an unauthorized break. The Tupolev's pilot hesitates, the Swiss air controler repeats the order to descend, 30 seconds before the collision. The German air controlers, whose zone the Tupolev had just left while still over Germany, saw on radar the two planes on a collision course and tried to phone the Swiss, 2 minutes before the collision, but the line was busy.
2002: 48 Afghan villagers, in US air attacks. ^top^
The casualties occur in a cluster of 4 villages, Deh Rawud, Siya Sang, Tirin Kot, and mainly Kakrak, all in the Dehrawud district of Oruzgan province, Afghanistan. Some 100 villagers are injured. The attack is conducted by B-52 (B-53?) bombers with 900-kg teleguided bombs and by AC-130 airplanes outfitted with side-firing cannons and 105-millimeter howitzers.
Reports on the numbers of the casualties and the circumstances vary with time, and are contradictory. According to the villagers and to the pro-US Afghan authorities who believe them, the four villages were bombed and shelled for several hours starting at 01:00 after celebratory shooting into the air (including tracer bullets) at a pre-wedding party in Kakrak, at the home of a brother of Mullah Anwar, a prominent ally of pro-US interim President Hamid Karzai.
According to an 03 July statement by Maj. Gary Tallman, spokesman for a US fact-finding mission, US aircraft (including AC-130s) had flown over the area hourly for the two days before the attack and each time the anti-aircraft gun fired from the compound. Tallman acknowledged that no trace of the gun was found when investigators visited the area on 03 July. However, he said that the compound had been identified by US troops on the ground and verified by global positioning satellites and lasers. Tallman said that six sites were targeted during the raid, including an 82 mm mortar position, anti-aircraft guns and a cave. He said that hours before the attack, US troops saw people covering the mortar with a tarp and moving women and children into the area.
The US authorities drag their feet about admitting to the mistake, but eventually are forced to do so, bit by bit, not before antagonizing a large portion of the Afghan population, previously friendly.
2002 Trina Persad, 10 [photo >], as life support is withdrawn, after receiving on 29 June 2002 a shotgun shot in the head, in Jermaine Goffigan Park in Boston, fired at random by Joseph Cousin, 17, riding in the back of a stolen car driven by Marquis Nelson, 23.
2001 Jamal Defaleh, 35, and Mahmoud Halajieh, 38, by Israeli gunfire returned on a group of attacking Palestinians including policeman Defaleh and Hamas actiivist Halajieh, both from Jenin Refugee Camp, on whose bodies were found the makings of a roadside bomb they had planned to set of as Jewish settlers passed by later in the day in a procession.
1983 Richard Buckminster Fuller, US inventor, philosopher, mathematician, born on 12 July 1895. He is best known for the invention of the geodesic dome.
1958 Dr. Harry Nicholls Holmes, 78, crystallized vitamin A.
1917 Some 40 to 200 in race riots, East St. Louis, Illinois.
1904 George Frederic Watts, English Pre-Raphaelite and Symbolist painter and sculptor, born on 23 February 1817. MORE ON WATTS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Self-Portrait — Cardinal Manning — Orlando Pursuing the Fata Morgana — Matthew Arnold — Orpheus and Eurydice _ detail — a different Orpheus and Eurydice — Frederic Lord Leighton — The Recording Angel — Nude — The Three Graces — Seascape — Sic Transit Gloria — Creation — (Giving Life to the Statues of Man and Woman?) — Fata Morgana — Dame Alice Ellen Terry (Choosing) — Love And Life — The Denunciation Of Cain — The Honourable Mary Baring, Later the Marchioness of Northampton — The Judgement of Paris — Eve: She shall be called woman Paolo and Francesca Love and Death The Angel of Death — Hope _ detail The Dweller in the Innermost
1821 Jules César Denis van Loo, French Parisian painter born on 20 May 1743, the last of a long line of van Loo artists. — more
1735 Jean Ranc, French artist born on 28 January 1674.
1666 Jan Abrahamszoon Beerstraten, Flemish painter born on 31 May 1622. MORE ON BEERSTRATEN AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Village of Nieukoop in Winter with Child Funeral — Winter Landscape — Vue imaginaire d'un port méridional avec le chevet de la cathédrale de Lyon — Vue imaginaire d'un port méridional, dit à tort l'ancien port de Gênes — Marine — The Castle of Muiden in Winter — Winter View of Leyden
1623 Wolfgang Abrahamszoon Krodel, Dutch artist born on 04 September 1575.
which occurred on a 01 July:
1990 Xin-Xin, female giant panda, to Tohui at Mexico City's Chapultepec Zoo.
1961 Diana Frances Spencer who would become Princess Diana of Wales upon marrying Prince Charles of Wales 810729 in a globally televised ceremony, and die in an automobile accident while fleeing from paparazzi on 970831.
1930 Gonzalo Goni Sánchez de Lozada, president of Bolivia (1993-1997)
1921 Premier Congrès du Parti Communiste Chinois. Il se tient à Shangaï et officialise la naissance de ce Parti. The party celebrates its anniversary on 01 July although its founding meeting opened on 23 July 1921, in Shanghai.
1912 Les Dieux Ont Soif, roman d'Anatole France [16 Apr 1844 12 Oct 1924], est publié. Anatole France bio and biblio at kirjasto
1908 Estee Lauder CEO (Estee Lauder's cosmetics)
1906 Jean-Alexandre-Eugène Dieudonné, French mathematician who died on 29 November 1992. His best known books are La Géométrie des groupes classiques (1955), Foundations of Modern Analysis (1960), and Algèbre linéaire et géométrie élémentaire (1964).
1875 Universal Postal Union is established.
1899 The Gideons are founded, in Wisconsin, by three traveling businessmen. They placed their first Bibles in 1908 at the Superior Hotel in Iron Mountain, Montana.
1892 James M Cain Minneapolis Mn, novelist (Postman Always Rings Twice)
1888 Alberto Magnelli, Italian painter who died on 20 (21?) April 1971. — more
1885 Max Mopp Oppenheimer, German artist who died on 19 October 1954.
1879 Léon Jouhaux France, socialist, cofounded UN's ILO (Nobel 1951)
1875 Universal Postal Union is established.
1872 Louis Blériot (aviator: first man to fly an airplane across the English Channel )
1831 Theodor Pixis, German artist who died on 19 July 1907.
1788 Jean-Victor Poncelet, French mathematician who died on 22 December 1867. He and Joseph Gergonne were the founders of modern projective geometry. His development of the pole and polar lines associated with conics led to the principle of duality. Author of Traité des propriétés projectives des figures (1822), Applications d'analyse et de géométrie (2 volumes: 1862, 1864).
1700 Mattheus Verheyden, Dutch artist who died after 1776.