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• Your 4th of July is hypocrisy... • US declares independence... • 2 US independence leaders die on 50th anniversary... • Écrasée l'indépendance des Philippines... • Sikorski dies, conveniently for UK~USSR relations... • Butcher of Lyons convicted... • Chateaubriand dies... • Surrender of Vicksburg... • Alice in Wonderland... • Independent Treasury Act... • Hawthorne is born... • Leaves of Grass...
| On a July 04:
2000 El paro se sitúa en España por debajo del 9%, por primera vez desde 1980
1999 En vísperas del 37º aniversario de la independencia de Argelia y tres meses
| 1995 Lukee, 1-year-old Lhasa Apso bitch, scared by fireworks,
escapes from the yard of her human, Shauna Lukesh, in Fontana, California.
Lukee would be found by Animal Control officers in mid-June 2001 in the
streets of Los Angeles suburb Baldwin Park, some 50 km west of Fontana.
She was about to be euthanized on 19 June 2001 when scanning discovered
a microchip implanted in her neck identifying her, so she was then returned
to her home.
1991 España y Marruecos firman en Rabat el Tratado de Amistad, Buena Vecindad y Cooperación entre ambos países.
1988 La policía francesa intercepta en París cien millones de pesetas, destinados a ETA a cuenta del rescate del industrial Emiliano Revilla.
| 1985 Felipe González forma su segundo Gobierno con dos
sustituciones destacadas: Boyer deja el ministerio de Economía en favor
de Solchaga y Morán da el relevo en Exteriores a Fernández Ordóñez.
1976 Israeli commandos raided Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing 229 (almost all) of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers.
1979 El ex presidente de Argelia, Ahmed Ben Bella, es liberado de la cárcel por decisión del Gobierno argelino.
1970 Un consejo de guerra en Colombia, que ha estado deliberando durante año y medio, condena a 108 de los 325 guerrilleros procesados.
1966 US President Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act, which went into effect the following year.
1966 Se suspenden las libertades constitucionales en Perú, a causa de la actividad guerrillera.
1960 America's new 50-star flag honoring Hawaiian statehood unfurled.
1959 America's new 49-star flag honoring Alaska statehood unfurled.
1959 Cayman Islands separated from Jamaica, made a crown colony.
| 1958 Funcionarios japoneses determinan que las recientes
pruebas atómicas de Estados Unidos en el Pacífico han provocado una lluvia
altamente radiactiva en el país.
1957 El FLN plantea en Argelia la independencia como condición previa a toda negociación con Francia.
1956 US most intense rain fall (3.1 cm in 1 minute) at Unionville, Maryland.
1950 Truman signs public law 600 (Puerto Ricans write own constitution)
1948 El cólera causa diez mil muertos en la India.
1946 Indépendance des Philippines, obtenue des États Unis (promise en 1934). Découvertes en 1521 par Magellan et annexées par l'Espagne en 1589, les Philippines étaient restées sous domination espagnole jusqu'à la guerre hispano-américaine de 1898. Se proclama la República de Filipinas.
1942 First American bombing mission over enemy-occupied Europe (WW II)
1942 Los Estados Unidos ordenan un ataque aéreo contra las bases militares japonesas en las islas Aleutianas.
1940 La Francia de Vichy rompe sus relaciones con Inglaterra a consecuencia del ataque a Mers-el-Kebir..
1933 El líder independentista indio Mohandas Gandhi ingresa en prisión por su llamamiento a la desobediencia civil.
1931 El Papa Pío XI, publica la encíclica Azione Cattolica.
1924 El rey Alfonso XIII firma un decreto de amnistía e indulto para conseguir la pacificación social en España.
1908 Se confirma la noticia de que en Asunción (Paraguay) ha estallado una sublevación militar.
| 1907 Pío X condena por decreto todas las tendencias
modernistas en teología.
1905 Los boers se manifiestan en Pretoria contra la ley electoral, que pone en desventaja a la lengua holandesa y da el derecho de voto a los británicos.
1904 El general Rafael Reyes resulta elegido presidente de Colombia.
1894 Republic of Hawaii established
1886 1st North American scheduled transcontinental passenger train reaches Pt Moody, BC
1884 Statue of Liberty presented to US in Paris. Treize ans après son arrivée à New-York, Bartholdi offre au nom de la France la Statue de la Liberté aux Etats-Unis. Pour en connaître davantage relisez la chroniques de ce 21 Juin 1871 qui retrace l’arrivée de Bartholdi dans la baie de new-York et sa "vision fulgurante" de l’œuvre qui plus de 125 ans plus tard reste encore un des monuments les plus visités au monde.
1864 Engagement at Vining's Station (Smyrna), Georgia
1863 Lee's forces begin to retreat from Gettysburg
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
Douglass: Your 4th of July is hypocrisy!
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) was the best known and most influential African American leader of the 1800s. He was born a slave in Maryland but managed to escape to the North in 1838. He traveled to Massachusetts and settled in New Bedford, working as a laborer to support himself. In 1841, he attended a convention of the Massachusetts Antislavery Society and quickly came to the attention of its members, eventually becoming a leading figure in the New England antislavery movement.
In 1845, Douglass published his autobiography, "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: an American Slave." With the revelation that he was an escaped slave, Douglass became fearful of possible re-enslavement and fled to Great Britain and stayed there for two years, giving lectures in support of the antislavery movement in America. With the assistance of English Quakers, Douglass raised enough money to buy his own his freedom and in 1847 he returned to America as a free man.
He settled in Rochester, New York, where he published The North Star, an abolitionist newspaper. He directed the local underground railroad which smuggled escaped slaves into Canada and also worked to end racial segregation in Rochester's public schools.
(other works by Douglass: The Heroic Slave, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1881) , My Bondage and My Freedom)
In 1852, the leading citizens of Rochester asked Douglass to give a speech as part of their Fourth of July celebrations. Douglass accepted their invitation. In his speech, however, Douglass delivered a scathing attack on the hypocrisy of a nation celebrating freedom and independence with speeches, parades and platitudes, while, within its borders, nearly four million humans were being kept as slaves.
| 1845 Texas Congress votes for annexation to US
1845 Henry David Thoreau began his two-year experiment in simpler living by moving into his shack at Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts.
1832 "America" 1st sung publicly
1831 Baptist clergyman Samuel Francis Smith writes the American patriotic hymn,'America' ('My Country, 'tis of Thee'). Smith was unaware that the tune, ironically, was also that of England's national anthem: 'God Save the Queen'! (And also of the German Heimatland, gross und weit) [the words in the three languages]
1828 Construction begins on B&O (Baltimore-Ohio) 1st US passenger RR
1827 Slavery abolished in NY
1817 Construction on Erie Canal begins
1789 1st US tariff act
1653 Barebones Parliment goes into session in England
1636 City of Providence, Rhode Island, forms.
1190 IIIème croisade C'est sur la colline de Vezelay symboliquement d'où est partie la première croisade après l'appel du pape Urbain II en 1095 qu'elle commence. C'est dans cette basilique où Pierre l'Ermite a préché pour les pauvres en 1096, que se retrouvent Philippe Auguste et Richard Coeur de Lion avant de partir pour la troisième croisade. Ceux-ci la décident en raison de la prise de Jérusalem par Saladin, le 2 octobre 1187. L'empereur Frédéric Barberousse a déjà pris la route.
1189 Paix d'Asay-le-Rideau, humiliante pour le roi Henri II d'Angleterre, qui désigne son fils Richard comme nouveau roi et abandonne à Philippe Auguste l'Auvergne, Issoudun et Châteauroux. Il meurt deux jours plus tard.
1054 Brightest known super-nova (which became the Crab Nebula) starts shining (23 days)
which occurred on a July 04:
2002 Victoria Vicky Chen, 25, Yakov Aminov, 47, and Hesham Mohamed Hadayet [top photo >] who, just before 11:30, attacks with .45 and 9mm caliber handguns and a 15-cm knife in the Tom Bradley International Terminal of Los Angeles International airport at the El Al counter which was conducting check-in for passengers of Flight 106 destination Tel Aviv. Hadayet is wrestled to the ground, disarmed, and subdued by an unarmed El Al security guard who was standing behind him (and modestly wants to remain anonymous), then shot at close range in the stomach by Haim Sapir, chief local El Al security guard.
Born on 04 July 1961, Hadayet worked driving his own limousine. He had come to live in the US in 1992 with his wife Hala Mohammed Sadeq El-Awadly, now 41. They have two sons (Omar, 12, Adam, 7). Sons and wife are in Cairo since 15 June 2002, visiting her sick mother.
Chen [< photo], Israel-born and in the US since the age of 12, was at the counter, working for a company under contract with El Al.
Aminov [second photo >], Orthodox Jew diamond importer who immigrated from Israel in 1988, had driven his Tel Aviv-bound friend Michael Shabtai to the airport. Aminov had 6 children, all under the age of 11, including one not yet born.
Four persons besides Sapir are injured. Thirty-five departing flights and some 10'500 passengers are delayed. Normal terminal operations resume before midnight. The El Al flight departs the next evening, a Friday, despite the rule that El Al does not fly on the Sabbath, under an exception granted by Israeli Transportation Minister Ephraim Sneh, who is bitterly criticized for it. 20 passengers refuse to board the Sabbath flight and wait one more day.
2002 Michael Brand, 44, Michael Alder, 49, Jackie Ngo-Ton, girl, 12, and Brandon Truong, boy, 15 months, in the afternoon, as the Cesna 310 piloted by Brand, with passenger Alder, has difficulty lifting off (probably due to left engine failure) from Brackett Field in La Verne, California, and crashes into some 500 picnickers at a lakeside beach in a San Dimas park. Jackie's brother Andy Ngo-Ton, 8, is critically injured with head wounds. 11 others are injured.
2002 Jihad Al Omarin, 45, and Wael al-Namara, 33, in Omarin's car which explodes at in the center of Gaza City, presumably the doing of Israel, as Omarin was a colonel in a Palestinian security organization and Gaza leader of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Namara was his assistant. A third man in the car is critically injured.
2001 Ciaran Cummings, 19, Catholic, shot several times at close range by a gunman from the outlawed Protestant extremists Red Hand Defenders in Antrim, Northern Ireland. Cummings was standing on a sidewalk waiting to be picked up for work.
2001 All 136 passengers and 9 crew members on a Vladivostokavia Tu-154 which crashes at 02:10 local (GMT+9) near Burdakovka, some 30 km south-east of Irkutsk where it was attempting to land en route from Yekaterinburg to Vladivostok.
2001 Mounique Shanta Hadnot, 16; Frank Glen Thomas, 13; and Kym Stephane Hadnot, 4, and their mother Stephanie Hadnot, 30; in fire started by a boy playing with a fireplace lighter, in Houston. The mother initially escaped with her mother, Sophie Hadnot, her stepfather, two of her children and the boy, 12, who had started the fire, to look after whom Sophie Hadnot had agreed while his mother was at work. When Sophie Hadnot realized that three of her children were still inside she ran back in. All four were found near a window in a back bedroom, the children in a closet and their mother just outside the closet, dead of smoke inhalation. The window was blocked by bars.
1990 Marshall Hall Jr., US mathematician born on 17 September 1910. He is best known as a group theorist, author of Theory of Groups (1959).
1990 Abilio Barbero de Aguilera, Spanish historian.
1986 Oscar Zariski, Jewish US mathematician born Ascher Zaritsky on 24 April 1899 in Belarus. His work was on foundations of algebraic geometry using algebraic methods. He worked on the theory of normal varieties, local uniformization and the reduction of singularities of algebraic varieties.
1970 Barnett Newman, US Abstract Expressionist and Minimalist painter born on 29 January 1905. — more LINKS Who's afraid of Red Yellow & Blue?
1901 Peter Guthrie Tait, Scottish mathematician and physicist born on 28 April 1831.
1901 Julian Scott, US artist born on 14 February 1846.-
1898: 549 drown as French liner La Bourgogne collides with British sailing bark Cromartyshire.
1875 White Democrats kill several Blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg.
1874 Wouter Verschuur, Dutch painter, draftsman, and lithographer, born on 11 June 1812. An Inn
1742 Luigi Guido Grandi, Italian Camaldolese philosopher, theologian, mathematician, astronomer, engineer.
1672 (buried) Govert Dirckszoon Camphuysen, Dutch Baroque painter born in 1623, specialized in Portraits. — more LINKS — Inside a stable
1671 Jan Cossiers, Flemish painter and draftsman born on 15 July 1600. MORE ON COSSIERS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Fortune Telling — a different La diseuse de bonne aventure _ détail — Ecce Homo — Réunion de fumeurs et de buveurs — The Head of a Young Boy
1667 Christian Couwemberg, Dutch artist born on 08 September 1604.
1627 Thomas Middleton Elizabethan dramatist, (birth date unknown) MIDDLETON ONLINE: A Chaste Maid in Cheapside Complete on-line works The Family of Love : Hengist, King of Kent No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's The Phoenix The Puritan co- The Roaring Girl, A Trick to Catch the Old One The Witch Your Five Gallants co-author of Any Thing for a Quiet Life The Changeling A Fair Quarrel, The Old Law,
1541 Pedro de Alvarado, conquistador español.
which occurred on a July 04:
1962 Christine A. Olender, she would become assistant to the general manager of the Restaurant Windows on the World at the top of the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City and die there when it collapsed on 11 September 2001 from the impact of an airliner hijacked by terrorists.
1946 Michael Milken LA Calif, partner (Intl Capital Access Group)
1929 Erich Brauer, Austrian artist.
1927 Neil Simon, playwright.
1921 Gerard Debreu France, economist (Nobel 1983)
1919 José Luis Castillo Puche, escritor español.
1918 Esther Pauline Friedman (Ann Landers) (advice columnist; twin sister of Abigail Van Buren)
1918 Pauline Esther Friedman (Abigail Van Buren) (advice columnist; twin sister of Ann Landers)
1917 Mikhail Samuilovich Livsic, Jewish Ukrainian Israeli mathematician, son of a mathematics professor.
1916 Tokyo Rose, US traitor WW II propagandist.
1906 Daniel Edwin Rutherford, Scottish mathematician who died on 09 November 1966. His most important work was Substitutional Analysis (1948). He was an amateur artist: see his drawing Church of the Holy Rude in Stirling (600x379pix, 58kb).
1900 Robert Desnos, à Paris, poète surréaliste français ("Les Yeux d’Elsa" chanté par Jean Ferrat, "Que serais-je sans toi?" …)
1900 Louis Armstrong, trompetista y jazzman estadounidense.
1899 Pedro Nel Gómez Agudelo, pintor, escultor y arquitecto colombiano.
1895 Massimo Campigli, Italian painter who died in May 1971. — more LINKS — Bathers — Figura di donna — Il teatro con attrici — I costruttori — 37 tiny images
1885 Louis B Mayer Minsk Russia, motion-picture executive (MGM)
1883 Ruben Lucius Rube Goldberg, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist (elaborate, involved contraptions that accomplish simple tasks), sculptor, and author. He died in 1970. MORE ON GOLDBERG AT ART 4 JULY Cartoons by GOLDBERG ONLINE: — Baseball and Business Photo taking contraption How to Keep Shop Windows Clean Simplified Pencil Sharpener Dodging Bill Collectors Keep from Forgetting to Mail your Wife's Letter Picture Snapping Machine Safety Device for Walking on Icy Pavements How to Keep the Boss from Knowing you are Late for Work How to Tee up a Golf Ball Without Bending Over Our Special Never-Miss Putter Golf Inventions
1875 Giovanni & Giacomo Tocci Italy, siamese twins
1872 John Calvin Coolidge, in Plymouth, Vermont. (R) (30th US President 1923-29) Coolidge acceded to the presidency after the death in office of Warren G. Harding, just as the Harding scandals were coming to light. He restored integrity to the executive branch of the federal government while continuing the conservative pro-business policies of his predecessor.
1870 James Moffatt, Scottish New Testament scholar. Moffatt translated theNew (1913) and Old (1924) Testaments into the colloquial English of his day. They were first published together in 1935.
1845 Frank Montague Holl, British Social Realist, painter who died on 31 July 1888. LINKS Deserted A Family at Prayer
1845 Pal Szynyei Merse, Hungarian artist who died on 02 February 1920.
1837 Charles Emile Auguste Durand Carolus-Duran, French painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 18 February 1917. MORE ON CAROLUS-DURAN AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Marie-Anne Carolus-Duran N. M. Polovtsova Margaret Anderson, Wife of the Honorable Ronald Grenville — Helena Modjeska Chlapowski — Philippe Burty
1826 Stephen Foster Lawrencevil, Pa, composer (Oh! Susanna, Swanee River)
1813 Johann Baptist Reiter, Austrian artist who died on 10 January 1890. [When he was depressed, did they refer to him as der blaue Reiter?]
1807 Giuseppe Garibaldi, militar italiano, artífice de la unidad del país. Giuseppe Garibaldi unified Italy
1802 The US Military Academy officially opens at West Point, N.Y.
|^ 1776 US Independence is declared|
After a decade of economic conflict with Great
Britain, the thirteen American colonies answered King George III's flat
refusal of political reform with a call for revolution. On 04 July 1776,
over a year after the first volleys of the war were fired at Lexington,
Massachusetts, the Second Continental Congress officially adopts the Declaration
of Independence. Seven years later, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris
with Britain, the United States formally became a free and independent nation.
[photo of the original handwritten document (not legible)]
IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
Thomas Heyward, Jr.
Thomas Lynch, Jr.
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Robert Treat Paine
| 1753 Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard 1st balloon flights
in England, US
1715 Christian Gellert Saxony, poet, novelist (Fables & Tales)