• Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen... • Monkey Trial... • Battle of Britain... • Palestinian is born and dies barred from hospital by Israelis... • Sacre de l'Empereur Antonin... • Naissance de Calvin... • Rainbow Warrior blown up... • Gorbachev reelected head of Communist Party... • Allied landing in Sicily... • Wyoming becomes a state...
a 10 July:
2003 The previous evening PDI, Inc. (PDII) raised its 2003 EPS estimates to about $0.77 from about $0.50 on the strength of new business awarded to its contract sales unit and anticipated continued strong performance from Lotensin in its Pharmaceutical Products Group through year end 2003. The company also announced that GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) awarded to PDI a Jul-2003-to-Sep-2004 contract, which could result in about $2 per share in revenue in 2003 and $3.50 in 2004. On the NASDAQ, 1.6 million of the 14.2 million shares of PDI are traded, rising from their previous close of $10.93 to an intraday high of $18.05 and closing at $17.35. They had been traded as low as $2.85 as recently as 08 October 2002 and as high as $135.19 on 04 December 2000. — [5~year price chart >]
2002 A stunning newly rediscovered Rubens' The Massacre of the Innocents is auctioned off at Sotherby's for $79.4 million. SEE THE PICTURE AND MORE AT ART 4 JULY
2000 El hundimiento de un vertedero de basuras provoca la muerte de un centenar de chabolistas en Manila (Filipinas).
2000 Israeli President Ezer Weizman resigned, effectively ending a seven-year term that turned sour when he was found to have acted improperly by accepting gifts while in office.
2000 At Bogota's Military Hospital, soldier Nicolás Sánchez, 19, gets removed from his left thigh a live grenade, lodged up against the femur. It got there when a fellow solider accidentally triggered his grenade launcher on an army base in central Boyaca province, and the grenade unexplicably and luckily failed to detonate. Dr. Ricardo Uribe, assisted by another surgeon, both wearing bullet-proof vests, free the grenade, and a police bomb expert removes it from the leg and goes outside to detonate it..
1997 La banda terrorista ETA secuestra al concejal del Partido Popular en Ermua (Vizcaya), Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido, y amenaza con acabar con su vida si en un plazo de 48 horas el Gobierno no da instrucciones para reagrupar a los presos etarras en cárceles del País Vasco.
1994 Leonid Kuchma consigue la victoria en las elecciones presidenciales de Ucrania y Alexander Lukashenko, en los primeros comicios presidenciales de Bielorrusia.
1992 La Conferencia sobre la Seguridad y Cooperación en Europa (OSCE) aprueba la posibilidad de recurrir a la fuerza en caso de conflictos regionales en Europa.
1992, former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in jail in the United States on drug-trafficking charges.
Valdez captain's conviction is overturned ^top^
The Alaska court of appeals overturns the conviction of Joseph Hazelwood, the former captain of the oil tanker Exxon Valdez. Hazelwood, who was found guilty of negligence for his role in the massive oil spill in Prince Georges Sound in 1989, successfully argued that he was entitled to immunity from prosecution because he had reported the oil spill to authorities 20 minutes after the ship ran aground. The Exxon Valdez accident on the Alaskan coast was one of the largest environmental disasters in US history.
The ship, 300 m long and carrying 1.3 million barrels of oil, ran aground on Bligh Reef on 24 March 1989, after failing to return to the shipping lanes (which it had maneuvered out of to avoid icebergs). It later came to light that several officers, including Captain Hazelwood, had been drinking at a bar the night the Exxon Valdez left port. However, there wasn't enough evidence to support the notion that alcohol impairment had been responsible for the oil spill. Rather, poor weather conditions and preparation, combined with several incompetent maneuvers by the men steering the tanker, were deemed responsible for the disaster.
Captain Hazelwood, who had prior drunk driving arrests, had a spotless record as a tanker captain before the Valdez accident. Exxon compounded the environmental problems by not beginning the cleanup effort right away. A civil suit for damages brought against Exxon by the state of Alaska resulted in a billion-dollar judgment against them. However, years later, while their appeal remained backlogged in the court system, Exxon still hadn't paid the damages.
When overturning Hazelwood's conviction, the Alaskan court noted that it "will undoubtedly be a bitter pill for many Alaskans to swallow. Yet by requiring immunity today, the federal statute encourages immediate reporting in the event of a spill tomorrow. If this encouragement averts catastrophic environmental losses in future incidents, then [the statute] may, in the long run, prove to be a wise one." The Exxon Valdez was repaired and renamed Sea River Mediterranean, and it still transports oil.
| 1991 Boris Yeltsin is sworn in as the first elected
President of Russia, sealing communism's fate.
1991 US President George H.W. Bush (Sr.) lifted economic sanctions against South Africa.
1991 US President Bush (Sr.) announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
1984 Una sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional español falla que no es delito el aborto de españolas en el extranjero.
1982 Entran en vigor los Estatutos de Autonomía de Valencia, La Rioja y Murcia.
1981 CERN achieves 1st proton-antiproton beam collision (570 GeV)
1980 Ayatollah Khomeini releases Iran hostage Richard I Queen
1978 Military coup in Mauritania.
1973 El presidente argentino Hector Jose Cámpora y su vicepresidente Solano Lima presentan la renuncia a sus cargos y abren paso a un nuevo mandato de Juan Domingo Perón.
1972 Democratic convention opens in Miami Beach Florida (McGovern)
1962 The satellite Telstar is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, beaming live television from Europe to the United States. primer satélite artificial de telecomunicaciones
1962 Martin Luther King Jr arrested during demonstration in Georgia
1962, Telstar, the first television telecommunications satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral, making possible the first relaying of television programs across the Atlantic.
1956 La Cámara de los Lores británica rechaza la abolición de la pena de muerte, aprobada en la de Cámara de los Comunes.
1953 El Politburó del PCUS anuncia la detención del ministro del Interior, Lavrenti Beria, bajo la acusación de complot contra el Estado.
1953 American forces withdraw from Pork Chop Hill in Korea after heavy fighting.
1951 Armistice talks to end Korean conflict began at Kaesong
1945 Se reabre el museo del Louvre en París.
1945 US carrier-based aircraft begin airstrikes against Japan in preparation for invasion.
allié en Sicile. ^top^
La supériorité alliée est telle que les aérodromes et les installations de défense antiaériennes sont détruites avant même le début du débarquement. L’île est prise en 39 jours. Il faut souligner ici que la Mafia a donné un grand coup de mains aux américains qui avaient négocié un accord secret, grâce à un "repenti" Lucky Rociano, avec les grands parrains de l’époque. Cette victoire rapide précipite la chute de Mussolini suite à un complot fomenté par le Roi d’Italie, Umberto, et le Maréchal Badoglio, héros de guerre et le grand conseil fasciste lui-même. Mussolini sera interné. La prise de la Sardaigne, puis de la Corse (par les Français cette fois), amenèrent les allemands à réagir violemment et à envoyer 30 divisions dans la Péninsule pour retarder l’avance alliée.
1943 Allies land in Sicily: There were months of preparation before British and American forces sailed jointly from Malta and Tunisia to attack Sicily's shores and begin the Allied invasion of Southern Europe. On 10 July 1943, the British Eighth Army under General Bernard Montgomery lands on the southeast corner of Sicily, while the US Seventh Army under General George S. Patton lands on the southern coast. On 17 August 17, Patton would arrive in Messina before Montgomery, completing the Allied conquest of Sicily and winning the so-called "Race to Messina."
The Allies begin their invasion of Axis-controlled Europe with landings on the island of Sicily, off mainland Italy. Encountering little resistance from the demoralized Sicilian troops, the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery came ashore on the southeast of the island, while the US 7th Army under General George S. Patton landed on Sicily's south coast. Within three days, 150'000 Allied soldiers were ashore. Italian leader Benito Mussolini envisioned building Fascist Italy into a new Roman Empire, but a string of military defeats in World War II effectively made his regime a puppet of its stronger Axis partner, Germany. By the spring of 1943, opposition groups in Italy were uniting to overthrow Mussolini and make peace with the Allies, but a strong German military presence in Italy threatened to resist any such action.
Meanwhile, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler knew that an Allied invasion of Nazi-controlled Europe was imminent, but because Germany's vast conquests stretched from Greece to France, Hitler was unable to concentrate his forces in any one place. In an elaborate plot to divert German forces away from Italy, a British submarine off Spain released the corpse of an Englishman wearing the uniform of a British major and carrying what appeared to be official Allied letters describing plans for an invasion of Greece. The body washed ashore, and the letters were sent by the Spanish to the German high command, who reinforced their units in Greece. The Axis had only 10 Italian divisions and two German panzer units on Sicily when Allied forces attacked in the early-morning hours of 10 July. First to land were American and British paratroopers and glider-borne troops, and at dawn thousands of amphibious troops came ashore. Coastal defenses manned by disaffected Sicilian troops collapsed after limited resistance, and the Anglo-Americans moved quickly to capture Sicily's southern cities. Within three days, the Allies had cleared the southeastern part of the island. In a pincer movement aimed at Messina in the northwest, the British 8th Army began moving up the southeast coast of the island, with the US 7th Army moving east across the north coast. The Allies hoped to trap the Axis forces in the northwestern corner of Sicily before they could retreat to the Italian mainland. In the so-called "Race to Messina," Montgomery's advance up the southeast coast was slowed by German reinforcements, but Patton and the US 7th Army moved quickly along the north coast, capturing Palermo, the Sicilian capital, on 22 July. In Rome, the Allied invasion of Sicily, a region of the kingdom of Italy since 1860, led to the collapse of Mussolini's government. Early in the morning of July 25, he was forced to resign by the Fascist Grand Council and was arrested later that day. On July 26, Marshal Pietro Badoglio assumed control of the Italian government. The new government promptly entered into secret negotiations with the Allies, despite the presence of numerous German troops in Italy. Back in Sicily, Montgomery and Patton advanced steadily toward Messina, prompting the Germans to begin a withdrawal of Axis forces to the mainland. Some 100'000 German and Italian soldiers were evacuated before Patton won the race to Messina on 17 August. Montgomery arrived a few hours later. The Allies suffered 23'000 casualties in their conquest of Sicily. German forces sustained 30'000 casualties, and the Italians 135'000. In addition, some 100'000 Axis soldiers were captured. On 03 September, Montgomery's 8th Army began an invasion of the Italian mainland at Calabria, and the Italian government agreed to surrender to the Allies. By the terms of the agreement, the Italians would be treated with leniency if they aided the Allies in expelling the Germans from Italy. Later that month, Mussolini was rescued from a prison in the Abruzzo Mountains by German commandos and was installed as leader of a Nazi puppet state in northern Italy. In October, the Badoglio government declared war on Germany, but the Allied advance up Italy proved a slow and costly affair. Rome fell in June 1944, at which point a stalemate ensued as British and American forces threw most of their resources into the Normandy invasion. In April 1945, a new major offensive began, and, on 28 April, Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans and summarily executed. German forces in Italy surrendered on 01 May, and six days later all of Germany surrendered.
| 1942 General Carl Spaatz becomes the head of the US
Air Force in Europe.
1936 43ºC, Cumberland & Frederick, Maryland (state record)
1936 44ºC, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania (state record)
1936 New Straits Convention allows Turkish rearmament of Dardanelles
1929 US issues newer, smaller-sized paper currency.
1927 El general Sanjurjo da por terminada la guerra de Marruecos.
1925 USSR's official news agency TASS established.
1921 Mongolia Exterior se declara independiente y forma un Gobierno popular provisional.
1920 El plebiscito popular celebrado en Prusia Oriental y Occidental decide mayoritariamente permanecer dentro del Reich.
1919 US President Wilson personally delivered the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate, and urged its ratification.
1918 Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic established
1917 El Gobierno español de Eduardo Dato reconoce a las Juntas de Defensa como portavoces del Ejército.
1917 Emma Goldman imprisoned for obstructing the draft in the US.
1913 57ºC, Greenland Ranch, Calif (US record)
| 1864 During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses
S. Grant establishes a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence
of the James and Appomattox rivers.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina begins.
1863 Action at Falling Waters, Maryland.
1850 US Vice-President Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th president following Zachary Taylor's death
1847 Urbain J.J. Leverrier & John Couch Adams, codiscoverers of Neptune meet for 1st time at home of John Herschel
1775 Horatio Gates, issues order excluding blacks from Continental Army
1690 Battle of Beachy Head-French fleet defeats Anglo-Dutch fleet
1778 In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declares war on England.
1776 The statue of King George III is pulled down in New York City.
1679 The British crown claims New Hampshire as a royal colony.
1609 The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximillian of Bavaria.
1460, in the Wars of the Roses, Richard of York defeats King Henry VI at the battle of Northampton.
0901 Alfonso III, Rey de Asturias vence en Zamora al ejército bereber acaudillado por Al-Kití.
0552 Origin of Armenian calendar
which occurred on a 10 July:
2002 Rachel Scherer, 6 [< photo], and John Scherer, 41 [photo >], her father, in the morning, as he deliberately crashes his SUV at high speed into a semitrailer on a rural two-lane Iowa road south of Waterloo. He had already twice attempted suicide: by slashing his right wrist, and by fumes from the exhaust of the SUV directed inside through a sump-pump hose duct-taped on; while fleeing after stabbing to death, the day before in Naperville, Illinois, his ex-wife Sheri, and taking the girl. John Scherer was under stress since the divorce a year earlier (after 13 years of marriage), losing jobs, getting drunk, and he had been evicted from his apartment a week earlier.
2002 Captain Haggai Lev, 24, shot by a Palestinian sniper as the Israeli Army's Givati commando unit, of which he was deputy commander, searches for tunnels used for smuggling weapons from Egypt to Palestinian-controlled areas in Rafah.
2002 Rami Kutush, 19, Palestinian man shot by a passing Israeli tank as he was standing outside his house, in the Askar refugee camp, near Nablus, West Bank. Two other Palestinians are injured. They were throwing stones at the tank.
2002 Coval Russell, 92, suicide by jumping off 12-meter-high bridge over the Feather River near Oroville, California. Russell had been imprisoned for 14 months while waiting for sentencing on an assault charge for stabbing his landlord. He was put on three years' probation and released from the Butte County Jail on 26 June, despite his request to stay in jail. The judge said that it was not an appropriate place for a man of Russell's age and health. The World War II veteran had received four types of medication in jail, was blind in one eye, suffered from prostate cancer and could barely walk a few meters unassisted.
2002 Steve Cupec, 27, Jehrod Smith, 19, Kyle Kroetz, 29, and Matthew Smith, 21, four friends, drowned in Lake Erie amid 1.5 meter waves after they jump in to try and rescue Renée Anderson, 22, Cupec's fiancée, who is rescued afterwards by firefighters. The Nickel Plate public beach in Huron, Ohio, where they were, was closed to swimming because of the dangerous waves caused by a 55 km/h wind. [photo: rescuers form a human chain >]
2002 Yuri Antipenko, 50, and his dog, by a hand grenade rigged with iron nails which exploded when Antipenko tried to remove an anti-Jewish sign in Baltiysk, Kaliningrad enclave, Russia. A neighbor, Alina Gosva, 32, is seriously injured.
2001 Karen FitzPatrick, 18, and Jessica Johnson, 19, both of Yakima, Tom Craven, 30, of Roslyn WA, and Devin Weaver, 21, novice firefighters, in the Thirty Mile Fire in the Cascade Mountains of Washington state, where they were part of a crew of 14 sent by supervisors into flames in a dead-end canyon in violation of safety rules. The wind shifted and the crew was trapped. Each one covered himself with the aluminum foil emergency cover, but the four were on rocks that let the superheated air in. The Forest Service said it was an act of God. But Devin Weaver's father, Weaver, found that it had been negligent in this and in many previous cases. He promoted a law mandating investigation of fatal fires no longer internally by the Forest Service, but by the Inspector General of the US. The law was passed by the US Congress on 10 July 2002.
1972: 24 persons, trampled by herd of stampeding elephants, Chandka Forest, India.
1957 Curzio Malaparte, escritor italiano.
1945 Robert Goddard Rocket pioneer.
1941 The Jews of Jedwabne, Poland, burned in a barn into which they had been herded by a mob of at least 40 Polish villagers aided by German troops who had recently conquered from the Soviets north-eastern Poland. Jedwabne had about 2400 inhabitants and they accused Jews of collaboration with the Soviet occupiers. The massacre would be blamed on the German SS until a 2001 investigation (book Sasiedzi Neighbors by Polish-born US writer Jan T. Gross, which gives the probably exaggerated number of 1600 Jews killed) reveals that Poles were principally responsible. [see Polish Institute of National Remembrance]
In 1941, Jedwabne was a small north-eastern Polish town of about 2400 inhabitants. On 10 July 1941 the town's Jewish population was murdered. Jews were herded into a barn on the outskirts of the community, which was later set on fire.
1936 Pincherle, mathematician.
1927 Kevin O'Higgins Irish Free State VP, assassinated.
1923 Andrés Manjón, sacerdote y pedagogo español.
1923:: 23 humans and many cattle, by 1-kg hailstones, in Rostov, Russia.
1916 McClintock, mathematician.
1915 Hendrik Mesdag, Dutch painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, born on 23 February 1831. MORE ON MESDAG AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Pinks in the Breakers — Preparations for Departure — On a Stormy Sea Setting Sun
1910 Johann Galle discoverer of Neptune with telescope
1891 Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, Spanish novelist.
1884 Paul Morphy US chess wizard.
1851 Jacques Daguerre, fotógrafo francés.
1806 George Stubbs, British artist specialized in horses, born on 24 August 1724. Author of The Anatomy of the Horse (1766) MORE ON STUBBS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Horse Startled by a Lion Mares and Foals _ detail The Grosvenor Hunt Mares and Foals in a Wooded Landscape Racehorses Belonging to the Duke of Richmond Exercising at Goodwood Mares and Foals Disturbed by an Approaching Storm Whistlejacket The Melbourne and Milbanke Families John and Sophia Musters Out Riding at Colwick Hall The Moose Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag Self~Portrait Soldiers of the 10th Light Dragoons Laetitia, Lady Lade Red Deer Stag and Hind
1747 Nadir Shah, Persian ruler, assassinated at Fathabad in Persia.
1724 Franz Werner von Tamm Dapper, German artist born on 06 March 1658.
1675 Bertholet Flémal, Liège Franco-Flemish painter and architect, baptized as an infant on 23 May 1614. — more
1584 Guillermo de Orange, estatúder de Holanda, Zelanda y Utrecht, es asesinado por el católico Baltasar Gérard.
| Births which occurred
on a 10 July:
1928 Bernard Buffet, French painter who died in 1999. MORE ON BUFFET AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Portrait de l'Artiste Still Life Le clown bleu
1927 David Dinkins (Mayor-D-NYC, 1989- )
1923 Jean Kerr (Collins) (author: Please Don't Eat the Daisies, Finishing Touches)
1920 Owen Chamberlain codiscovered antiproton (Nobel 1959)
1915 Saul Bellow Quebec, novelist (Nobel 1976 Mr Samler's Planet, Herzog, The Bellarosa Connecticut)
1913 Salvador Espriú, poeta catalán.
1906 Jorge Icaza Coronel, escritor ecuatoriano.
1902 Nicolás Guillén, poeta cubano.
1895 Carl Orff München (Munich) Germany, composer (Antigonae).
1888 Giorgio de Chirico, is born in Greece. He will grow up to be an Italian Surrealist painter and sculptor, who, with Carlo Carrà and Giorgio Morandi, founds the pittura metafisica style of painting. De Chirico died on 19 November 1978. MORE ON DE CHIRICO AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Piazza d'Italia The Uncertainty of the Poet Love Song Christ in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee The Philosopher's Conquest Le Cerveau de l'Enfant (pas d'enfant, mais, entouré de bâtiments, un homme à grande moustache et minuscule barbichette, les yeux fermés, face à un livre fermé sur un signet) The Disturbing Muses Archaeologists The Profit — The Great Metaphysician
1887 Mario Cavaglieri, Italian artist who died in 1969.
1878 Kellogg, mathematician
1871 Marcel Proust, France, auteur du roman le plus long et l’un des plus beaux de la langue française: À la recherche du temps perdu, comprenant 7 tomes: Du côté de chez Schwann (1913), À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (1919), Le Côté de Guermantes (1921), Sodome et Gomorrhe (1922), La Prisonnière (1923), Albertine disparue (1925), Le Temps retrouvé (1927) Marcel Proust, escritor francés.
1862 Helena Sofia Schjerfbeck, Swedish French artist who died in 1946.
1856 Nikola Tesla physicist, developed alternating current
1842 Adolphus Busch (brewer: founder of Anheuser-Busch, the world's largest beer brewery)
1835 Henryk Wieniawski Lubin Poland, violinist/composer (Souvenir de Moscou)
1830 Jacob Camille Pissarro, French Pointillist and Impressionist painter specialized in landscapes, who died on 13 November 1903. MORE ON PISSARRO AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Self-Portrait Another Self-Portrait Le Port de Dieppe Bouquet de Fleurs Place de l'Opéra Paysage à Pontoise avec un Chasseur The Road Near the Farm Snow Scene at Eragny (View of Bazincourt) La Foire à Dieppe Toits Rouges Le Semeur Portrait of the Artist's Son, Félix (charcoal) Église et ferme d'Éragny (color etching) La Charrue (color lithograph) Paul Cézanne (etching) La masure Femme dans un potager Quai Malaquais, Après-Midi Ensoleillée Boulevard Montmartre de nuit The Boieldieu Bridge to Rouen, Sunset
1792 George Mifflin Dallas [< portrait], (D) 11th US Vice-President (1845-1849, under James K. Polk). The cities of Dallas TX and OR are named after him. Dallas died on 31 December 1864.
1723 Sir William Blackstone England, jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries)
1684 Tobias Stranovius, Czech artist who died after 1724.
1682 Roger Cotes, mathematician who edited the second edition of Newton's Principia. He made advances in the theory of logarithms, the integral calculus and in numerical methods, particularly interpolation.
1638 David Teniers III, Flemish artist who died on 10 February 1685.
1517 La Biblia Políglota Complutense termina de imprimirse, Fue encargada por el cardenal Cisneros a humanistas, filólogos y orientalistas y es considerada la obra más importante del Renacimiento español.