• US Vice President shoots opponent... • Federal aid for roads... • Battle of Rich Mountain... • 3ème jour de massacre à Damas... • Bataille des Éperons d'Or... • Ravachol guillotiné... • Palestinian mom killed by Israelis... • Tall Bull killed... • Classic Coke... • Battle of the Boyne... • Bowdler[izer] is born...
a 11 July:
2002 Nature reports the discovery in the western part of the Djurab desert, Northern Chad, of a skull [photo >] almost seven million years old, that belonged to an individual about the size of a chimpanzee with a cranial capacity similar to that of living chimps but, amazingly, the teeth (small canines) and relatively flat face with prominent brow ridges are more like those of a human. The discovery was made in 2001 by Chadian student, Ahunnta Djimdoumalbaye, in a team headed by Dr. Michel Brunet of the University of Poitiers, France, who gives the find a new genus and species name: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, and the nickname Toumaï (hope of life in the Goran language, a name for a child born close to the start of the dry season).
2002 On the New York Stock Exchange the stock of ICN Pharmaceuticals drops from the previous day's close of $19.95 to an intraday low of of $8.90 and closes at $9.30. It had traded as high as $51.12 on 04 May 1998. [< 5~year price chart]
2001 In the evening, policeman Ray Peterson is on foot patrol in Vancouver, when a duck persistently grabs him by the pant leg, then leads him to a sewer grate down which her eight ducklings had fallen. The policeman calls a tow truck which removes the heavy grate, and he lifts the ducklings with a vegetable strainer. The nine ducks then leave toward a nearby pond.
2000 A Middle East summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
2000 The African Methodist Episcopal Church, the US's oldest Black church, elected the Rev. Vashti McKenzie of Baltimore its first female bishop.
1995 El enclave musulmán de Srebrenica cae en manos de los serbios, pese a los ataques disuasorios de la OTAN. Veinte mil personas huyen de la ciudad.
|1995 US establishes diplomatic
relations with Vietnam
Two decades after the fall of Saigon, US President Bill Clinton established full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the approximately two thousand US servicemen still listed as missing in action (POW/MIAs). Normalization with America's old enemy began in early 1994, when President Clinton announced the lifting of the nineteen-year-old trade embargo against Vietnam. Although the embargo was lifted, high tariffs remained on Vietnamese exports pending the country's qualification as a "most-favored-nation," a US trade status designation that Vietnam might earn after broadening its program of free market reforms. On 07 July 1995, Clinton established diplomatic relations, and in May of 1996, he terminated the combat zone designation for Vietnam. Later in the year, he nominated Florida Representative Douglas "Pete" Peterson to become the first ambassador to Vietnam since Graham Martin was airlifted out of the country by helicopter in late April of 1975. Peterson himself served as a US air force captain during the Vietnam War, and was held as a prisoner of war for six-and-a-half-years after his bomber was shot down near Hanoi in 1966. Confirmed by Congress in 1997, Ambassador presented his credentials to Communist authorities in Hanoi, the Vietnamese capital, on 09 May 1997.
|1995 Wall Street Journal web site
The Wall Street Journal launches a Web site called Money and Investing Update. The site, which provided frequently updated business news and statistics, was the Journal's first step toward launching its popular interactive edition, which became one of the few Web publications to successfully charge a subscription fee.
|1995 Magazine publishers prepare Internet
The Magazine Publishers of America proposed measurement standards for the Internet on 11 July 1995. Some magazine advertisers, long accustomed to sophisticated research and demographics available about magazine readers, balked at the unsophisticated information available about Web users who saw their ads. The Internet Advertising Measurement Task Force was one of several initiatives to establish rating standards. Several third party agencies began competing for the role of "the Nielsen of the Web," including established media measurement companies A.C. Nielsen and Arbitron, as well as Internet start-ups like Media Metrix.
|1994 Dell quits retail
Michael Dell, chairman of Dell Computers, announces that the company will pull out of retail and concentrate entirely on its mail-order business. Although the company had predicted just four months earlier that it would expand its retail efforts, the company decided its build-to-order strategy would be more profitable as a strictly mail-order operation. By 1998, the company had become the country's No. 3 seller of computers, after Compaq and IBM.
| 1991 Un eclipse total del Sol, el cuarto y último del
siglo, abarca una importante franja de la superficie terrestre y oscurece
el día en gran parte del continente americano. A solar eclipse cast
a blanket of darkness stretching 14'000 km from Hawaii to South America,
lasting nearly seven minutes in some places. I observe it in San Cristobal
de Las Casas, Chiapas, where the automatic street lights switch on and the
temperature gets nociceably cooler.
1987 El laborista Robert Hawke logra su tercer mandato consecutivo como primer ministro de Australia.
| 1960 Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Upper Volta, and Niger declare
1955 The US Air Force Academy was dedicated at Lowry Air Base in Colorado.
1955 Congress authorizes all US currency to say "In God We Trust"
1952 Gen Eisenhower nominated as Republican presidential candidate
1950 René Pleven forma un en Francia un Gobierno con participación socialista.
Pleins Pouvoirs Pour Pétain.
Comment un symbole de la résistance, un général vaillant peut-il devenir un collaborateur de l’ennemi? Le cas du maréchal Pétain taraude toujours les historiens. Le héros de la guerre 14-18, le héros de Verdun, le sauveur de la France en devient le fossoyeur en 1940. Pétain accepte l’occupation de la France par Hitler. Il conclut avec l’Allemagne une armistice le 22 Jun 1940, une semaine après l’entrée des troupes hitlériennes à Paris. Il est « élu » chef de l’Etat français par l’Assemblée nationale qui lui vote les pleins pouvoirs le 11 Jul 1940 [photo >] et crée le gouvernement de Vichy, totalement inféodé à l’Allemagne hitlérienne. Le 24 octobre, il rencontre Hitler à Montoire. Il en devient le serviteur attitré et engage la France dans la voie de la collaboration. Il accepte le statut des juifs. Il ferme les yeux sur la persécution de la résistance française et l’occupation de son sol.Le héros de Verdun termine sa vie pitoyablement: à la suite du débarquement des Alliés en Normandie, il opère une dérive totalitaire, se fait arrêter par les Allemands le 20 Aug 1944, conduit en Allemagne puis jugé par la justice française pour trahison. Condamné à mort, il voit sa peine commuée en détention perpétuelle.Il mourra à L’île-d’Yeu, en 1951.
| 1937 Germán Busch es elegido nuevo presidente de Bolivia.
1936 Triborough Bridge linking Manhattan, Bronx & Queens opens
1924 El Gobierno noruego decide cambiar el nombre de la capital del país, Cristianía, por la de Oslo, resolución que entró en vigor el 1 de enero de 1925.
1921 Mongolia gains independence from China (National Day)
1921 Perú y Ecuador declaran rotas sus relaciones bilaterales.
1919 El ministro de Asuntos Exteriores británico, lord Curzon, propone a Rusia y a Polonia una línea de demarcación de fronteras.
1864 Engagement at Fort Stevens, D.C. as Confederate forces led by General Jubal Early begin an abortive invasion of Washington DC, turning back the next day.
1863 First assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina.
1863 The start of the drawing of names for the Civil War draft in New York results in the Draft Riots for four days, as mobs (mostly of foreign-born, especially Irish, workers earning often less than $500 a year) assault residents, defy police, attack draft headquarters, and burn buildings. They are outraged that the rich can afford to buy exemption from the draft for $300, and they fear that emancipation of the slaves will threaten their jobs, having had the experience of the bosses using Blacks as strikebreakers. The riots are put down by police and army by 15 July and the draft drawing of names resumes on 19 August without incident.
1861 Engagement at Rich Mountain, Virginia (now West Virginia)
1818 Keats writes "In the Cottage Where Burns Was Born," "Lines Written in the Highlands," & "The Gadfly"
1812 US invades Canada (Detroit frontier)
|1804 In duel, Burr
fatally shoots Hamilton
In a duel held near Weehawken, New Jersey, Vice President Aaron Burr fatally shoots his long-time political antagonist Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton, a leading Federalist and former secretary of the treasury under President George Washington, died the following day.
In 1801, in an election conducted before presidential and vice presidential candidates shared a single ticket, Thomas Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr had defeated Federalist incumbent John Adams with seventy-three electoral votes each. The tie vote then went to the House to be decided, and Alexander Hamilton was instrumental in breaking the deadlock in Jefferson's favor. Burr, because he finished second, became vice president, but Jefferson grew apart from Burr, and did not support his nomination to a second term in 1804.
A faction of the Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party. However, Hamilton opposed such a move, and was quoted by a New York newspaper saying that he "looked upon Mr. Burr to be a dangerous man, and one who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government." The article also referred to occasions when Hamilton had expressed an even "more despicable opinion of Burr." Burr demanded an apology, Hamilton refused, so Burr challenged his old political enemy to a duel.
On 11 July 1804, the pair met at a remote spot in Weehawken Heights, New Jersey. Hamilton, whose son was killed in a duel three years earlier, deliberately fired into the air, but Burr fired with intent to kill. Hamilton, fatally wounded, died in New York City the next day. The questionable circumstances of Hamilton's death effectively brought Burr's political career to an end.
Fleeing to Virginia, he traveled to New Orleans after finishing his term as vice president, and met with US General James Wilkinson, who was an agent for the Spanish. The exact nature of what the two plotted is unknown, but speculation ranges from the establishment of an independent republic in the American Southwest to the seizure of territory in Spanish America for the same purpose.
In the fall of 1806, Burr led a group of well-armed colonists toward New Orleans, prompting an immediate investigation by US authorities. General Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr and sent dispatches to Washington accusing Burr of treason. On February 19, 1807, Burr was arrested in Alabama for treason and sent to Richmond, Virginia, to be tried in a US circuit court. On September 1, 1807, he was acquitted on the grounds that, although he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an "overt act," a requirement of treason as specified by the US Constitution. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor and he was forced to retire to a private life.
Burr and Hamilton were both New Yorkers. The reason they crossed the Hudson is that New Jersey did not have a law against dueling at the time. New York had banned the practice earlier, partly due to Hamilton's own campaign efforts after his son was killed in a duel. Dueling was outlawed in the North much earlier than it was in the South. The state of Massachusetts declared it "detestable and infamous." Duelists in that state could be punished even if they both survived the duel. A typical penalty would be to stand an hour with a rope around their neck at the gallows and then to spend a year in prison. Transgressors might also receive lashes from a whip. For duelists who died, there was still a civic penalty to be paid. The loser was buried without a coffin near the spot of the duel with a stake driven through his body. The winner could be prosecuted for murder, executed, and buried in the same manner.
Even the mere threat of a duel had serious consequences: In 1818, George Norton challenged someone to a duel in New York for insulting his honor and was sentenced to a month in prison for his dare. In the South, dueling was much more popular and accepted, especially among upper-class society. The practice was so common that legislators were asked to take an oath to declare that they had never been in a duel. Even after dueling became illegal, the law was rarely enforced.
The Burr-Hamilton duel was not the last high-profile case. In 1809, future senator Henry Clay and Humphrey Marshall were arguing over legislation in Kentucky's state house when Clay called Marshall a demagogue and Marshall responded by calling Clay a liar. Their subsequent duel was fought with pistols at a length of ten paces. Luckily for both, neither was a good shot (nor were the weapons particularly accurate), and they both recovered from their injuries.
In a duel held in Weehawken, New Jersey, Vice President Aaron Burr fatally shoots his long-time political antagonist Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton, a leading Federalist and the chief architect of the US's political economy, died the following day. Alexander Hamilton, born on the Caribbean island of Nevis in 1757, came to the American colonies in 1773 as a poor immigrant. In 1776, he joined the Continental Army in the American Revolution, and his relentless energy and remarkable intelligence brought him to the attention of General George Washington, who took him on as an aid. Ten years later, Hamilton served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and he led the fight to win ratification of the final document, which created the kind of strong, centralized government that he favored. In 1789, he was appointed the first secretary of the treasury by President Washington, and during the next six years he crafted a sophisticated monetary policy that saved the young US government from collapse. With the emergence of political parties, Hamilton was regarded as a leader of the Federalists. Aaron Burr, born into a prestigious New Jersey family in 1756, was also intellectually gifted, and he graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at the age of 17. He joined the Continental Army in 1775 and distinguished himself during the Patriot attack on Quebec.
A masterful politician, he was elected to the New State Assembly in 1783 and later served as state attorney. In 1790, he defeated Alexander Hamilton's father-in-law in a race for the US Senate. Hamilton came to detest Burr, whom he regarded as a dangerous opportunist, and he often spoke ill of him. When Burr ran for the vice presidency in 1796 on Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican ticket (the forerunner of the Democratic Party), Hamilton launched a series of public attacks against Burr, stating, "I feel it is a religious duty to oppose his career." John Adams won the presidency, and in 1797 Burr left the Senate and returned to the New York Assembly. In 1800, Jefferson chose Burr again as his running mate. Burr aided the Democratic-Republican ticket by publishing a confidential document that Hamilton had written criticizing his fellow Federalist President John Adams. This caused a rift in the Federalists and helped Jefferson and Burr win the election with 73 electoral votes each. Under the electoral procedure then prevailing, president and vice president were not voted for separately; the candidate who received the most votes was elected president, and the second in line, vice president. The vote then went to the House of Representatives. What at first seemed but an electoral technicality--handing Jefferson victory over his running mate--developed into a major constitutional crisis when Federalists in the lame-duck Congress threw their support behind Burr. After a remarkable 35 tie votes, a small group of Federalists changed sides and voted in Jefferson's favor. Alexander Hamilton, who had supported Jefferson as the lesser of two evils, was instrumental in breaking the deadlock.
Burr became vice president, but Jefferson grew apart from him, and he did not support Burr's renomination to a second term in 1804. That year, a faction of New York Federalists, who had found their fortunes drastically diminished after the ascendance of Jefferson, sought to enlist the disgruntled Burr into their party and elect him governor. Hamilton campaigned against Burr with great fervor, and Burr lost the Federalist nomination and then, running as an independent for governor, the election. In the campaign, Burr's character was savagely attacked by Hamilton and others, and after the election he resolved to restore his reputation by challenging Hamilton to a duel, or an "affair of honor," as they were known. Affairs of honor were commonplace in America at the time, and the complex rules governing them usually led to an honorable resolution before any actual firing of weapons. In fact, the outspoken Hamilton had been involved in several affairs of honor in his life, and he had resolved most of them peaceably. No such recourse was found with Burr, however, and on 11 July 1804, the enemies met at 7 a.m. at the dueling grounds near Weehawken, New Jersey. It was the same spot where Hamilton's son had died defending his father's honor two years before. There are conflicting accounts of what happened next. According to Hamilton's "second"--his assistant and witness in the duel--Hamilton decided the duel was morally wrong and deliberately fired into the air. Burr's second claimed that Hamilton fired at Burr and missed. What happened next is agreed upon: Burr shot Hamilton in the stomach, and the bullet lodged next to his spine. Hamilton was taken back to New York, and he died the next afternoon. Few affairs of honor actually resulted in deaths, and the nation was outraged by the killing of a man as eminent as Alexander Hamilton.
Charged with murder in New York and New Jersey, Burr, still vice president, returned to Washington DC, where he finished his term immune from prosecution. In 1805, Burr, thoroughly discredited, concocted a plot with James Wilkinson, commander-in-chief of the US Army, to seize the Louisiana Territory and establish an independent empire, which Burr, presumably, would lead. He contacted the British government and unsuccessfully pleaded for assistance in the scheme. Later, when border trouble with Spanish Mexico heated up, Burr and Wilkinson conspired to seize territory in Spanish America for the same purpose. In the fall of 1806, Burr led a group of well-armed colonists toward New Orleans, prompting an immediate US investigation. General Wilkinson, in an effort to save himself, turned against Burr and sent dispatches to Washington accusing Burr of treason. In February 1807, Burr was arrested in Louisiana for treason and sent to Virginia to be tried in a US court. In September, he was acquitted on a technicality. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor, and he fled to Europe. He later returned to private life in New York, the murder charges against him forgotten. He died in 1836.
| 1798 The US Marine Corps is re-established by a congressional
act that also creates the US Marine Band.
1315 Fin du servage en France ... Comme son père Philippe IV le Bel, Louis X le Hutin ne cesse pas d'être à court d'argent. Pour remplir ses caisses, il affranchit ses serfs... moyennant finances.
which occurred on a 11 July:
2000 Pedro Mir, escritor dominicano.
1991 All 261 aboard a Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims which crashes at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, international airport.
1991 A 4-year-old boy as an Air Force F-16 jet trying to make an emergency landing crashes into a house in Pensacola, Florida., setting the home on fire. The boy's mother is badly burned. (The pilot ejected safely.)
1984 Tonnie Storey, 15, tortured and murdered in Cincinnati by Alton Coleman, 28, who would be executed by lethal injection on 26 April 2002, having been responsible for this and seven other deaths, plus numerous robberies, rapes and kidnappings during a 54-day five-state crime spree with his girlfriend, Debra Denise Brown.
1983:: 119 personas a bordo de un avión ecuatoriano que estalla en el aire.
1976 León de Greiff, poeta colombiano.
1974 Par Lagerkvist, escritor sueco, Nobel de Literatura 1951.
1954 Albert André, French painter, writer, and museum curator, born on 24 May 1869.
1946 Paul Nash, English Surrealist painter born on 11 May 1889. MORE ON NASH AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Winter Sea — Wood on the Downs — Northern Adventure — A Howitzer Firing — Night Bombardment — The Ypres Salient at Night — Void — The Menin Road — Behind the Inn
1937 George Gershwin, 38, US composer (American in Paris)
1931 Jean-Louis Forain, French painter born on 23 October 1852. MORE ON FORAIN AT ART 4 JULY LINKS The Patron and the Artist Danseuse Rattachant son Chausson Montmartre The Tightrope Walker The Fisherman Music Hall
1928 El diputado mexicano Sandoval, a su hermano y al alcalde de Tacambaro, ahorcados en postes telegráficos, por un .....
1916 Rik Wouters, Belgian painter and sculptor born on 02 August 1882. MORE ON WOUTERS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Portrait de Rik au cigare — Les rideaux rouges — Femme Assise
1911 Carlos Arturo Torres, poeta, ensayista, crítico y político colombiano.
1909 Simon Newcomb, 74, celestial mechanics authority, mathematician who remarked: "Ten decimal places of are sufficient to give the circumference of the earth to a fraction of an inch, and thirty decimal places would give the circumference of the visible universe to a quantity imperceptible to the most powerful microscope"
1766 Isabel de Farnesio, reina de España.
1733 Hermann, mathematician.
1697 Abraham Janszoon Begeyn, Dutch painter born in 1637. LINKS — Seashore
1593 Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian, first surrealist (officially Mannerist) painter (human faces made up of vegetables, or fish, or birds, etc.) (born approximately in 1527). MORE ON ARCIMBOLDO AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Self-Portrait (blue and black ink and wash) Vertumnus _ [portrait of the Emperor Rudolf II, not as a couch potato (he never watched TV), but as a bunch of vegetables] Flora Spring Summer _an earlier version of Summer Autumn (1573) Winter Air Water Earth Fire Eve and the Apple with Counterpart The Librarian The Lawyer Vegetables in a Bowl or The Gardener * The Cook [*an added trick of these last two pictures is that they can be viewed upside down]
1551 (possibly 31 July) Girolamo Genga, Urbino region Italian painter and architect, born in 1476. MORE ON GENGA AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Madonna and Child _ ZOOM IT — Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist and Saint Anthony of Padua _ ZOOM IT — The Son of Quintus Fabius Maximus buys from Hannibal the freedom of the Roman Prisoners _ ZOOM IT — Aeneas Fleeing from Troy _ ZOOM IT
1536 Erasmo de Rotterdam, humanista flamenco.
1382 Nicole Oresme, mathematician who invented coordinate geometry long before Descartes, he was the first to use a fractional exponent, and also worked on infinite series.
which occurred on a 11 July:
1927 Gregorio Salvador Caja, lexicólogo y académico español.
1922 Cassels, mathematician
1899 E.B. White, US author of essays and children's books (Charlotte's Web, Elements of Style). He died on 01 October 1985.
1890 Albanese, mathematician.
1885 Roger de la Fresnaye, French Cubist-Fauvist painter who died on 27 November 1925. Studied under Maurice Denis. LINKS — Married Life — ZOOM IT
1864 William Frederick Ritschel, German US marine painter who died on 11 March 1949. — China Cove -- Point Lobos — Rocks and Breakers, Monterey CA Morning Litany
1857 Larmor, mathematician
1851 Millie and Christine, NC, conjoined twins.
1846 Leon Bloy, French writer who died on 02 November 1917.
1838 John Wanamaker, US merchant, founder of Wanamaker department stores. He died on 12 December 1922.
1780 Gregorio de las Heras, militar y político argentino.
1767 John Quincy Adams Braintree, Mass, 6th Pres (D) (1825-1829) (son of the 2nd US President). He died on 23 February 1848.
1561 Luis de Góngora y Argote, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1558 Robert Greene Elizabethan dramatist (Friar Bacon). ROBERT GREENE ONLINE: Greene's Groats-Worth of Wit