| On a 18 July:
2001 Britannica.com announces that it will soon start charging $5 a month, or $50 a year, for access to the full encyclopedia, which has been available for free online since the site launched in October 1999. The change to a subscription service comes two months after Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. and Britannica.com announced plans to consolidate their operations. Britannica.com has struggled like other dot-coms in the volatile Internet market and has laid off more than 150 people, more than half its US workers, since late in 2000. However Britannica.com will continue to offer some [inadequate] free resources for basic reference.
|2001 Taliban bans more things that
could give Afghans some pleasure. ^top^
Afghanistan's ruling Taliban's supreme leader Mullah Mohammad Omar bans the import of 30 items as un-Islamic, including playing cards, neckties, lipsticks, nail polish and chessboards. Other items listed as banned for being "against the Sharia," or Islamic law, include fireworks, statues, fashion catalogs and greeting cards featuring pictures of people, musical instruments and cassettes. Also banned were computer discs, movies, satellite TV dishes, pig fat products and anything made of human hair. Border guards and security agencies are ordered to seize the banned items and hand them over to the Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. In June 2001 the Taliban had banned the printing of pictures of animals or verses from the Koran on any products.
The Taliban, which swept to power in 1996 and controls about 95% of the war-ravaged country, has already banned television, the playing of music, and photographs of people and animals, and the flying of kites. It has also barred women from education, most types of work, and from going out without wearing the all-enveloping "burqa" covering and being accompanied by a male relative. Men are ordered to grow long beards and not wear Western dress. The movement provoked international protests earlier in 2001 by ordering the destruction of ancient Buddhist statues and asking the country's small non-Muslim community to wear distinguishing badges. The statues, including the world's largest two Buddhas carved in a cliff near the central Afghan town of Bamiyan, were destroyed, but no decree has yet come from Omar about the badges to be worn by non-Muslims.
| 2000 Invalidating a veto threat from President Clinton,
the US Senate votes 61-to-38 in favor of eliminating the so-called "marriage
penalty" by cutting the higher taxes imposed on married persons.
1993 Fracasan las conversaciones en El Aaiún entre el Frente Polisario y el gobierno de Marruecos para realizar el referéndum de autodeterminación exigido por la ONU.
1991 The first Ibero-American Summit Conference opened in Guadalajara, Mexico.
1991 the Yugoslav federal presidency began withdrawing troops from Slovenia.
1981 Violentos incidentes durante una manifestación pro IRA en Dublín concluyen con más de un centenar de heridos.
1979 El dictador nicaragüense Anastasio Somoza "tachito" renuncia a la presidencia del país.
1979 Gold hits record $303.85 an ounce in London
1978 Egyptian and Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks
1977 Vietnam is admitted to the United Nations.
1976 Los Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre (GRAPO), reivindican la colocación de 28 artefactos explosivos.
1971 New Zealand and Austrailia announce they will pull their troops out of Vietnam.
1965 Edward Heath es elegido nuevo líder del Partido Conservador británico.
1964 Race riot in Harlem (NYC); riots spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant (Bkln)
1961 La policía desmantela la primera acción terrorista de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) el sabotaje a la línea férrea Madrid-Barcelona, por la que iba a pasar un tren cargado de ex combatientes.
| 1955 First electric power generated from atomic energy
1947 US receives UN trusteeship over Pacific Islands
1947 US President Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act, which placed the speaker of the House and the Senate president pro tempore next in the line of succession after the vice president.
| 1944 US troops capture Saint-Lô, France, ending
the battle of the hedgerows.
1944 Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister because of setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.
1943 The US Navy airship K-74 is shot down by anti-aircraft fire from a German U-boat.
1942 Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, first jet fighter, makes its first flight
1940 El general Franco reclama oficialmente Gibraltar.
1940 first successful helicopter flight, Stratford, Ct
1935 Ethiopian King Haile Selassie urges his countrymen to fight to the last man against the invading Italian army.
1932 US and Canada signed a treaty to develop St Lawrence Seaway.
|1925 Hitler Publishes
Mein Kampf ^top^
Seven months after being released from Landsberg jail, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler publishes the first volume of his personal manifesto, Mein Kampf. Dictated by Hitler during his nine-month stay in prison, Mein Kampf, or "My Struggle," is a bitter and turgid narrative filled with anti-Semitic outpourings, disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for his plans of Nazi world domination. The autobiographical work soon would become the bible of Germany's Nazi party.
In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of Germany's democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews. On November 8, 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" their first attempt at seizing the German government by force. Hitler hoped that his nationalist revolution in Bavaria would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would bring down the government in Berlin.
However, the uprising was immediately suppressed, Hitler was arrested, and on April 1, 1924, he was sentenced to five years in prison for high treason. Sent to Landsberg jail, he spent his time dictating his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. After nine months in prison, political pressure from supporters of the Nazi party forced his release. Over the next few years, Hitler and the other leading Nazis reorganized their party as a fanatical mass movement that was able to gain a majority in the German parliament the Reichstag by legal means in 1932.
In the same year, President Paul von Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933 appointed him as chancellor, hoping that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler's first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazi party's propaganda officers disguised the attack as a Communist plot, and Hitler used it as pretext for calling general elections. The police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. In 1934, Hindenburg died and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
Hitler dictated Mein Kampf to Rudolph Hess while pacing around his prison cell in 1923-24 and later at an inn at Berchtesgaden. In Mein Kampf Hitler writes at length about his youth, early days in the Nazi Party, future plans for Germany, and ideas on politics and race.
The original title Hitler chose was "Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice." His Nazi publisher knew better and shortened it to Mein Kampf, simply "My Struggle", or "My Battle".
Hitler divides humans into categories based on physical appearance, establishing higher and lower orders, or types of humans. At the top is the Germanic man with his fair skin, blond hair and blue eyes, the "Aryan", the supreme form of human, the master race. At the other extreme are the Untermenschen, or racially inferior: Jews and Slavic peoples, notably the Czechs, Poles, and Russians.
"...it (Nazi philosophy) by no means believes in an equality of races, but along with their difference it recognizes their higher or lesser value and feels itself obligated to promote the victory of the better and stronger, and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the eternal will that dominates this universe." - Hitler states in Mein Kampf
The Aryan is also culturally superior:
"All the human culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan... Hence it is no accident that the first cultures arose in places where the Aryan, in his encounters with lower peoples, subjugated them and bent them to his will. They then became the first technical instrument in the service of a developing culture."
The subjugated peoples actually benefit by being conquered because they come in contact with and learn from the superior Aryans. However they benefit only as long the Aryan remains absolute master and doesn't mingle or inter-marry with inferior conquered peoples.
But it is the Jews, Hitler writes, who are engaged in a conspiracy to keep this master race from assuming its rightful position as rulers of the world, by tainting its racial and cultural purity and even inventing forms of government in which the Aryan comes to believe in equality and fails to recognize his racial superiority.
"The mightiest counterpart to the Aryan is represented by the Jew."
Hitler describes the struggle for world domination as an ongoing racial, cultural, and political battle between Aryans and Jews. He outlines his thoughts in detail, accusing the Jews of conducting an international conspiracy to control world finances, controlling the press, inventing liberal democracy as wells as Marxism, promoting prostitution and vice, and using culture to spread disharmony.
Throughout Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Jews as parasites, liars, dirty, crafty, sly, wily, clever, without any true culture, a sponger, a middleman, a maggot, eternal blood suckers, repulsive, unscrupulous, monsters, foreign, menace, bloodthirsty, avaricious, the destroyer of Aryan humanity, and the mortal enemy of Aryan humanity... "...for the higher he climbs, the more alluring his old goal that was once promised him rises from the veil of the past, and with feverish avidity his keenest minds see the dream of world domination tangibly approaching."
This conspiracy idea and the notion of 'competition' for world domination between Jews and Aryans would become widespread beliefs in Nazi Germany and would even be taught to school children. This, combined with Hitler's racial attitude toward the Jews, would be shared to various degrees by millions of Germans and people from occupied countries, so that they either remained silent or actively participated in the Nazi effort to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe.
Mein Kampf also provides an explanation for the military conquests later attempted by Hitler and the Germans. Hitler states that since the Aryans are the master race, they are entitled simply by that fact to acquire more land for themselves. This Lebensraum, or living space, will be acquired by force, Hitler says, and includes the lands to the east of Germany, namely Russia. That land would be used to cultivate food and to provide room for the expanding Aryan population at the expense of the Slavic peoples, who were to be removed, eliminated, or enslaved.
But in order to achieve this, Hitler states Germany must first defeat its old enemy France, to avenge the German defeat of World War One and to secure the western border. Hitler bitterly recalls the end of the first world war saying the German Army was denied its chance for victory on the battlefield by political treachery at home. In the second volume of Mein Kampf he attaches most of the blame to Jewish conspirators in a highly menacing and ever more threatening tone.
When Mein Kampf was first released in 1925 it sold poorly. People had been hoping for a juicy autobiography or a behind the scenes story of the Beer Hall Putsch. What they got were hundreds of pages of long, hard to follow sentences and wandering paragraphs composed by a self-educated man. However, after Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, millions of copies were sold. It was considered proper to give one to newlyweds, high school graduates, or to celebrate any similar occasion. But few Germans ever read it cover to cover. Although it made him rich, Hitler would later express regret that he produced Mein Kampf, considering the extent of its revelations.
Those revelations concerning the nature of his character and his blueprint for Germany's future ought to have served as a warning to the world. A warning that was mostly ignored.
HITLER ONLINE: (in English translation): Mein Kampf
1898 Filipinas proclama su independencia.
1898 Marie y Pierre Curie descubren un nuevo elemento químico, el polonio.
| 1873 Nicolás Salmerón se convierte en presidente de
la Primera República Española tras la dimisión de Pi y Margall, que sólo
ha permanecido cinco semanas en el cargo.
1872 The Ballot Act is passed in Great Britain, providing for secret election ballots.
1870 The Vatican I Ecumenical Council issued the proclamation 'Pastor Aeternus,'declaring the pope's primacy and infallibility in deciding faith and moral matters. (Few Protestants agree with this doctrine.) Fin du premier Concile du Vatican, convoqué par le Pape Pie IX.
1864 Battle of Cool Spring, Virginia
1863 Second attack on Fort Wagner
1862 Confederates cross Ohio River and raid Newburg, Indiana
1861 Skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, Virginia, in a prelude to the Battle of Bull Run.
1837 El famoso bandolero Luis Candelas es detenido en la posada de Alcazarén, cerca de Olmedo (Valladolid).
1830 Uruguay adopts a liberal constitution.
1814 British capture Prairie du Chien (Wisc)
1812 Great Britain signs the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
1789 Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decides to back the French Revolution.
1753 Lemuel Haynes, escapes from slaveholder in Framingham Mass
1724 Travaux forcés pour les pauvres. En France une ordonnance royale prescrit l'enfermement des pauvres qui sont invalides et prescrit la mise au travail de ceux qui ne le sont pas.
1716 Jews are expelled from Brussels Belgium
which occurred on a 18 July:
2002 All 70 or so in a fuel truck and a bus which crashes into it after careening downhill for 1 km when its brakes fail, and as both vehicles are engulfed in a fireball, at 14:00 in Lutoto, Uganda.
2002 Moti Kanfo, 28, his wife Liat Kanfo, 25, and child, Dor Kanfo, 9 months, as a car whose driver fell asleep at the wheel crashes into theirs on the road to Kiryat Shmona, Israel. Police cordoned off the road and a long line of cars grew southward on the road, extending almost half a kilometer. Then, as firemen, police, and rescue workers were working at the scene of the accident, a truck traveling north toward Kiryat Shmona plowed into the rear of the last car in the line, killing Ruth Ohanona and her daughter, Hadas, 13, who was thrown from the car.
2002 Sheva Legasa Ahatnesh, 6, struck by a car in Be'er Sheva, Israel. She was leaving Elephant Park with her father and older sister when her sister ran across the street on their way home to the absorption center for Ethiopian immigrants. The six-year-old took chase across Hatzaddik MiYerushalayem Street, but when she reached the second lane, a passenger car hit the girl. She was taken to Soroka Hospital where she died of her injuries.
2002 Yocheved Ben-Hanan, 21, Israeli of the Immanuel enclave settlement, of wounds suffered in the 16 July 2002 bus attack. She was a student at the Chabad teachers seminary for women.
1989 Rebecca Schaeffer, 21, actress, shot at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.
1984: 21 McDonalds patrons and James Oliver Huberty who shoots them and then is shot by police, in San Ysidro California.
1982 Roman Jakobson, lingüista estadounidense.
1924 Ángel Guimerá, poeta y escritor español.
1899 Horatio Alger Jr US clergyman and author.
1894 Jan Bedys Tom, Dutch artist born on 04 March 1813.
1872 Benito Juárez, 66, justice/general (battle of Acapulco)
1721 Jean-Antoine Watteau, French painter, baptized as an infant on 10 October 1684. typified the lyrically charming and graceful style of the Rococo. Much of his work reflects the influence of the commedia dell'arte and the opéra ballet. MORE ON WATTEAU AT ART 4 JULY LINKS The Fortune Teller L'Amour au Théâtre Français Une Pause Pendant la Chasse Réunion Pierrot (Gilles) La Leçon de Musique Seated Woman Seated Woman Holding a Fan 3 studies of a boy's head The Italian Comedy The Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera (+ a slightly later variant L'Enseigne de Gersaint
1638 Odoardo Fialetti (Edouard Viallet), Italian painter and printmaker born on 18 July 1573.
1610 Michelangelo Merisi Caravaggio, Italian Baroque era painter born in 1572. MORE ON CARAVAGGIO AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Boy Peeling a Fruit Boy with a Basket of Fruit _ detail Boy Bitten by a Lizard _ detail a minutely different Boy Bitten by a Lizard St. Francis in Ecstasy _ detail The Musicians The Fortune Teller a different The Fortune Teller _ detail 1 _ detail 2 The Cardsharps The Lute Player #1 a minutely different Lute Player #2 _ detail Bacchus _ detail 1 _ detail 2 Sick Bacchus Basket of Fruit Martha and Mary Magdalene Magdalene _ detail Rest on Flight to Egypt _ detail 1 _ detail 2 St Catherine of Alexandria _ (about legendary St Catherine of Alexandria) Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto Madonna of the Rosary Seven Works of Mercy The Flagellation of Christ Grand Master, Alof de Wignacourt. The Raising of Lazarus Supper at Emmaus Death of the Virgin The Music Party. St Matthew and the Angel The Calling of St Matthew _ detail 1: Christ _ detail 2: Matthew _ detail 3: gaily dressed idlers The Martyrdom of St Matthew The Crucifixion of St Peter The Conversion of St Paul The Deposition of Christ The Death of the Virgin Madonna with Pilgrims Madonna of the Rosary The Seven Works of Mercy The Beheading of St John the Baptist The Burial of St Lucy The Resurrection of Lazarus The Adoration of the Shepherds Adoration with St Francis and St Lawrence
390 -BC- Roman and Gaul soldiers at the Battle of Allia Gauls inflict heavy casualties on Romans.
which occurred on a 18 July: ^top^
1994 Riccardo della Corte, to the oldest woman ever to give birth, Rossanna della Corte, of Canino, Italy, who was treated by Dr. Severino Antinori, 49, after she lost a son, 17, in a motorcycle crash.
1974 World's tallest structure, 646-m Polish radio mast, completed
1968 Intel incorporates
1947 Steve Forbes, publisher.
1918 Nelson Mandela, (Nobel Peace prize-winner ; first post-apartheid South African President; imprisoned for 28 years)
1909 (05 July Julian) Andrei Andreyevich Burmakov Gromyko, in the village of Stariye Gromyki, in White Russia. He would be a Soviet diplomat from 1939, ambassador to the US under Stalin, Foreign Minister (from February 1957) under Khruschev and Brezhnev. Full member of the Politburo from 27 April 1973. Moved out of the way as ceremonial President by Gorbachev in July 1985. Gromyko died on 02 July 1989. Author of his Memories (not very accurate).
1906 Samuel Ichiyé Hayakawa, in Vancouver, Canada. He would be a scholar, president of San Francisco State College (1968-1973), and US Senator from California (1977-1983, Republican). He led an initiative declaring English as official language of California. His first book, Language in Action (1941), was a popularization of the semantic theories of Alfred Korzybski. Two of his other books are Language in Thought and Action and Choose the Right Word: A Contemporary Guide to Selecting the Precise Word for Every Situation. He died on 27 February 1992.
1906 Clifford Odets, playwright and motion-picture writer and director. He died on 14 August 1963.
1887 Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonsson Quisling, Norwegian army officer, defense minister (1931-1933), founder in 1933 of the fascist Nasjonal Samling (Union) Party. In December 1939 he urged Hitler to invade Norway, which Hitler did in April 1940. Then Quisling became a servile puppet in the Nazi occupation government under Reichkommissar Josef Terboven. Quisling was responsible for sending nearly 1000 Jews to their deaths in concentration camps. After the liberation of Norway in May 1945, Quisling was tried and, on 24 October 1945, executed, having turned his name into a superlative of traitor.
1871 Giacomo Balla, Italian Futurist painter, sculptor, stage designer, decorative artist, and actor, who died on 01 March 1958. MORE ON BALLA AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Il Sole e Mercurio Velocità Dinamismo di un cane al guinzaglio Form~Spirit Transformation The Flight of the Swallows Young Girl Running on a Balcony — Street Light — Velocità astratta + rumore Feu d'Artifice
1868 Thorvald Erichsen, Norwegian painter who died on 23 December 1939. — more
1865 Laurence Housman, England, author/playwright (Victoria Regina, Gods and their Makers) LAURENCE HOUSMAN ONLINE: Gods and Their Makers (requires download of special reader program). The Blue Moon
1853 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, Holland, mathematician, physicist, Lorentz is best known for his work on electromagnetic radiation and the FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction. He developed the mathematical theory of the electron (Nobel 1902). He died on 04 February 1928.
1813 Pierre Laurent, Parisian engineer and mathematician who died on 02 September 1854.
1741 Johann-Jakob Dorner I, German painter who died on 22 May 1813. The Hard Landlady
1720 Gilbert White, à Selborne en Angleterre Devenu pasteur dans son village natal, White obserrve la nature au jour à jour. Son observation méthodique, scrupuleuse, vaudra à ce modeste pasteur de village d'être considéré comme l'un des meilleurs naturalistes de son époque.
1659 (infant baptism) Hyacinthe François Honoré Mathias Pierre André Jean Rigau y Ros Rigaud, French Baroque era painter who died on 29 December 1743, specialized in Portraits. MORE ON RIGAUD AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Self-Portrait Shakspeare - Henry IV~1.V.4 (engraving with hand coloring) Phillippe de Couraillon Portrait of Louis XIV a different, very famous portrait of Louis XIV Count Sinzendorf Double Portrait of the Artist's Mother The Presentation in the Temple Portrait of a Scholar Philippe V, roi d'Espagne Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
1635 Robert Hooke, English physicist, architect, surveyor, and mathematician. He died on 03 March 1703. He claimed priority over Newton in the theory of light and color, and in discovering the inverse square law of gravitation.
1013 Hermann von Reichenau “The Lame”, Altshausen German Benedictine abbot of Reichenau, poet, astronomer, and mathematician, who died on 24 September 1054. His works include the whole or parts of De Mensura Astrolabii and De Utilitatibus Astrolabii. He published in Latin much scientific work which before this time had been only available in Arabic.