a 23 July:
2002 The stock of oil and gas company Dynegy (DYN) is downgraded by Salomon Smith Barney from Neutral to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange the stock drops from its previous close of $3.38 to an intraday low of $0.84 and closes at $1.23. It had traded as high as $57.95 on 30 April 2001. DYN falls further in the next two days, to as low as $0.51 on 25 July, but then recovers to a close of $0.68 on Friday 26 July, on 29 July to an intraday high of $1.30 and a close of $1.20, on 30 July to an intraday high of $1.83 and a close of $1.70, on 31 July to an intraday high of $2.90 and a close of $2.40. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Kidnapped 7-year-old's gnawing escape.
Erica E Pratt, 7 [< photo], finds herself bound with duct tape, locked in the pitch dark basement of an abandoned home in north Philadelphia (at 1211 Loudon Street), where she was dumped by members of a drug gang feuding with the Pratt gang: James Burns, 29 (multiple arrests on gun charges), and Edward Johnson, 23 (multiple arrests on drug charges, on probation), one of whom called her by her name and grabbed her at 21:22 the previous evening, as she was coming back from a neighborhood block party with her sister Nalilah, 5, on the sidewalk outside the home of her grandmother (in the 6000 block of Kingsessing Avenue, Erica's mom, Sarina Gillis, 24, without a home of her own, lives a block away, in the 6000 block of Reinhard Street) with whom she has been living for the last three years, and dragged her screaming to a car where the other was waiting.
20 minutes later her grandmother receives a phone call: We want $150'000, or else we're going to kill your granddaughter. The ransom is demanded in seven more calls, during one of which, just before midnight, Erica is allowed to speak briefly with her grandmother. There had been false rumors that Barbara Pratt, 45, Erica's grandmother had received $150'000, insurance money for the 23 March 2002 murder of Erica's uncle, Joseph Pratt Jr., 25, leader of a drug gang (now led by Erica's father and another uncle) killed in the barrage of bullets as he sat in a car parked on South 56th Street near Woodland Avenue. Before the killing, he had been involved in drug dealing and a series of serious assaults. At the time of his death, he was facing charges of attempted murder for a September 2001 shooting near 39th Street and Fairmount Avenue.
In 1993, another uncle, Derrick Pratt, then 21, was acquitted by a jury of being one of the gunmen who killed two teenagers and wounded two others in a 1990 revenge attack near a West Philadelphia movie theater. Erica's father, Eric Pratt, is on probation after an April 1998 arrest for drug possession and intent to distribute, to which he pleaded guilty. In January 2002 Erica's mother, Sarina Gillis, was sentenced to a year's probation for spraying two women in the face with dog repellent in 2001. She also was arrested in December 2001 for drug-possession.
Erica spends the day gnawing through the tape around her hands and feet, then kicks out a panel of the locked basement door, and smashes open a first-floor front window of the building and shouts for help. Three youngsters hear her, help her out the window, and call the police, who rescue Erica at 20:53. The little girl suffers a cornea abrasion from the tape over her eyes and her hair is tangled up in duct tape. She is hungry and exhausted.
The kidnappers would be arrested on 25 July 2002, before 08:00, suffering cuts and bruises in the process.
[Shouldn't a 7-year-old and a 5-year-old be safely asleep in bed at 21:22, rather than out on the sidewalk?]
2002 The British government announces that it has named Rowan Williams, 52 [photo >], to become the 104th archbishop of Canterbury in October 2002, succeeding George Carey, 67, who is retiring after 11 years. Williams, a Welsh, will be the first non-English in the post. He is married, has two children (aged 14 and 6), and is an outspoken leftist who has written 14 books, including two of poetry.
2001 Indonesian president removed from office.
Indonesia's People's Consultative Assembly 591-0 impeaches President Abdurahman Wahid and swears in Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri as President.
[photo: Blind more than just physically, Wahid, guided by daughter and an aide, waves to mostly inexistent supporters >]
Army generals, and senior police officers had rejected an emergency decree issued earlier in the day by Wahid ordering the assembly's immediate suspension.
For weeks Wahid had warned that his ouster would trigger civil unrest. However, there was none.
Wahid, a blind muslim cleric, became Indonesia's first democratic head of state in 44 years when the same assembly elected him in October 1999, choosing him over Megawati, daughter of Indonesia's founder Sukarno.
But relations with lawmakers, many of them holdovers from the 32-year dictatorship of former president Suharto, quickly soured over Wahid's attempts to end corruption and reform the state bureaucracy and armed forces. His opponents accused him of erratic policymaking and failing to fix the crisis-ridden economy or resolving several bloody sectarian and separatist conflicts.
The push to remove Wahid from office began in 2000 when he was linked to two corruption scandals. He has denied any wrongdoing and has been cleared by police and prosecutors.
On 22 July 2001, Wahid declared a state of emergency and ordered Indonesia's military to dissolve the assembly. The military refused and instead deployed troops and tanks to protect legislators. The Supreme Court has ruled that Wahid has no power to block impeachment. Following Wahid's decree to shut down the legislature, at least six ministers quit his Cabinet in protest. Among those who announced their intent to resign were security minister Agum Gumelar, state secretary Marzuki Darusman and attorney general Marsilam Simanjuntak who was one of Wahid's closest advisers.
[< photo: Megawati waves to journalists after the swearing in]
2000 US President Clinton rejoined the troubled Middle East talks at Camp David after hurrying back from a four-day trip to Asia.
2000 Leaders of the major industrial countries conclude their summit in Japan by announcing a campaign to slash the number of deaths worldwide from AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
1997 Digital Equipment Company files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel, alleging that the company used monopoly power to harm Digital by demanding the return of certain technical documents. Intel had filed charges against Digital in May seeking the return of the documents.
1997 FBI agents raid Internet bank Newspapers report that Netware International Bank has been shut down by FBI agents7. The bank had been accused of improperly making loans and collecting deposits over the Internet.
1996 The US Senate passes a welfare overhaul bill.
1996 A CBS station in Raleigh, North Carolina, begins broadcasting high-definition digital television data, although not full pictures. A week later, an NBC affiliate in Washington, D.C., broadcast the first full high-definition television pictures. The same station broadcast a high-definition version of Meet the Press, starting in February 1997
1995 Los astrónomos norteamericanos Alan Hale y Thomas Bopp descubren, casi simultáneamente, el cometa Hale-Bopp.
1994 Golpe militar en Gambia que derroca al presidente Dauda Jawara, sustituido al día siguiente por el teniente Yaya Dieme.
1992 Los dirigentes eslovaco y checo, Vladimir Meciar y Vaclav Klaus, acuerdan en Bratislava el proyecto de ley sobre la escisión de ambas repúblicas de la Federación Checoslovaca.
1991 The US Senate votes to impose a long list of strict new conditions on renewal of China's normal trade status in 1992; however, the 55-44 vote falls short of the two-thirds majority later needed to override the veto of President Bush (Sr.).
1991 The Soviet government applies for full membership to the IMF and World Bank after the Group of Seven recommended a limited "special association" for the USSR.
1987 EE.UU. suspende toda la ayuda económica y militar a Panamá para forzar la salida del general Noriega.
1983 El rey Juan Carlos I de España firma en Venezuela la Declaración de Caracas con motivo del bicentenario del nacimiento de Simón Bolívar.
1980 "First Brother" Billy Carter admits to being paid by Libya
1974 Greek military dictatorship collapses
1973 Nixon refuses to hand over tapes subpoenaed by Watergate Committee El presidente estadounidense, Richard Nixon, se niega a entregar las grabaciones que le implican en el caso Watergate, por lo que tiene que enfrentarse a la acción de la justicia.
1972 first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) is launched
| 1968 PLO's first hijacking of an El Al plane
1948 Progressive party convention nominates Henry Wallace for President
1944 Soviet troops take Lublin, Poland as the German army retreats.
1944 US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II
1943 El Gran Consejo destituye a Mussolini y el nuevo jefe de gobierno italiano, general Badoglio, recibe el encargo de entablar negociaciones de paz con los aliados.
1940 "Blitz" begins, all-night raid on London
1936 Guerra Civil española: Se constituye en Burgos una Junta de Defensa Nacional, primer órgano de gobierno creado en la zona nacional.
1931 Ashmore and Cartier Is in Indian Ocean transferred to Australia
| 1926 Raymond Poincaré es nombrado primer ministro de
1886 New York saloonkeeper Steve Brodie makes a daredevil plunge from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River (he claims).
1868 The 14th Amendment is ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans.
1865 William Booth founds the Salvation Army.
1863 Bill Andeson and his Confederate Bushwackers gut the railway station at Renick, Missouri.
1863 Skirmish at Manassas Gap, Virginia
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1803 Irish patriots throughout the country rebel against Union with Great Britain. Robert Emmett's insurrected in Dublin
1798 Napoleon captures Alexandria, Egypt
1793 The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, falls to the Prussians.
1753 Publication of the Papal Bull Sollicita ac provida
1664 Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts are given the right to vote.
1637 King Charles of England hands over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
1627 Sir George Calvert arrives in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
1599 Caravaggio's first public commission for paintings Reproductions of paintings by Michelangelo Merisi da CARAVAGGIO ONLINE: LINKS Beheading of Saint John the Baptist David Beheading Goliath David With the Head of Goliath Calling of Saint Matthew Denial of Christ by Saint Peter Crucifixion of Saint Peter Conversion of Saint Paul
1431 Se inicia el Concilio de Basilea, noveno concilio ecuménico universal.
1298 Jews are massacred at Wurzburg Germany
1253 Jews are expelled from Vienne France by order of Pope Innocent III
0685 John V begins his reign as Pope
0636 Arabs gain control of most of Palestine from the Byzantine Empire
0306 Constantine is proclaimed Caesar of the west by the army, while Severus, the former Caesar, is proclaimed Augustus of the west by Galerius.
which occurred on a 23 July: ^top^
2003 James E. Davis, born on 03 April 1962, shot by Othniel Askew, 31, who is then shot dead by a plainclothes policeman, in the New York City Council chamber. Davis was a councilman representing parts of Brooklyn's Crown Heights, Fort Greene and Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhoods.
2002 Maj. David Shannon, assigned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, murdered by his wife, Joan Shannon.
2002 Sheikh Salah Shehada, 40, his wife Leilah, their daughter Iman, 13, his bodyguard Zahar Salah Abuhsein, and, in neighboring houses, 11 other Palestinians, including 10 other children, shortly after midnight, as an Israeli 1-ton guided bomb from a F-16 warplane destroys five houses in Gaza City [< photo]. The target was Shehada [photo >], head of Hamas's Izz el-Deen al-Qassam brigades in the Gaza Strip and the No. 1 man on the Israel Defense Force's wanted list since 2000. He had been imprisoned from 1988 to 1999, first by Israel, then by the Palestinian Authority. The other dead children are two babies, ages 18 and 2 months, six children aged 3-5, and an 11-year-old. Some 50 Palestinians are wounded, one of which dies of the injuries on 10 August 2002. The al-Aqsa intifada body count now is 1789 Palestinians and 578 Israelis, not to mention many more maimed for life, and the devastation of property.
2002 Herman Harold Chaim Potok, after 2 years of brain cancer, Conservative rabbi, writer, born in New York City on 17 February 1929, to Orthodox Jews who had immigrated from Poland in 1921. His best known novel is The Chosen (28 Apr 1967) [Summary and analysis] about the friendship between two Jewish Brooklyn boys from different religious backgrounds, one of which, Danny, breaks out of the Hasidic world through his interest in psychology, and the other, Reuven, the narrator, is a Zionist. Its sequel is The Promise (1969). My Name Is Asher Lev (1972) explores the conflicts faced by an Orthodox Jew who becomes a painter. Potok also wrote plays, children's literature, nonfiction, and short stories (such as Moon). After five novels, Potok researched and wrote his first nonfiction book, Wanderings: Chaim Potok's History of the Jews,' which traced Jewish history to the patriarch Abraham 4000 years ago. Other books by Potok: The Gift of Asher Lev (1990) Davita's Harp (1985) In the Beginning (1975) As a Driven Leaf I Am the Clay (1992) The Book of Lights (16 Oct 1981) Wanderings: Chaim Potok's History of the Jews (1978) The Sky of Now (1994) The Tree of Here (1993) The Gates of November: Chronicles of the Slepak Family (1996) Zebra: and Other Stories (1998) Old Men at Midnight (3 novellas, 2001) Theo Tobiasse: Artist in Exile (1986)
2001 Refat Nahal, 15, from Rafah, Gaza Strip, shot in the back by Israelis.
2001 Mustafa Yassin, 28, shot by Israeli police, who say he was the head of an Islamic Jihad cell, and drove a would-be suicide bomber toward Haifa.
Eudora Welty, 92, of pneumonia, in Jackson, Mississippi.
Eudora Welty was born on 13 April 1909 in Jackson, Mississippi,. where she led a sheltered but daring life (in her own words), and died.
During the Great Depression Eudora Welty was a photographer on the Works Progress Administration's Guide to Mississippi, and photography remained a lifelong interest. Photographs (1989) is a collection of many of the photographs she took for the WPA. She also worked as a writer for a radio station and newspaper in her native Jackson, Mississippi, before her fiction won popular and critical acclaim.
She was a White writer of novels and short stories set almost exclusively in the rural American South. Also a photographer. She is noted for her subtle recreations of regional speech and thought patterns. Welty's novella The Optimist's Daughter (1972) won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for fiction. In it a woman's conflicted relationship with her father's second wife leads her to reminisce about her parents' marriage.
Welty's first short story was Death of a Traveling Salesman (1936). She first gained critical acclaim with A Curtain of Green (1941) a collection of stories about Southern life with droll descriptions of eccentric behavior. Her novella The Robber Bridegroom (1942) was about a wealthy Southern planter's daughter who is courted by a bandit.
After publishing a second collection of short stories, The Wide Net (1943), Welty completed her first full-length novel, Delta Wedding (1946), portrait of a Southern family, told from the perspective of a nine-year-old girl, Welty uses a family event to draw a large number of characters together. She then counterpoints the group dynamic and the girl's interior monologue. The novel Ponder Heart (1957), an often comic story of small-town life, includes one scene that epitomizes Welty's penchant for grotesque, almost surreal violence. A dim-witted character mistakenly suffocates his wife to death while tickling her as a thunderstorm rages outside.
Welty's other short story collections include Music from Spain (1948); The Bride of Innisfallen (1955); a group of children's stories, The Shoe Bird (1964); Losing Battles (1970); and The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty (1980). The Eye of the Story (1978) compiles essays and criticism on the subject of writing. One Writer's Beginnings (1984) is an autobiographical work about her decision to become a writer
Eudora the E-mail program
After a year of work and some 50'000 lines of code, Steve Dorner in 1990 created an E-mail program. Later he wrote (in an E-mail message, of course): "When I was in college, I read Eudora Welty's story Why I Live at the P.O.. The story stuck with me. When it came time years later to name the program, I remembered the title, rearranged it a bit to 'Bringing the P.O. to where you live,' and used it for the program's motto. Then I named it Eudora."
WELTY ONLINE: Why I live at the P.O.
Général Henri-Philippe Pétain, 95,
in the Île d'Yeu prison fortress, French national hero of World War I, who
was convicted of collaboration with the Nazi occupiers of his country during
World War II and sentenced to life in prison,
Born on 24 April 1856, a graduate of Saint-Cyr Military Academy, Pétain served as a second lieutenant in the Alpine regiment, where he developed a reputation for camaraderie with the average foot soldier. He then went on to a controversial teaching career at the War College, where he propounded theories that were in direct conflict with commonly held ideas, especially his contention that a strong defense was the key to victory, not the always be on the attack strategy common to the French military at the time.
During World War I, General Pétain distinguished himself at the Battle of Verdun, during which he successfully repulsed German attacks on the fortress city. He was an inspiration to his troops and successfully squelched near mutinies within the army after disastrous offensives led by General Robert-Georges Nivelle. Pétain regained the confidence-and loyalty of those soldiers when he was named Nivelle's successor, improving their living conditions and initiating open communication between command and troops.
After the outbreak of World War II, Pétain was appointed vice premier by Premier Paul Reynaud. in May of 1940 to boost morale in a country crumbling under the force of the Nazi invasion. As the French Cabinet became desperate. Reynaud continued to hold out hope, refusing to ask for an armistice, especially now that France had received assurance from Britain that the two would fight as one, and that Britain would continue to fight the Germans even if France were completely overtaken.
But others in the government were despondent and wanted to sue for peace. Reynaud resigned in protest. General de Gaulle, by radio from London, on 18 June 1940, proclaimed that "France has lost a battle, France has not lost the war" and urged continued resistance, But Pétain had already announced the previous day that his new government would surrender. It signed with the Nazis a humiliating armistice, which went into effect on 25 June 1940. The man who had become a legendary war hero for successfully fighting off a German attack on French soil was now surrendering to Hitler. More than half of France was occupied by the Germans.
On 10 July 1940, in the city of Vichy, the French Senate and Chamber of Deputies conferred on the 84-year-old general the title of Chief of State, making him a dictator although one controlled by Berlin. Pétain wrongly believed that he could negotiate a better deal for his country for example, obtaining the release of prisoners of war by collaborating with the Nazis.
Under the Vichy government, nominally headed by Pétain, French citizens suffered on both sides of the divided nation. Resistance fighters and sympathizers were labeled terrorists. They, if captured, and Jews, even babies and young children, were shipped off to death camps. Instead of military service, young men were sent to Germany as slave laborers. Expressing disssatisfaction, or merely listening to the London radio, could lead to a death sentence. Things only got worse when, on 420418, Pierre Laval, an opportunistic French Fascist and dutiful Nazi collaborator, who had won the trust of Adolf Hitler, formed a new Vichy government and the elderly Pétain became merely a figurehead in the regime. The Nazis then occupied the whole of France.
When Paris was finally liberated by Général Charles de Gaulle in 1944, Pétain fled to Germany. On 26 April 1945, with Germany days away from surrender, Pétain crossed into France from Switzerland and turned himself in. He was subsequently found guilty of treason by the High Court of Justice and sentenced to death, but French President Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life in solitary confinement. De Gaulle and Pétain had fought in the same unit in World War I.
1936 Fusilado el hijo del general José Moscardó, por negarse éste a rendir el Alcázar de Toledo, sitiado por milicias republicanas, a cambio de la vida de su hijo.
1934 John Dillinger, el enemigo público número 1 en EE.UU., muere en Chicago abatido por las balas de agentes del FBI.
1930 Miles de muertos por terremotos en Nápoles así como miles de heridos, y graves daños materiales.
1927 Joseph Wopfner, Austrian artist born on 19 March 1843.
1885 Ulysses S Grant, 63, commander of the Union forces at the end of the Civil War, 18th US president, in Mount McGregor NY.
1865 Petrus Jan Schotel, Dutch artist born on 19 August 1808.
1840 Karl Blechen, German Romantic painter born on 29 July 1799. MORE ON BLECHEN AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Walzwerk bei Eberswalde _ ZOOM IT — Palmenhaus auf der Pfaueninsel bei Potsdam _ ZOOM IT — In the Villa Borghese Park _ ZOOM IT — Die Waldschlucht _ ZOOM IT The Ruins of the Septizonium on the Palatine in Rome Woodland with Brook The Building of the Devil's Bridge Monastery in the Wood Sunset at Sea
1759 Russian and almost 6000 Prussian soldiers, as Russian general Saltikov wins the battle of Kay, eastern Germany, in the Seven Years' War. .
1540 Thomas Cromwell, having been discredited by his enemies, is beheaded on Tower Hill in England.
which occurred on a 23 July:
1936 Anthony M Kennedy, in California, US Supreme Court justice (1988- )
1913 Eduardo Carranza Fernández, poeta colombiano
1913 Michael Foot, político laborista británico.
1906 Vladimir Prelog, investigador suizo de origen yugoslavo, premio Nobel de Química.
1906 Marston Bates, American zoologist and author of The Nature of Natural History.
1897 Bernardo Canal Feijóo, escritor, dramaturgo, poeta, pensador y ensayista argentino.
1893 Karl Menninger psychiatrist (Menninger Clinic)
1892 Tafari Makonnen, who on 301102 would become Haile Selassie ("Might of the Trinity"), emperor of Ethiopia (1930-74). Forced into exile by the Italian invasion, he appealed is vain for help from the League of Nations in a memorable 360630 speech. The Derg, a committe of mutinous Marxist military, deposed him on 740912, arrested him, and he died (probably strangled by them) on 750826.
1876 Ricardo Verde Rubio, pintor, grabador, e ilustrador español. Fue director del Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia de 1936 a 1939. Murió en 1954
1860 José María Vargas Vila, escritor colombiano.
1854 Ivan Sleszynski, Ukrainian mathematician who died on 09 March 1931. His main work was on continued fractions, least squares, and axiomatic proof theory based on mathematical logic.
1851 Peder Severin (or Søren) Krøyer, Danish painter, sculptor and draftsman, who died on 21 November 1909. MORE ON KRØYER AT ART 4 JULY — LINKS — Self~Portrait — Marie in the Garden — Hip, Hip Hurrah, Artists' Party — Summer Eve in Skagen — Wine Harvest in Tyrol — Artists' Luncheon — Osteria Ravello, Italy
1844 Hermann David Salomon Corrodi, Italian artist who died on 30 January 1905.
1834 James Cardinal Gibbons archbishop of Baltimore, founder of Catholic University in Washington DC..
1614 Bonaventura Peeters I, Flemish marine painter and satirical poet, who died on 25 July 1652. MORE ON PEETERS AT ART 4 JULY LINKS An Oriental Harbor Storm on the Sea Shipwreck
1477 (1469?) Francesco Granacci, Florentine painter who died on 30 November 1543. MORE ON GRANACCI AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Madonna and Child Entry of Charles VIII into Florence