a 26 July:
2002 Annuity & Life Reassurance Holdings Ltd. (ANR), incorporated in Bermuda, did not reassure its investors the previous evening when it announced that it will report a loss for the second 2002 quarter, due to charges on its Transamerica RE Annuity Reinsurance contract. Today Fitch Ratings lowers ANR's financial strength rating (Watch: Negative). On the New York Stock Exchange, ANR stock drops from its previous close of $12.87 to an intraday low of $5.75 and closes at $6.30. It had traded as high as $37.25 on 03 August 2001. [3~year price chart >]
2002 (Friday) The stock of consumer finance company Metris (MXT) rises on the New York Stock Exchange from its previous close of $1.61 to an intraday high of $3.00 and closes at $2.85. It had traded as high as $42.56 on 25 September 2000 and $37.05 on 02 August 2001. In the next trading session, Monday 29 July 2002, MXT recovers further, to an intraday high of $4.94, and closes at $4.20. [< 3~year price chart]
2000 A federal judge in New York approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.
1999 Italy becomes the 4th country (preceded by Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago, and San Marino) to ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (which has not been ratified nor even signed by the US)
1997 Online programming from Viacom and MCA ^top^
Newspapers report that both Viacom and MCA will develop entertainment programming for online services and the World Wide Web. MCA said it would develop online adaptations of television shows, like Exosquad, an animated science-fiction series. Meanwhile, Viacom announced the creation of Paramount Digital Entertainment to develop programming for 1996. The company said it would produce online adaptations of Star Trek and Entertainment Tonight.
|1996 Simulacra, supercomputer
US President Bill Clinton announces that the Department of Energy has handed IBM a handsome computer development contract. For a fee of $93 million, IBM's top team of developers are set to spend two years developing a custom "supercomputer." But, as details of the deal are released to the press, it becomes clear that this would be no ordinary supercomputer; rather, IBM is to build the world's speediest computer, capable of finishing tasks 300 times faster than any previous computer.
The Department of Energy intended to harness the machine's zippy processing power to conduct nuclear test simulations. Though the concept sounded as though it had been ripped from a Tom Clancy novel (the supercomputer even came complete with a stealthy code name, "DOE Option Blue"), the faux weapons tests were in fact a key plank of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The deal also called for the supercomputer to be swiftly converted to civilian duty, to perform tasks including the replication of hurricanes and wind tunnels in tests on space ships and airplanes.
1990 Comienza la operación dragón, que pone fin a veinte años de presencia de armas químicas estadounidenses en la RFA.
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act is signed by US president Bush Sr. It forbids on-the-job discrimination against the disabled and mandates accessibility for the disabled to most public places such as restaurants, stores, and businesses. It mandates that public buildings have wheelchair ramps and restrooms equipped for use by the handicapped.
1981 NY Mayor Ed Koch is given Heimlich maneuver in a Chinese restaurant
1979 Estimated 109 cm (43") of rain falls in Alvin, TX (national record)
1975 El Movimiento de las Fuerzas Armadas de Portugal acuerda concentrar el poder en un triunvirato formado por el presidente de la República, general Costa e Gomes; el primer ministro, general Vasco Gonçalves, y el general Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho.
1975 Los presidentes de Bolivia, Hugo Banzer, y de Uruguay, Juan María Bordaberry, firman un acta de entendimiento bilateral.
| 1965 Republic of Maldives gains independence from
Britain (Nat'l Day)
1964 Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.
1961 Cuba unifica todas las fuerzas políticas en el Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista.
1957 USSR launches 1st intercontinental multistage ballistic missile
1948 Pres Truman issues Executive Order No. 9981 directing "equality of treatment & opportunity" in the armed forces and another one which does the same for federal employees.
|1945 Winston Churchill resigns
In the eleventh hour of World War II, Winston Churchill was forced to resign as British prime minister following his party's defeat against the Labour party. The same day, Clement Attlee, the Labour leader, was sworn in as the new British leader. It was the first general election held in Britain in over a decade.
Born at Blenheim Palace in 1874, Churchill joined the British Fourth Hussars upon his father's death in 1895. Over the next five years, he enjoyed an illustrious military career, serving in India, the Sudan, and South Africa, and distinguishing himself several times in battle. In 1899, he resigned his commission to concentrate on his literary and political career, and in 1900 was elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP from Oldham. In 1904, he joined the Liberals, serving in a number of important posts before being appointed Britain's first lord of the admiralty in 1911, where he worked to bring the British Navy to a readiness for the war that he foresaw. In 1915, in the second year of World War I, Churchill was held responsible for the disastrous Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns and he was excluded from the war coalition government.
However, in 1917, he returned to the politics as a cabinet member in the Liberal government of Lloyd George. From 1919 to 1921 he was secretary of state for war, and in 1924 returned to the Conservative party, where two years later played he a leading role in the defeat of the General Strike of 1926.
Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi and Japanese aggression. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Churchill returned to his post as first lord of the admiralty, and eight months later replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister of a new coalition government.
In the first year of his administration, Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany, and Churchill promised his country and the world that the British people would "never surrender." During World War II, Churchill became the great leader of the Allies, inspiring the Royal Air Force to victory in Battle of Britain, securing US support for the British war effort, devising the successful strategy at El Alamein in North Africa, and forging the grand alliance between Britain, the US, and the USSR that crushed the Axis powers.
In July of 1945, ten weeks after Germany's defeat, Churchill's Conservative government suffered a defeat against Clement Attlee's Labour party. However, Churchill became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister. In 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his oratory, and in the same year was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. In 1955, he retired from the post of prime minister, but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death.
| 1945 Reunión constituyente de las Naciones Unidas en
1947 US Department of Defense established
1947 National Security Act establishes the CIA
| 1937 Guerra Civil española: concluye la Batalla de Brunete,
con el triunfo de las fuerzas nacionales.
1933 Pacificada Cuba, el presidente Gerardo Machado otorga una amnistía y restablece las garantías constitucionales.
1933 El Gobierno del Reich promulga una ley de esterilización con el fin de mejorar la raza alemana.
1922 Francia recibe de la Sociedad de Naciones un mandato sobre Siria e Inglaterra otro sobre Palestina.
1920 The 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, prohibiting discrimination in voting on the basis of sex, is ratified.
1918 Race riot in Philadelphia (3 whites & 1 black killed)
1918 Britain's top war ace, Edward Mannock, is shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.
1886 William Gladstone is replaced by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England.
1869 In England, the Disestablishment Bill is passed, officially dissolving the Church of Ireland. (Organized opposition to this legislation coined one of longest words in theEnglish language: antidisestablishmentarianism.)
1865 Patrick Francis Healy is 1st US Black awarded PhD (Louvain Belgium)
1864 Union General George Stoneman leaves the Atlanta area with his cavalry forces on the unsuccessful Macon and Andersonville Raid
1863 John Hunt Morgan & 364 troops surrender at Salineville, Ohio
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1861 George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac after the disaster at Bull Run five days prior. McClellan built the army into a powerhouse in the winter of 1861-62, although he proved to be a weak field commander.
1848 The French army suppresses the Paris uprising.
1848 1st Woman's Rights Convention (Senecca Falls NY)
1835 1st sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii
1830 King Charles X of France issues five ordinances limiting the political and civil rights of citizens.
1790 US passes Assumption bill making US responsible for state debts
1790 An attempt at a counter-revolution in France is put down by the National Guard at Lyons.
1788 New York becomes 11th state to ratify US constitution
1775 The Continental Congress establishes a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general.
1759 The French relinquish Fort Ticonderoga in New York to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst.
1758 British capture France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Cap Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a seven-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
1603 James VI of Scotland is crowned King James I of England. He then 'authorized'an English translation of the Scriptures, first published in 1611 and known since as the'King James Version' of the Bible.
1529 Francisco Pizarro receives a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru. Capitulación entre Carlos I y Francisco Pizarro por la que éste es nombrado gobernador y capitán general de Nueva Castilla, actual territorio de Perú.
1526 The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists leave Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
0920 Los musulmanes de al-Andalus, dirigidos por el emir omeya Abd al-Rahman III, derrotan a las tropas aliadas de Sancho Garcés de Pamplona y Ordoño II de León en la Batalla de Valdejunquera.
0711 Rodrigo I, rey de los visigodos en España, es derrotado por las tropas árabes que invadían la península en la batalla de Guadalete.
0657 Battle of Siffin in Mesopotamia: Mu'awiyan defeats Caliph Ali.
which occurred on a 26 July: ^top^
2002 Elazar Leibovitz, 21; Rabbi Yosef Dickstein, 45, his wife Hannah Dickstein, 42, and their son Shuv'el Zion Dickstein, 9; and shot in their cars, at about 18:00, by gunmen in ambush at the Zif Junction (3 km north of the Carmel enclave settlement in the West Bank), who fire on the car driven by Staff Sergeant Leibovitz, from the Jewish enclave Avraham Aveinu in Hebron, then shoot at the car of the Dicksteins from Psagot (wounding Shlomo Dickstein, 12, and his brother, Shirel Dickstein, 18 months).
2002 Cassandra Casey Williamson, born in November 1995 [photo >], murdered at 07:20 by Johnny Johnson, 24, a drifter and a burglar on probation, who at 07:15 takes her away riding on his back from the kitchen of the Valley Park (25 km west of St. Louis) home (while her father had gone to the bathroom) where he, Cassandra, both her separated parents (Ernie and Angela Williamson), and her three siblings had spent the night (the home of a friend who shares it with Ernie, across the street from the home of Cassandra's grandma where Angela and the children live). Johnson attempts rape, kills the girl with blows to the head, hides her body in an abandoned factory little more than 1 km away from her home, goes swimming in the nearby Meramec River, and returns to the vicinity of the home by 07:45, where the police, by now searching for Cassandra, start questioning him. He eventually confesses and the body (stripped of the nightgown she was wearing) is found at about 15:00.
2002 Tashima Tata Billingslea, 7, after being repeatedly stabbed with a kitchen knife at 11:30, in her basement apartment in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, by her quarreling mother Yolanda Billingslea, 27, high on drugs, who had recently lost her job at cable television provider RCN, and had argued with the girl's father the previous evening. Yolanda then stabs 15 times a friend, Iashia Byrd, 24, (who tried to protect Tashima) pursuing her onto the sidewalk. Yolanda drops the knife when a passer-by throws a crate at her. She goes back inside and stabs herself with scissors.
2002 Daniella Torres, 4, shot at 21:50 while watching TV in her apartment at 21st Avenue and Lincoln Street, by four men armed with a rifle and a handgun.
2001 Syafiuddin Kartasasmita, Indonesian Supreme Court judge, shot by four men on motorcycles. On 7 August 2001, Rolan and Noval confess to being two of them, acting for the son of former dictator Suharto, "Tommy" Hutomo Mandala Putra, 38, a fugitive since November 2000, two months after the judge sentenced him to 18 months in prison for a multimillion-dollar land scam. Tommy lent them a Beretta 9 mm pistol. After they shot the judge they gave the gun back to Tommy and he paid them $10'500."
1998 Jesús Manuel Serrano, Colombian Catholic priest, shot by two gunmen.
El 26 de julio de 1998, el sacerdote Jesús Manuel Serrano fue asesinado a balazos por dos delincuentes.
1987 Más de mil personas en una ola de calor sahariano que afecta al sur de Europa.
1986 Averell Harriman, 94. statesman, in Yorktown Heights, NY
1959 Manuel Altolaguirre, poeta español.
1956: 51 die as Italian Line ocean liner Andrea Doria is rammed by liner Stockholm and sinks in Long Island Sound.
1953 Dozens of dead in failed attack on Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba by Fidel and Raul Castro, who were taken prisoner. It marks the beginning of the Castro revolution against Fulgencio Batista. 30 de los rebeldes encabezado por Fidel Castro, en su asalto frustrado al cuartel Moncada, cercano a Santiago de Cuba, para derrocar al dictador Fulgencio Batista.
1952 Eva "Evita" Perón, 33, Argentina's 1st lady, in Buenos Aires.
|1950 Hundreds of Korean civilians
at No Gun Ri, massacred by US troops, it
is alleged,. during this day and the two following days, when a column
of refugees was strafed from the air. ^top^
South Korea and US defense officials undertook parallel investigations into the alleged mass killings after the Associated Press reported in September 1999 that hundreds of Korean refugees were gunned down by US soldiers under a railroad bridge on 26 July 1950. Local reports said the main issues of contention were how many civilians had been killed in the incident, whether financial compensation should be offered to the victims and whether the US military had ordered the shootings. South Korean investigators determined 248 people were killed, wounded or missing with about 170 of them killed. Relatives of some of the victims estimate 300 were killed by ground troops and 100 others died in an attack by US aircraft.
The Washington Post, citing a Pentagon report to be released soon, reported, on 6 December 2000, that members of the US 7th Cavalry Regiment opened fire on unarmed refugees in the midst of a chaotic retreat, fearing North Korean infiltrators were passing through their lines. According to the Pentagon's report (see below), the US investigators found no conclusive evidence that the soldiers had orders to open fire, and were unable to determine exactly how many civilians died in the incident, the newspaper said.
The Pentagon notified Seoul that the Post report does not represent the US government's official position. Anti-US feelings have recently increased in South Korea, a strong US ally, because of some crimes committed by US GIs, and environmental problems caused by US troops. More than 200 civic group members and the massacre survivors held an anti-US rally on 6 December 2000 in front of the War Memorial, chanting slogans such as ''Yankee go home,'' and blowing whistles. The protesters demanded that the US government reveal the truth about No Gun Ri. US-led United Nations Forces fought against Chinese-backed North Korea in the Korean war... uh ... police action (as the US called it at the time), which ended in an armed truce that has yet to be replaced by a peace agreement. The US maintains 37'000 troops at more than 90 military bases and installations throughout South Korea.
The Pentagon investigation concluded that US soldiers panicked and shot a crowd of unarmed refugees near No Gun Ri village in the Korean War, but found no conclusive evidence that they had orders to open fire, a US defense official said on 6 December 2000. The Pentagon's still-unpublished draft report, based on more than 100 interviews with US veterans and a review of more than a million pages of documents, would be the first formal acknowledgment by the US military of its involvement in the massacre at No Gun Ri.
The massacre occurred after members of the US 7th Cavalry Regiment, in the midst of a chaotic retreat and fearing North Korean infiltrators were passing through their lines, opened fire on refugees under a railroad bridge on 26 July 1950. The draft report, first reported by The Washington Post, says that Army investigators were unable to determine exactly how many civilians died in the incident. While the report comes to no conclusion about the number of people killed at No Gun Ri, members of the advisory panel said they believed the number probably was between 50 and 300. Relatives of some of the victims have estimated that 300 were killed by ground troops and that 100 others died in an attack by US aircraft.
Defense Secretary William Cohen, who ordered the probe after the Associated Press reported the massacre in a Pulitzer Prize-winning article in September 1999, hoped it could be concluded before he leaves office on Jan. 20, the official said.
In the spring of 2000, one of the key sources for the AP story was found to have fabricated his account, and some other veterans quoted by the AP acknowledged that their memories may have been faulty. Those revelations called into question whether US soldiers actually shot ``hundreds'' of civilians on orders from their superiors, as some of the veterans originally asserted. One member of the advisory panel, former Rep. Pete McCloskey, a California Republican, said: There is no question that there were orders.
From US Army NO GUN RI REVIEW released 11 January 2001:
The Korean villagers stated that on 25 July 1950, US soldiers evacuated approximately 500 to 600 villagers from their homes in Im Gae Ri and Joo Gok Ri. The villagers said the US soldiers escorted them towards the south. Later that evening, the US soldiers led the villagers near a riverbank at Ha Ga Ri and ordered them to stay there that night. During the night, the villagers witnessed a long parade of US troops and vehicles moving towards Pusan. On the morning of 26 July 1950, the villagers continued south along the Seoul-Pusan road. According to their statements, when the villagers reached the vicinity of No Gun Ri, US soldiers stopped them at a roadblock and ordered the group onto the railroad tracks, where the soldiers searched them and their personal belongings. The Koreans state that, although the soldiers found no prohibited items (such as weapons or other military contraband), the soldiers ordered an air attack upon the villagers via radio communications with US aircraft. Shortly afterwards, planes flew over and dropped bombs and fired machine guns, killing approximately 100 villagers on the railroad tracks. Those villagers who survived sought protection in a small culvert underneath the railroad tracks. The US soldiers drove the villagers out of the culvert and into the larger double tunnels nearby (this report subsequently refers to these tunnels as the “double railroad overpass”). The Koreans state that the US soldiers then fired into both ends of the tunnels over a period of four days (26 July to 29 July 1950), resulting in approximately 300 additional deaths.
| 1941 Marx Dormoy French socialist, killed by a time
1941 Henri Lebesgue, mathematician who formulated the theory of measure in 1901 and the following year he gave the definition of the Lebesgue integral that generalises the notion of the Riemann integral.
1934 Engelbert Dollfuss, canciller de Austria, asesinado en el curso de una intentona golpista llevada a cabo por elementos nazis.
1921 El comandante Vázquez y 15 hombres más, últimos heroicos defensores de la posición de Sidi-Dris, durante la Guerra de Marruecos.
1919 Sir Edward John James Poynter, English Classicist painter born on 20 March 1836 — Obituary in The Times photo of Poynter MORE ON POYNTER AT ART 4 JULY LINKS The Cave of the Storm Nymphs Israel in Egypt — The Catapult — Cressida — Lesbia and her Sparrow — A Roman boat race — Psyche in the temple of love — At low tide — A visit to Aesculapius — Reading — On the Terrace — The fortune Teller — The vision of Endymion — On the Temple Steps — Adoration to Ra — “Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna” left detail _ various Madonnas by Cimabue [1240-1302] — A Corner of the Villa
1918 Carlos Guido Spano, poeta argentino.
1909 Los muertos del primer día de la Semana Trágica de Barcelona, al cabo de la cual el Ejército sofocó la sangrienta revuelta.
1863 Sam Houston, 70. He had been president of Texas after leading the Texans to victory in their struggle for independence against Mexico in 1837. Houston had opposed Texas' secession from the Union.
1844 John Dalton, químico inglés.
1802 Rose Adélaïde Ducreux, French Neoclassical painter, born in 1761. Self-portrait with a Harp
1728 Paolo di Matteis, Italian painter born on 09 February 1662. LINKS
1702 Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Dutch or Flemish painter born on 11 October 1629 MORE ON VAN DER VINNE AT ART 4 JULY Memento Mori — Vanitas with a Royal Crown and the portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649
1671 Cornelis Baellieur, Flemish painter born on 05 February 1607. — more
1533 Atahualpa, último emperador inca.
| Births which occurred
on a 26 July:
1926 Ana María Matute, escritora española.
|1908 Office of the Chief Examiner
(future FBI). ^top^
The Office of the Chief Examiner, an organization that would later become the Bureau of Investigation and then the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is created by US Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte. Meant to serve as the investigative arm of the Department of Justice, the Bureau of Investigation was initially opposed by Congress, who feared that its extensive powers could lead to abuse of power. During and after World War I, the Bureau investigated draft resisters, violators of the Espionage Act of 1917, and immigrants suspected of radicalism.
J. Edgar Hoover, a lawyer and former librarian, joined the Department of Justice in 1917, and within two years had become special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Deeply anti-radical in his ideology, Hoover came to the forefront of federal law enforcement during the so-called "Red Scare" of 1919 to 1920. Hoover set up a card index system listing every radical leader, organization, and publication in the United States, and by 1921 had amassed some 450'000 files. More than ten thousand suspected Communists were also arrested during this period, although the vast majority of these people were briefly questioned and then released. Although the attorney general was criticized for abusing his authority during the so-called "Palmer Raids," Hoover emerged unscathed, and on 10 May 1924, was appointed acting director of the Bureau of Investigation.
During the 1920s, with congressional approval, Director Hoover drastically restructured and expanded the Bureau. He built the corruption-ridden agency into an efficient crime-fighting machine, establishing a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for agents. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Investigation launched a dramatic battle against the epidemic of organized crime brought on by Prohibition. Notorious gangsters such as George "Machine Gun" Kelly and John Dillinger met their ends looking down the barrels of Bureau-issued guns, while others, like Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the elusive head of Murder, Incorporated, were successfully investigated and prosecuted by Hoover's "G-men." Hoover, who had a keen eye for public relations, participated himself in a number of these widely publicized arrests, and the Federal Bureau of Investigations, as it was known after 1935, was highly regarded by Congress and the US public.
With the outbreak of World War II, Hoover revived his anti-espionage techniques developed during the first Red Scare, and domestic wiretaps and other electronic surveillance expanded dramatically. After World War II, Hoover focused on the threat of radical, especially Communist, subversion. The FBI compiled files on millions of US citizens suspected of dissident activity, and Hoover worked closely with the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy, the architect of America's second Red Scare.
In 1956, Hoover initiated COINTELPRO, a secret counter-intelligence program that initially targeted the US Communist Party but later was expanded to infiltrate and disrupt any radical organization in America. During the 1960s, the immense resources of COINTELPRO were used against dangerous groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, but also against African-American civil rights organizations and liberal anti-war organizations. One figure especially targeted was civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., who endured systematic harassment from the FBI, including the leaking of sensitive information gathered by the FBI to his enemies in Memphis, Tennessee, and elsewhere.
By the time Hoover entered service under his eighth president in 1969, the media, the public, and Congress had grown suspicious of the FBI's abuses of authority. For the first time in his bureaucratic career, Hoover endured widespread criticism and Congress responded by passing laws requiring Senate confirmation of future FBI directors and limiting their tenure to ten years.
On 02 May 1972, with the Watergate affair about to explode on to the national stage, J. Edgar Hoover died of heart disease at the age of seventy-seven. The Watergate affair subsequently revealed that the FBI had illegally protected President Richard Nixon from investigation, and the agency was thoroughly investigated by Congress. Revelations of the FBI's abuses of power and unconstitutional surveillance motivated Congress and the media to become more vigilant in future monitoring the FBI.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is born when US Attorney General Charles Bonaparte orders a group of newly hired federal investigators to report to Chief Examiner Stanley W. Finch of the Department of Justice. One year later, the Office of the Chief Examiner was renamed the Bureau of Investigation, and in 1935 it became the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
When the Department of Justice was created in 1870 to enforce federal law and coordinate judicial policy, it had no permanent investigators on its staff. At first, it hired private detectives when it needed federal crimes investigated and later rented out investigators from other federal agencies, such as the Secret Service, which was created by the Department of the Treasury in 1865 to investigate counterfeiting. In the early part of the 20th century, the attorney general was authorized to hire a few permanent investigators, and the Office of the Chief Examiner, which consisted mostly of accountants, was created to review financial transactions of the federal courts.
Seeking to form an independent and more efficient investigative arm, in 1908 the Department of Justice hired 10 former Secret Service employees to join an expanded Office of the Chief Examiner. The date when these agents reported to duty 26 July 1908 is celebrated as the birthday of the FBI. By March 1909, the force included 34 agents, and Attorney General George Wickersham, Bonaparte's successor, renamed it the Bureau of Investigation.
The federal government used the bureau as a tool to investigate criminals who evaded prosecution by passing over state lines, and within a few years the number of agents had grown to more than 300. The agency was opposed by some in Congress, who feared that its growing authority could lead to abuse of power. With the entry of the United States into World War I in 1917, the bureau was given responsibility in investigating draft resisters, violators of the Espionage Act of 1917, and immigrants suspected of radicalism.
Meanwhile, J. Edgar Hoover, a lawyer and former librarian, joined the Department of Justice in 1917 and within two years had become special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Deeply anti-radical in his ideology, Hoover came to the forefront of federal law enforcement during the so-called "Red Scare" of 1919 to 1920. He set up a card index system listing every radical leader, organization, and publication in the United States and by 1921 had amassed some 450'000 files. More than 10'000 suspected communists were also arrested during this period, but the vast majority of these people were briefly questioned and then released. Although the attorney general was criticized for abusing his power during the so-called "Palmer Raids," Hoover emerged unscathed, and on 10 May 1924, he was appointed acting director of the Bureau of Investigation. During the 1920s, with Congress' approval, Director Hoover drastically restructured and expanded the Bureau of Investigation. He built the agency into an efficient crime-fighting machine, establishing a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for agents. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Investigation launched a dramatic battle against the epidemic of organized crime brought on by Prohibition. Notorious gangsters such as George "Machine Gun" Kelly and John Dillinger met their ends looking down the barrels of bureau-issued guns, while others, like Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the elusive head of Murder, Inc., were successfully investigated and prosecuted by Hoover's "G-men." Hoover, who had a keen eye for public relations, participated in a number of these widely publicized arrests, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, as it was known after 1935, became highly regarded by Congress and the US public. With the outbreak of World War II, Hoover revived the anti-espionage techniques he had developed during the first Red Scare, and domestic wiretaps and other electronic surveillance expanded dramatically.
After World War II, Hoover focused on the threat of radical, especially communist, subversion. The FBI compiled files on millions of US citizens suspected of dissident activity, and Hoover worked closely with the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and Senator Joseph McCarthy, the architect of the US's second Red Scare. In 1956, Hoover initiated COINTELPRO, a secret counterintelligence program that initially targeted the US Communist Party but later was expanded to infiltrate and disrupt any radical organization in America. During the 1960s, the immense resources of COINTELPRO were used against dangerous groups such as the Ku Klux Klan but also against African American civil rights organizations and liberal anti-war organizations. One figure especially targeted was civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., who endured systematic harassment from the FBI. By the time Hoover entered service under his eighth president in 1969, the media, the public, and Congress had grown suspicious that the FBI might be abusing its authority. For the first time in his bureaucratic career, Hoover endured widespread criticism, and Congress responded by passing laws requiring Senate confirmation of future FBI directors and limiting their tenure to 10 years. On 02 May 1972, with the Watergate affair about to explode onto the national stage, J. Edgar Hoover died of heart disease at the age of 77. The Watergate affair subsequently revealed that the FBI had illegally protected President Richard Nixon from investigation, and the agency was thoroughly investigated by Congress. Revelations of the FBI's abuses of power and unconstitutional surveillance motivated Congress and the media to become more vigilant in the future monitoring of the FBI.
| 1908 Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile's last elected
president before Pinochet(1970-73)
1903 Mahler, mathematician
1895 Robert Graves, poet and novelist who wrote I Claudius
1895 Jankel Adler, Polish artist who died in 1949.
1894 Aldous Huxley England, author (Brave New World)
1893 George Grosz, German Expressionist painter who died on 06 July 1959. MORE ON GROSZ AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Lower Manhattan untitled (Unhuman) High Dunes Berlin Street Scene You Holy Assembly of Freaks Lovesick Man In Honor of Professor Freud Passerby Dawn Twilight — The Angel of Peace — Ecce Homo — Evening Party 19 prints at FAMSF
1892 Pearl S Buck US, novelist (The Good Earth)
1875 Dr Carl Gustav Jung Switzerland, founded analytic psychology, identified the introvert and extrovert types. Carl Gustav Jung, psicólogo suizo.
1875 Antonio Machado, poeta español.
(or 26 June?) 1870 Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Basque artist who died on 31 October 1945. Ignacio Zuloaga, herriak emandako pertsonaia ezagunena. Pintore moduan, zeharo espainola: toreroak eta señoritak marrazten nabarmendu zen. Bere pintura tonu ilunegatik eta bere lanean eratutako errealismo handiagatik bereizten da. MORE ON ZULOAGA AT ART 4 JULY Dos Autoretratos Torerillos de pueblo Crucifixión El Violinista Larrapidi Desnudo [Mucho Puerco?]
1829 Auguste Beernaert Belgium (Nobel Peace Prize-1909)
1800 Octave Nicolas François Tassaert, French painter and printmaker who died on 24 April 1874. — more
1796 George Catlin US, author / painter portraits and of Western US and Amerindian scenes. He died in 1872. Reproductions of paintings by CATLIN ONLINE: LINKS Fire in a Missouri Meadow and a Party of Sioux Indians Escaping from It, Upper Missouri (1871) Catlin and Indian Attacking a Buffalo The Dakota Chief One~Horn Bear Dance Sun Dance Dog Feast unnamed (Chief Painted Face) Buffalo Bull: A Grand Pawnee Warrior (Three Amerindians) Buffalos Fighting in the Running Season Bull Buffalo Grazing James Porter Clark
1749 John “Warwick” Smith, English painter who died on 22 March 1831. — more — Monte Cassino — 37 images at the Tate
1739 George Clinton NY, (D-R) 4th VP (1805-12)