|On a 28 July:
2061 Halley's Comet is due for its 31st recorded perihelion passage.
2002 A 1570 self-portrait by Tintoretto, [not this one of 1588] and a painting by each of Esteban Murillo, Adolphe Piot, Gustave Courbet, and an anonymous Italian master, are stolen from Paraguay's national museum. The thieves spent two months digging, from a shop they had rented 25 meters away, 3 meters underground a tunnel with electric light bulbs and a ceiling reinforced with wooden poles. The four largest paintings had been removed from their frames.
2002 A copy of the book Miss Abby Fitch-Martin is placed in the book drop of a Lincoln, Nebraska, City Library, 13'676 days late. The 178-page hardback book, written by Kataryn Loughlin (of Georgetown, Madison County NY) and published in 1952 (by Coward-McCann, NY), has been out-of-print for years earlier. This biography of a Whitesboro, Oneida County NY, woman from a New England clan that adhered to a family code of "Pedigree, Prudence, Pride and Purse," was checked out by a patient at Bryan Memorial Hospital in 1965 through the now-defunct Hospital Book Service. The due-date card stamped Feb. 17, 1965, is still in the back pocket but the index card listing the borrower is missing. The library will not try to collect the late fee of $3419 [they do not add interest, but at 3% annual compounded daily the amount would be $6315.93].
2000 Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori, on his 62nd birthday, is sworn in for an unprecedented third term of office (which would end by his fleeing in disgrace to Japan, home of his ancestors, from where he would resign on 20 November 2000), after a rigged election (which ought to have been won by Alejandro Toledo, 54), infuriating demonstrators who set government buildings ablaze.
Supposed 1000th anniversary of Eiriksson's arrival in America.
15'000 people descend on L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, population 44, to mark the 1000th anniversary of Leifur Eiriksson's voyage and greet the arrival of the Viking replica ship Islendingur and a flotilla of others under clear skies in this sometimes inhospitable peninsula. When Viking adventurer Leifur Eiriksson steered his ship to the barren, northern tip of Newfoundland 1000 years earlier, his landfall was likely witnessed by very few. Neither the date, nor the year, nor the place, nor Eriksson having been the first European to reach America, are historically established.
The crowd was entertained by traditional Newfoundland music as well as a combined Icelandic, Mi'kmaq, and Newfoundland choir. A large iceberg rolled gently by as Islendingur captain Gunner Meral Eggertsson noted how seeing Newfoundland on the horizon brought to mind "all kinds of images which the Vikings must have experienced as they approached Canada." Newfoundland Premier Brian Tobin welcomed the Islendingur, saying that the crew of eight men and one woman proved that in Iceland as in Newfoundland, "one woman is equal to eight men."
Concession stands ringed a new, Viking replica village, Norstead, created as a tourist draw in this area of high unemployment. They were offering items as diverse as moose antler carvings and plush toys. One enterprising vendor had converted his left-over stock of wooden John Cabot carvings dating from the 1997 celebration making explorer John Cabot's arrival in Newfoundland 500 years ago into Viking carvings. Gone from the small figurines were Cabot's hands and a hat, In their place were a shield and a Viking helmet. Vendors selling Hollywood-style horned Viking helmets were outselling unhorned, but historically correct, models. Eiriksson's epic journey is being recreated by the 68-foot Islendingur, which left Iceland on 24 June, retracing the Viking journey to Greenland and then the transatlantic voyage to Canada. The captain set foot on the rocky shore right on cue in mid-afternoon. His crew, dressed in period Viking garb, were met by a young Inuit drum band from Labrador. Eiriksson established the first known European settlement in North America at the L'Anse aux Meadows site. It was likely used as a base camp for subsequent expeditions further south.
Iceland's Deputy Prime Minister, Halldor Asgrimsson, saluted the "courage and skill" of the Islendingur crew at the welcoming ceremony and said the 1000 year-old voyage of Eiriksson was a "tribute to the human spirit of exploration and adventure". Misel Joe, chief of the Conne River aboriginal Mi'kmaq band in Newfoundland, asked the crowd to stand and observe a moment of silence in memory of the Beothuk Indians, one of Newfoundland's aboriginal people that were wiped out after the arrival of Europeans. Hotels, motels, bed and breakfast establishments, campgrounds, and private homes were also overflowing with visitors, as media from North America and Europe took over private homes as they broadcast the Islendingur's arrival during two hours and half. The Vikings' voyage ends in New York City in October as part of an Icelandic trade mission.
Leif Eriksson The Lucky. He flourished 11th century Eriksson also spelled Ericson, or Erikson, Norwegian Leiv Eriksson Den Hepne Norse explorer widely held to have been the first European to reach the shores of North America. The 13th- and 14th-century Icelandic accounts of his life and additional later evidence show that he was certainly a member of an early Norse Viking voyage to North America; but it remains doubtful whether he led the initial expedition. The second of three sons of Erik the Red, the first European colonizer of Greenland, Leif sailed from Greenland to Norway in 1000, according to the Icelandic Eiríks saga (“Saga of Erik”), and was there converted to Christianity by the Norwegian king Olaf I Tryggvason. The following year Leif was commissioned by Olaf to urge Christianity upon the Greenland settlers. He sailed off course on the return voyage and landed on the North American continent at a region he called Vinland (possibly Nova Scotia), perhaps because of the wild grapes and fertile land he found there. On returning to Greenland he proselytized for Christianity and converted his mother, who built the first Christian church in Greenland, at Brattahild.
1988 IBM announces price hike on older models
1986 NASA releases transcript from doomed Challenger, pilot Michael Smith could be heard saying, "Uh-oh!" as spacecraft disintegrated.
1985 A first in 20th century Peruvian history: an elected President (Alan García Pérez of Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana APRA) replaces another elected President (Fernando Belaude Terry, of Acción Popurar).
1980 Fernando Belaunde Terry [07 Oct 1912 04 Jun 2002] becomes president of Peru (for the second time), with his Acción Popular party having a majority in the parliament.
1978 Price of gold tops $200-an-oz level for first time
1977 first oil flow through the Alaska pipeline
1977 Roy Wilkins turn over NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) leadership to Benjamin L. Hooks
1976 Eldon Joersz and Geo Morgan set world air speed record of 3530 k/h
| 1965 US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces that he
is increasing the number of US soldiers in South Vietnam from 75'000 to
1964 Ranger 7 launched toward the Moon; sent back 4308 TV pictures.
1963 In the parish church of Panajachel, Angélico Melotto Mazzardo [20 Mar 1911 – 11 May 1999], first Bishop of Sololá, Guatemala, ordains the first Priest of the diocese.
1960 Republican National convention selects Richard Nixon as US presidential candidate
1959 In preparation for statehood, Hawaiians vote to send the first Chinese-American, Hiram L. Fong, to the US Senate and the first Japanese-American, Daniel K. Inouye, to the House of Representatives.
1951 The UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees is adopted by the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons convened under General Assembly resolution 429 (V) of 14 December 1950. It is to enter into force on 22 April 1954, in accordance with its article 43.
1943 President F. D. Roosevelt announces the end of coffee rationing in the US
1941 A Japanese army lands on the coast of Cochinchina (modern day Vietnam)
1934 48ºC, Orofino, Idaho (state record)
| 1931 Congress makes "The Star-Spangled Banner" the
US's 2nd national anthem
1930 46ºC, Greensburg, Kentucky (state record)
1920 Revolutionary and bandit Pancho Villa surrenders to the Mexican government.
1915 US forces invade Haiti, stay until 1924
1915 10'000 blacks march on 5th Ave (NYC) protesting lynchings
1898 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of the Retired Colourman
1898 Spain, through the French embassy in Washington, D.C., requests peace terms in its war with the United States.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Confederate forces defeated at More's Hill, Mo
1849 Memmon is first clipper to reach SF, 120 days out of NY
1830 Revolution in France replaces Charles X with Louis Philippe
1821 Peru declares independence from Spain (National Day)
1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovers Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
1588 Spanish Armada sails to overthrow England's Queen Elizabeth I
1586 Sir Thomas Harriot introduces potatoes to Europe
which occurred on this date:
2002 Nizin Jamjoum, 14, Palestinian, standing on the balcony of her home in Hebron, shot in the head by Jewish enclave settlers rampaging after the funeral of Israeli soldier Elazar Leibowitz killed in ambush on 26 July; they wound six other Palestinians.
2002:: 14 of the 16 aboard a Pulkovsky Airlines Il-86 plane bound for St. Petersburg, which crashes into a forest soon after take off from Moscow's Sheremetyevo-1 airport.
2002 Johnny Joslin, 20, shot by Clayton Frank Stoker, 21, in Godley, Texas, some 60 km southwest of Fort Worth, where the two had spent the previous night (Saturday to Sunday) with two other men night in bars. The four men were sitting at a table outside a trailer park after their night on the town and entered into an argument about religion. The talk became heated when the subject turned to who would go to heaven and who would go to hell. Stoker said he would settle the argument and went into a house and returned with a shotgun, which he loaded and placed in his mouth. Joslin then took the gun out of Stokers mouth, saying, If you have to shoot somebody, shoot me.. The shotgun went off, hitting Joslin in the chest and killing him. Stoker, a Johnson County corrections officer, is arrested and charged with first-degree murder. There is no information as to the whereabouts of Joslin's soul. Neither is there any report of anyone suggesting that the town be renamed Ungodly.
1942:: 10,000 Jews in Minsk Ghetto in Belorussia, murdered by Nazis.
1935 Some 12 persons as train crashes with a bus at Coliseo, Cuba.
1923 Charles William Wyllie, British artist born on 18 February 1853.
1883 Some 2000 persons as shocks triggered by the volcano Epomeo (Isle of Ischia, Italy) destroys 1200 houses at Casamicciola.
1818 Gaspard Monge, French mathematician born on 09 May 1746. He is considered the father of differential geometry because of his work Application de l'analyse à la géométrie where he introduced the concept of lines of curvature of a surface in 3-space.
The very thought of a majestic old church and the music of Johann Sebastian Bach [< portrait] leaps gloriously to mind. Born on 21 March 1685 in Germany, "J. S." is the most famous member of the illustrious Bach family, which gave the world seven generations of distinguished musicians and composers. Bach began his keyboard studies at the age of 10 and sought and got important posts through the years.
By 1708 he has secured himself a position as court organist and chamber musician to the reigning Duke, with plenty of opportunity to compose music for the organ. He later became "Kapellmeister" for the court of Prince Leopold. At age 38 he became "Cantor" of the St. Thomas School in Leipzig and stayed there until his death.
Bach was one of the finest organists and ablest contrapuntists of his time and the noblest writer of fugues who ever lived. Little of his music was published during his lifetime and it was not until 1829 when Mendelssohn performed the St. Matthew Passion that the general public realized his genius and the music of Bach was "reborn."
Memorable works out of thousands of compositions include the Magnificat in D Major, the Orchestral Suites, Violin Concerto in A Minor, the 48 Preludes and Fugues, Concerto in D Minor for Two Violins and Orchestra, the Brandenburg Concertos, Goldberg Variations, Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, Passion of St. Matthew and Passion of St. John, Christmas Oratorio, and Mass in B Minor.
1741 Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, 63 ans, à Vienne, célèbre compositeur italien ("Les 4 saisons"). ^top^
Vivaldi a exercé une influence capitale sur l’évolution de la musique préclassique. Il a imposé, sinon inventé de toutes pièces, la forme du concerto de soliste, contribué puissamment à l’élaboration de la symphonie, donné au théâtre et à l’Église des œuvres dont on commence seulement à mesurer l’importance. Son retour à la lumière est un des phénomènes les plus curieux et les plus troublants de l’histoire musicale des temps modernes.
De son vivant, célèbre, admiré de l’Europe entière, il était tombé brusquement, à l’extrême fin de sa vie, dans un oubli si profond que sa mort passa inaperçue et que pendant un siècle son nom disparut, même dans sa patrie, des histoires et recueils biographiques. Il dut sa résurrection à celle de Bach, au milieu du XIXe siècle, lorsqu’en inventoriant les manuscrits du Cantor on retrouva les copies et transcriptions qu’il avait faites d’originaux vivaldiens restés jusqu’alors ensevelis sous la poussière des bibliothèques.
Longtemps mésestimée, l’originalité créatrice de Vivaldi fut révélée au début du XXe siècle par les travaux d’Arnold Schering, de Marc Pincherle, de l’Accademia Chigiana, puis, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, par la colossale édition intégrale de la musique instrumentale par l’Istituto italiano Antonio Vivaldi. Le tricentenaire de sa naissance (4 Mars 1678) donna une impulsion nouvelle aux recherches sur Vivaldi, dont la musique d’Église et le répertoire lyrique (cantates et opéras) sont désormais systématiquement explorés.
1711 Gérard de Lairesse, Flemish Dutch Baroque painter, etcher, and writer on art, who died on 11 September 1641. Portrait of the young Lairesse by Rembrandt MORE ON DE LAIRESSE AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Allegory of the Sciences Cleopatra's Banquet Selene and Endymion Allegory of the Freedom of Trade — Allegory of the Five Senses — Venus Presenting Weapons to Aeneas
1655 Cyrano de Bergerac, 36, French big-nosed dramatist and novelist, in Paris. Born on 06 March 1619, he studied under Pierre Gassendi. His works include L'Autre Monde ou les Etats et Empires de la Lune (+...soleil...) [Same, other site] (1656), Histoire comique des états et empires du soleil (1662), a tragedy, La Mort d'Agrippine (1654), a comedy, Le Pédant joué 1654), Lettres.
1649 (28 June?) Gioacchino Assereto, Italian painter born in 1600. Assereto was a Caravaggio follower in Genoa. MORE ON DE ASSERETO AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — David with the Head of Goliath — ZOOM IT — Moses Drawing Water from the Rock — Tobias Healing the Blindness of His Father
1631 Pietro Damini , Italian artist born in 1592.
1540 Thomas Cromwell, Earl Of Essex, Baron Cromwell Of Okeham. He was born in 1485, in Putney, near London died 28 July 1540, probably London principal adviser (1532–40) to England's Henry VIII, chiefly responsible for establishing the Reformation in England, for the dissolution of the monasteries, and for strengthening the royal administration. At the instigation of his enemies he was eventually arrested for heresy and treason and executed.
| Births which
occurred on this date:
1954 Gerd Faltings, German mathematician.
1945 Jim Davis, cartoonist (''Garfield'')
1943 William Warren "Bill" Bradley, in Crystal City Mo, Rhodes scholar, NY Knick professional basketball player (1967-77), senator (D~NJ, 1979-96); candidate for 2000 Democratic presidential nomination in opposition to Al Gore, gave up early in 2000.
1938 Alberto Fujimori, would be a dictatorial president of Peru, disgraced in 2000, and would flee to the country of his ancestors, Japan..
1929 Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, wife of President John F. Kennedy, first lady (1961-63), wife of Aristotle Onassis.
1922 Jacques Piccard Switzerland, undersea explorer (bathyscaph Trieste)
1909 Malcolm Lowry, English novelist (Under the Volcano), short story writer, and poet. He died on 27 June 1957.
1907 Earl S. Tupper, US inventor of Tupperware plastic containers, who died on 05 October 1983..
1901 Harry Bridges, Australian-born US labor leader who headed the West Coast Longshoremen's Union. He died on 30 March 1990.
1896 The city of Miami, Florida, is incorporated.
1887 Marcel Duchamp part-time French-born US Dada artist, who tried to shock people with his small but controversial output. It exerted a strong influence on the development of 20th-century avant-garde art. He died on 02 October 1968. MORE ON DUCHAMP AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Nu Descendant un Escalier Nº2 (no nude, just a descending robot) Le Passage de la vierge à la mariée Father L.H.O.O.Q. Large Glass You and Me
1887 Max Burchartz, German photographer who died in 1961. LINKS
1881 John Gresham Machen, a US Presbyterian theologian who taught at Princeton and Westminster seminaries. Two of his writings still endure: New Testament Greek for Beginners (1923) and The Virgin Birth of Christ (1932). Machen was born in Baltimore; died on 01 January 1937, in Bismarck ND, US Presbyterian scholar (Princeton Theological Seminary) who joined in forming the doctrinally conservative Presbyterian Church in America (1936; later named the Orthodox Presbyterian Church) after his suspension from the ministry by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, USA., for his opposition to modern liberal revision of the 17th-century English Presbyterian creed, the Westminster Confession of Faith. Criticizing Liberal Protestantism as unbiblical and unhistorical in his Christianity and Liberalism (1923), he left Princeton (1929) to help found Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia.
1879 Lucy Burns, US suffragette who died on 22 December 1966.
1874 (25 July?) Joaquín Torres García, Montevideo painter, sculptor, teacher, and theorist, who died on 08 August 1949. — more LINKS
1867 Charles Dillon Perrine, US astronomer who died on 21 June 1951.
1835 Giosué Carducci, Italian poet, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1906, highly influental literary figure in his time. Carducci was regarded as the unofficial national poet of modern Italy.
1819 Henri-Joseph Harpignies, French painter specialized in landscapes, who died on 28 August 1916. — Photo of Harpignies MORE ON HARPIGNIES AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Landscape at Capri Bords de l'Allier untitled landscape Autumnal River Landscape Goats Grazing Beside A Lake At Sunset Midday In The Meadows Boys By The Sea Environs De Menton, Le Royal — Pont Neuf, Paris
1816 Joseph Pierre Olivier Coomans, Belgian artist who died on 31 December 1889.
1774 Maximilien Joseph Wagenbaur, French artist who died on 12 May 1829.
1750 Philippe Fabre d'Églantine France, poet/satirist/politician.
1728 Nicolas-Henri Jeaurat de Bertry , French artist who died after 1796.
1609 Judith Leyster, Dutch Baroque era painter of genre scenes, portraits, and still-life, who died on 10 February 1660, wife of Jan Miense Molenaer. MORE ON LEYSTER AT ART 4 JULY LINKS The Serenade Self-Portrait Carousing Couple The Proposition Young Flute Player A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel Man Offering a Woman Money Merry Trio Laughing Youth with a Wine Glass
1456 Jacopo Sannazzaro, Italian poet who died on 24 April 1530. SANNAZZARO ONLINE: Arcadia (zipped)
1165 Ibn al-'Arabi Muslim mystic/philosopher