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a July 31:
2002 During Pope John Paul II's visit to Mexico City, he canonizes the first Amerindian Catholic saint: Juan Diego Cuahtlatoatzin, the Aztec Indian neophyte who, aged 55, on Saturday 09 December 1531 was hurrying down Tepeyac hill to hear Mass in Mexico City, when the Virgin Mary appeared and sent him to Bishop Zumárraga to have a temple built where she stood. She was at the same place that evening and Sunday evening to get the bishop's answer.
The bishop had not immediately believed the messenger; having cross-questioned him and had him watched, he finally told him to ask a sign of the lady who said she was the mother of the true God. Juan Diego was occupied all Monday with Bernardino, an uncle, who seemed dying of fever. Indian remedies failed; so at daybreak on Tuesday 12 December, the nephew was running to the Santiago convent for a priest. He detoured to avoid the place of the apparition, but the Virgin Mary crossed down to meet him and said: "What road is this that you are taking, son?" Reassuring Juan about his uncle whom at that instant she cured, appearing to him also and calling herself Holy Mary of Guadalupe she told Juan Diego to go again to the bishop.
Juan Diego asked for the sign. She told him to go up to the rocks and gather roses. He knew it was neither the time nor the place for roses, but he went and found them. Gathering many into his tilma (long cloak used by Mexican Indians) he came back. The Virgin Mary, rearranging the roses, told him to keep them untouched and unseen till he reached the bishop. Having got to the presence of Zumárraga, Juan offered the sign. As he unfolded his cloak the roses fell out, and the life size figure of the Virgin Mother, just as he had described her, was seen on the tilma [image >].
A basilica was eventually built on the spot of the apparitions, and the image on Juan Diego's cloak is venerated in it. That is where the Pope celebrates the Mass of canonization.
2002 Petroleum Geo Services (PGO) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from Long Term Strong Buy to Long Term Neutral. On the New York Stock exchange its stock drops from the previous close of $2.14 to an intraday low of $0.47 and a close of $0.56. PGO had traded as high as $10.84 on 22 August 2001 and $38.41 on 03 November 1997. [< 5~year price chart]
2000 North and South Korea agree to reopen border liaison offices and reconnect a railway linking their capitals.
1998 Gore wants web privacy laws ^top^
1997 For restricting encryption exports. A National Security Agency official tells: a congressional panel that relaxing US export restrictions on powerful encryption technology could seriously hamper efforts to catch terrorists, spies, and drug traffickers.
1996 After US President Clinton's announced that he would sign a pending welfare overhaul bill, 98 Democrats join the House of Representative's Republican majority to pass it.
1995 The Walt Disney Company agrees to buy Capital Cities-ABC Inc.for $19 billion.
1994 Comienza el despliegue estadounidense en Ruanda con fines humanitarios.
| 1993 El Sistema Monetario Europeo atraviesa la mayor
crisis desde su creación en 1979, tras la caída en días anteriores de cinco
de sus divisas.
1991 US President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. La URSS y EEUU acuerdan reducir sus arsenales nucleares estratégicos en un 30%, en la firma del Tratado START.
1990 Entra en vigor en la URSS la nueva ley de prensa, que pone fin a la censura.
1988 El rey Hussein de Jordania renuncia al territorio de Cisjordania, ocupado por Israel desde 1967, para favorecer la creación de un Estado palestino independiente.
1982 Adolfo Suárez, en conferencia de prensa, presenta con un manifiesto político el partido fundado por él, el Centro Democrático y Social (CDS).
Franklin's first time in Peanuts ^top^
Franklin meets Charlie Brown at the beach. They'd never met before because they go to different schools, but they have fun playing ball so Charlie Brown invites Franklin to visit him at this house across town for another play session. Later, Franklin turned up as center-fielder on Peppermint Patty's baseball team and sits in front of her at school. Franklin is thoughtful and can quote the Old Testament as effectively as Linus. In contrast with the other characters, Franklin has the fewest anxieties and obsessions. He and Charlie Brown spend quite a bit of time talking about their respective grandfathers. When Franklin first appeared in the late 60s, his noticeably darker skin set some readers in search of a political meaning. However, the remarkable becomes unremarkable when readers learn that Schulz simply introduced Franklin as another character, not a political statement.
1962 Federation of Malaysia formed
1960 Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, calls for a Black state
1947 La Asamblea Constituyente Italiana aprueba el tratado de paz, por 262 votos contra 68.
| 1944 The Soviet army takes Kovno (now Kaunas), the 1920-1940
capital of Lithuania.
1942 II Guerra Mundial: Ataque aéreo británico contra Düsseldorf.
1926 Un anarquista ataca en Barcelona, con una navaja, al general Primo de Rivera, que salió ileso.
1925 Unemployment Insurance Act passed in England
1919 Germany's Weimar Constitution was adopted.
1909 Finaliza la Semana Trágica de Barcelona, revuelta de tipo social que se produce en Barcelona y en algunas localidades catalanas como protesta por el envío de nuevas tropas a Marruecos.
1907 Premier camp scout. Dans l'île Brownsea (dans le Dorset, Angleterre), Baden-Powell le fondateur du scoutisme organise son premier camp. Depuis, le scoutisme est devenu un mouvement international. Des Jamborees réunissent tous les quatre ans les scouts du monde entier.
| 1895 Se constituye el Bizkai Buru Batzar, base del Partido
Nacionalista Vasco (PNV).
1891 Great Britain declares territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within its sphere of influence.
1882 Belle and Sam Starr are charged with horse theft in the Indian territory.
1874 Patrick Francis Healy, S.J., is inaugurated as president of Georgetown University.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1861 Ulysses S. Grant promoted to brigadier general
1849 Hungría pierde la independencia tras la derrota de sus tropas frente a las austro-rusas en Segesvar (Transilvania).
1834 Guerras carlistas: El general Espartero gana a los carlistas la batalla de Artazu (Navarra).
1814 Pío VII restituye en el mismo estado antiguo y en todo el orbe católico a la Compañía de Jesús.
1813 British invade Plattsburgh, NY
1809 1st practical US railroad track (wooden, for horse-drawn cars), Phila
1808 Tras la derrota francesa en la batalla de Bailén, librada durante la Guerra de Independencia española, José I Bonaparte debe abandonar la corte y refugiarse en Vitoria.
1790 The US Patent Office opens with the first patent granted to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont, developer of a new method of making potash.
1777 The Marquis de Lafayette, 19, a French nobleman, is made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
1760 Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, foils last French threat at Warburg and drives the French army back to Rhine River.
1498 During his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus arrives at the island of Trinidad.
0904 Arabs capture Thessalonica from the Byzantine Empire.
which occurred on a July 31:
1995 Mrs. Irene Aitken, 65, in Hyde, England, by lethal dose of opiates administered by Dr. Harold Shipman (murderer of 215+) during a home visit.
1993 Balduino I, rey de Bélgica.
1987 Más de 400 personas, en choques entre iraníes y fuerzas de la policía saudí, en los alrededores de la Gran Mezquita de la La Meca, adonde habían acudido en peregrinación.
1982 44 niños y nueve adultos, abrasados en un accidente de autobús en el sur de Francia.
1981 General Omar Torrijos, 52, in plane crash. He was dictator of Panama by virtue of the Guardia Nacional whose October 1968 coup put him in power, and of which he was still commander at his death.
| 1976 At least 139 persons in the Big
Thompson Canyon flood following extraordinarily heavy rains
(up to 40 cm between 18:30 and 23:00), Drake, Colorado.
1966 Six persons killed at University of Texas by Charles Whitman, who also wounds 46 others
1953 Robert Taft, 63, (Sen-R-Oh) (Mr Republican), in NY
1942 Some 1000 Jews gassed by German SS, in Minsk, Belorussia
1914 Jean Jaurès, asesinado en París, sociólogo, filósofo, y político socialista francés.
1906 Ferdinand von Wright, Swedish French artist, dies on his 84th birthday.
1896 Ludwig Christian Wiener, German mathematician born on 07 December 1826. His chief work is the 2-volume Lehrbuch der darstellenden Geometrie.
1888 Frank Montague Holl, British Social Realist painter born on 04 July 1845. MORE ON HOLL AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Deserted A Family at Prayer — The Convalescent — Hush! baby sick _ Hushed baby dead — Samuel Cousins, R.A.
1886 Franz Liszt, compositor y pianista húngaro.
1875 Andrew Johnson, in Tennessee. 17th US President; he succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president before Clinton to face impeachment proceedings. Johnson (portrait, after 1866, by Washington Bogart Cooper [1802-1889] >) was born on 29 December 1808. When he was 3 his father died. Andrew Johnson never attended school, he was apprenticed to a tailor at the age of 10. He taught himself to read and, after he married, his wife taught him the basics of an education. He organized a Working Man's party in 1828. In 1830 he was elected mayor of Greenville, Tennessee, went on to the state legislature, then to the state senate. In 1843 he was elected to the US Congress. In 1853 he was elected governor. In 1857 the legislature elected him to the US Senate, where, a slave owner himself, he was pro-slavery. But he opposed secession and on 04 March 1862 Lincoln named Johnsor Military Governor of Tennessee (which had seceded and only by summer 1863 was completely under Union control), which office he assumed on 12 March. Johnson was nominated for Vice President by the Republican convention on 07 June 1864 and was inaugurated with Lincoln (whose 2nd term it was) on 04 March 1865. Lincoln's 14 April 1865 assassination made Johnson President. On 29 May Johnson granted a general amnesty to most Confederates. His lenient attitude towards the rebels brought him into open conflict with Congress, which he accused of rebellion and which overrode his vetoes. After Johnson, on 12 August 1867 removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton without the consent of the Senate (required by the Tenure-of-office bill bassed in March 1867), the House of Representatives impeached him, 126 to 17, on 03 March 1868. The Senate trial ended with votes on 16 May and 26 May 1867, 35 guilty to 19 not guilty, which, falling just short of a 2/3 majority, failed to convict Johnson. His term as president ended in March 1869. At the beginning of 1875, the Tennessee legislature narrowly elected him to the US Senate.
1863 William Henry Knight, British artist born on 26 September 1823.
1826 El maestro Cayetano Ripoll, ejecutado por hereje, en Valencia, en el último auto de fe de los realizados en España.
1820 Carl Friedrich Zimmerman, German artist born on 31 March 1796.
1819 Jurriaan Andriessen, Dutch artist born on 12 June 1742.
1811 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 58, Catholic priest "father of Mexican independence", executed by Spanish firing squad.
1776 Francis Salvador, a plantation owner from South Carolina, first Jew to die for American independence, killed in a skirmish with the British.
1760 Adrien Manglard, French artist born on 12 March 1695.
1726 Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician born on 06 February 1695, one of the three sons of Johann Bernoulli [27 Jul 1667 – 01 Jan 1748].
1693 Willem Kalf, Dutch painter born in the period of 1619 to 1622, specialized in Still Life. MORE ON KALF AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Still Life with Silver Jug Still-Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar Still-Life with a Nautilus Cup _ detail Still-Life with Drinking-Horn Still-Life with Lemon, Oranges and Glass of Wine Still-life (with ornate whachamucallit) _ detail (wine glass and peach)
Ignatius of Loyola, founder of Society of Jesus, in
The Society of Jesus, as the Jesuit order is formally known, played an important role in the Counter-Reformation and eventually succeeded in converting millions around the world to Catholicism. Ignatius, the son of a noble and wealthy Spanish family called the Loyolas, was born in his family's ancestral castle in 1491. Little interested in church matters, he trained as a knight and in 1517 went in the service of a relative, Antonio Manrique de Lara, the duke of Nájera and viceroy of Navarre. In May 1521, during the siege of Pamplona by the French, his legs were shattered by a cannonball. Seriously wounded, he was transported to his family's castle, where he was forced to lie in convalescence for many weeks. During this time, he was given the Bible and a book on the saints to read. He came to see the service of God as a kind of holy chivalry and resolved to live an austere life in imitation of the saints.
In February 1522 he made a pilgrimage to Montserrat, where a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary and Child, supposedly carved by Saint Luke, resides. Ignatius hung his sword and dagger near the statue as symbols of his conversion to a holy life. For the next year, he lived as a beggar and prayed for seven hours a day, often in a cave near Manresa in northeastern Spain. During this time, he composed an early draft of The Spiritual Exercises, his manual for spiritual meditation and conversion. In 1523, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
After his return to Spain in 1524, Ignatius resolved to gain an extensive education to prepare himself for his spiritual mission. He studied in Barcelona and at the University of Alcalá, where he began to acquire followers. Suspected of heresy, he was tried in Alcalá, and later in Salamanca but both times was acquitted. He was forbidden to teach until he reached the priesthood, and he went to the University of Paris to continue his studies.
In August 1534, the Jesuit movement was born when Ignatius led six of his followers to Montmartre near Paris, where the group took vows of poverty and chastity and made plans to work for the conversion of Muslims. If travel to the Holy Land was not possible, they vowed to offer themselves to the pope for apostolic work. In 1537, Ignatius and most of his companions were ordained. Unable to travel to Jerusalem because of the Turkish wars, they went to Rome instead to meet with the pope and request permission to form a new religious order. In September 1540, Pope Paul III approved Ignatius' outline of the Society of Jesus, as the Jesuit order is formally known.
Under Ignatius' charismatic leadership, the Society of Jesus grew quickly. Jesuit missionaries played a leading role in the Counter-Reformation and won back many of the European faithful who had been lost to Protestantism. In Ignatius' lifetime, Jesuits were also dispatched to India, Brazil, the Congo region, and Ethiopia. Education was of utmost importance to the Jesuits, and in Rome Ignatius founded the Roman College (later called the Gregorian University) and the Germanicum, a school for German priests. The Jesuits also ran several charitable organizations, such as one for former prostitutes and one for converted Jews. When Ignatius de Loyola died on 31 July 1556, there were more than 1000 Jesuit priests.
During the next century, the Jesuits set up ministries around the globe. The "Black-Robes," as they were known in Native America, often preceded European countries in their infiltration of foreign lands and societies. The life of a Jesuit was one of immense risk, and thousands of priests were persecuted or killed by foreign authorities hostile to their mission of conversion. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were revered as men of wisdom and science.
With the rise of nationalism in the 18th century, most European countries suppressed the Jesuits, and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the order under pressure from the Bourbon monarchs. However, in 1814, Pope Pius VII gave in to popular demand and reestablished the Jesuits as an order, and they continue their missionary work to this day. Ignatius de Loyola was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1622. His feast day is 31 July.
occurred on a July 31:
1970 The complete New American Standard Version of the Bible (NASB) is first published. (The completed NASB New Testament had been released earlier, in 1963.)
1953 US Department of Health, Education & Welfare created
1945 John O'Connor, English mathematician
1943 William Bennett US Secretary of Education (1985-88)/drug czar.
1923 Juan Vernet Ginés, profesor e historiador español.
1921 Whitney M. Young Jr., US civil rights leader, head of the National Urban League. He died on 11 March 1971.
1919 Primo Levi, Italian Jewish chemist and writer influenced by his captivity at Auschwitz (Survival in Aushchwitz). He died on 11 April 1987.
1919 Rafael Morales, poeta español.
1901 Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet France, pop painter (Landscape with 2 Personages). He died in 1985. Reproductions of paintings by DUBUFFET ONLINE: LINKS Personnage au chapeau (1962) Sourire (1961) Ustensiles Demeures Escaliers La Vache au Nez Subtile Dhotel Nuance d'Abricot Supervielle
1900 Elmo Roper, US developer of political forecasting by polls. He died on 30 April 1971.
1886 Constant Permeke, Belgian artist who died in 1952.
1883 Paul Kleinschmidt, German artist who died in 1949.
1883 Erich Heckel, German Expressionist painter printmaker and sculptor who died on 27 January 1970; one of the founders of Die Brücke group of Expressionist artists. Reproductions of artwork (prints and woodcuts) by HECKEL ONLINE: LINKS Self~Portrait (Bildnis E.H.) (1917) Zwei Verwundet Madchenkopf (Junges Madchen) 1913 Sitzende (1913) Hockende (1913) Am Strand (On the Beach) Elf Holzschnitte (1915) Maedchen am Meer (1918) Kniende am Stein (1914) Stralsund (1912)
1881 Léon Spilliaert, Flemish Symbolist painter who died in 1946. MORE ON SPILLIAERT AT ART 4 JULY LINKS — Self-portrait a different Self-Portrait — Self-portrait with Mirror The Crossing — The Posts — Vertigo, Magic Staircase — Swans
(or 12 Aug) 1879 Léopold Survage, French artist who died on 01 November 1968. Homme dans la ville Deux Hommes et un Cheval [they want $2000 for this scribble. Has to be seen to be disbelieved]
1875 “Jacques Villon” = Gaston Duchamp, French Cubist painter who died on 09 June 1963. MORE ON VILLON AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Le Petit Manège Girl in a hat and veil L'Envolée Coursier Les Yeux Futiles Les Lampes Duo Galant Abstraction Two Women on a Terrace by the Sea Autre temps: 1830 Jacques — Magda Pach _ ZOOM IT — Walter Pach _ ZOOM IT — Le Grand Dessinateur L'entonnoir en Champagne Daguerrotype #2 Daguerrotype #1 La Faute Mariée Devant un Guignol After Jacques Villon Les Cartes L'Ombrelle Rouge — Le Peintre
1867 S.S. Kresge, would grow up to be a US businessman owning a chain of 1000 five-and-ten-cents stores. He died on 18 August 1966.
1863 George Abram Miller, US mathematician who died on 10 February 1951.
1863 Ernest Bieler, Swiss artist who died in 1948.
1858 Richard Dixon Oldham, English geologist who discovered evidence of the Earth's Core. He died on 15 July 1936.
1854 José Canalejas, político liberal español.
1848 Jean Baptiste Joseph Olive, French artist who died in 1936.
1844 Léon Augustin L'hermitte, French Realist painter who died on 27 July 1925. MORE ON L'HERMITTE AT ART 4 JULY LINKS Le Lavoir près de la Ferme d'Erlan (Pas-de-Calais) Harvesters' Country Supper at Emmaus A la Fontaine Harvesters' Country La Famille La Fenaison La Leçon de Lecture La Leçon de Claude Bernard La Moisson près de la Marne Le Marché de Chateau-Thierry Maternité ou L'Heureuse Famille — Récolte des Foins
1837 William Clarke Quantraill, Confederate raider known as one of the most vicious butchers of the American Civil war.
1835 Henri Brisson, French politician who was twice premier of France. He died on 11 April 1912.
1830 Ignacio Suárez Llanos, pintor español.
1826 Daniel Friedrich Ernst Meissel, German mathematician who died on 11 March 1895.
1823 Germain Fabius Brest, French Austrian artist who died in November 1900.
1822 Abram Stevens Hewitt, US industrialist and philanthropist who became mayor of N. Y. C. He died on 18 January 1903.
1821 William Hammer, Danish artist who died on 09 May 1889. [Not related to Armand Hammer (21 May 1898 1990), Arm & Hammer, or Hammer & Sickle]
1819 Edouard Henri Girardet, French artist who died on 05 March 1880.
1809 Jan Rutten, Dutch artist who died on 10 October 1884.
1804 George Baxter, English engraver and printer who died on 11 January 1867. LINKS
1803 John Ericsson, inventor of the screw propeller
1774 Charles Turner, English engraver and draftsman, who died on 01 August 1857. Not to be confused with THE Joseph Mallord William Turner [23 Apr 1775 – 19 Dec 1851] LINKS — Portrait of J.M.W. Turner — Wilhelm Friedrich, Prinz von Nassau-Oranien — Branch of the Meuse at Liège
1712 Johann Samuel König, Swiss mathematician who died on 21 August 1757.
1704 Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician who died on 04 January 1752. He worked on analysis and determinants. His major mathematical work is Introduction à l'analyse des lignes courbes algébraiques (1750).
1526 Augustus, Elector of Saxony & leader of Protestant Germany. He died on 12 February 1586.