On a 14 June:
2003 End of two days of refendum, by which voters in the Czech Republic endorse entry of their country into the European Union.
2003 In Pikeville, Kentucky, some sixty descendants of the Hatfield and McCoy families sign a peace treaty officially ending their feud.
2002 The stock of Alamosa Holdings (APS) is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from NT Neutral / LT Reduce-Sell to NT Reduce-Sell / LT Reduce-Sell and by Legg Mason from Hold to Sell. The stock retraces its partial recovery of the previous day (closing at $1.47. Its 12 Jun close was $1.10), opening at $1.30, making an intraday low of $1.09 and closing at $1.25.
2002 After Sprint Corp.PCS Group (PCS) cuts its subscriber growth forecast, its stock is downgraded by Merrill Lynch from NT Neural / LT Buy to NT Reduce-Sell / LT Neutral, by Morgan Stanley from Overweight to Equal weight, by JP Morgan from Buy to Market Perform, by Legg Mason from Hold to Sell, by Robert W. Baird from Market Outperform to Market Perform, by Salomon Smith Barney from Buy to Neutral, by SoundView Technology and by Wachovia from Buy to Hold, by Williams Capital, by Robertson Stephens, and by Thomas Weisel from Strong Buy to Buy. From the previous day's close of $5.99 the stock falls to an intraday low of $3.55 and closes at $3.90.
2001 Un millón de argelinos se manifiestan por la democracia y condenan la represión policial del régimen de Buteflika.
2000 In the biggest step toward peace since the end of the Korean War, the leaders of North and South Korea sign an agreement pledging to work for reconciliation and eventual reunification.
2000 The Southern Baptist Convention declares that women should no longer serve as pastors.
1997 El presidente croata Franjo Tudjman (1922 11 Dec 1999), que lidera la nacionalista-conservadora Unión Democrática Croata (HDZ), es reelegido para un nuevo mandato de cinco años.
1996 The FBI disclosed that the White House had obtained bureau background reports on at least 408 people without justification.
1996 World copper markets were thrown into turmoil following disclosure by Sumitomo Corp. that a rogue trader had hidden multibillion-dollar losses.
1993 Se celebra un referéndum en Malawi por el que se aprueba el multipartidismo en dicho país.
1991. The US government reported consumer prices had risen a modest 0.3% in May.
1989 La Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando recibe como pintor al poeta y dramaturgo gaditano Rafael Alberti (16 Dec 1902 28 Oct 1999) en un acto presidido por la Reina, por deseo expreso del nuevo académico.
1987 En las elecciones generales anticipadas en Italia, la Democracia Cristiana obtiene 234 escaños, el PCI 177, el Partido Socialista 94 y se produce un significativo progreso de los verdes (3 escaños).
1985 The 17-day hijack ordeal of TWA Flight 847 began as a pair of Lebanese Shiite Muslim extremists seized the jetliner shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece. Milicianos chiítas libaneses se apoderan de un avión de la TWA con 147 pasajeros, cuando volaba de Atenas a Roma. El secuestro duró 16 días.
1985 Plus de frontière: Signature entre Européens des accords concernant la libre circulation des biens et des marchandises et sur la suppression graduelle des contrôles aux frontières des Etats Membres. Ce sont les accords de Schengen, une tranquille petite ville frontalière Franco-Luxembourgeoise.
surrender in the Falklands. ^top^
After suffering through six weeks of military defeats against Britain’s formidable armed forces, Argentina surrenders to Great Britain, ending the Falkland Islands War. The Falklands Islands, known as the Islas Malvinas to South Americans, are located some five hundred miles east of Argentina in the Atlantic Ocean. There are two large islands, East and West Falklands, and some two hundred small ones that make up the Falklands. South Georgia Island, a scarcely inhabited dependency of the Falkland Islands British crown colony, is located some 2250 km east of the Falklands.
The British have long claimed South Georgia and the Falklands, based on their discovery by British navigator John Davis in 1592, but they have also been claimed and occupied at various times by Spain, France, and Argentina. In 1832, a seizure of a US vessel near the Falklands led to a US military expedition to the area, and the British responded by formally claiming sovereignty and occupying the Falkland and South Georgia islands.
In 1981, Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands, but the UN failed to comply, so on 19 March 1982, Argentine dictator General Leopoldo Galtieri sent a party of civilians to South Georgia to reclaim the island. On 02 April this preliminary operation was followed by a full-scale military invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentine forces.
When diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict failed, Britain sent a task force of thirty warships with supporting aircraft to the islands, and within six weeks had completely routed the Argentines, who surrendered on 14 June 1982. Some one thousand people died as a result of the Falklands War. In 1989, the approximately two thousand residents of the Falkland Islands reaffirmed their allegiance to Britain by rejecting a pro-Argentina political party.
The war made the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, "the Iron Lady", very popular at home.
The Falkland Islands War (also called Falklands War, Malvinas War, or South Atlantic War) was a brief, undeclared war fought between Argentina and Great Britain in 1982 over the control of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and associated island dependencies. Argentina had claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (which lie 480 km east of its coast) since the early 19th century, but Britain had occupied and administered the islands since 1833 and had consistently rejected Argentina's claims. In early 1982 the Argentine military junta led by Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri gave up on long-running negotiations with Britain and instead launched an invasion of the islands. The decision to invade was chiefly political: the junta, which was being criticized for economic mismanagement and human rights abuses, believed that the “recovery” of the islands would unite Argentines behind the government in a patriotic fervour. An elite invasion force trained in secrecy, but its timetable was shortened on March 19, when a dispute erupted on British-controlled South Georgia island (1600 km east of the Falklands) between Argentine salvage workers and British scientists stationed there. Naval forces were quickly mobilized.
Argentine troops invaded the Falklands on 02 April, rapidly overcoming the small garrison of British marines at the capital of Stanley (Port Stanley); they obeyed orders not to inflict any British casualties, despite losses to their own units. The next day Argentines seized the associated islands of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group. By late April Argentina had stationed on the Falklands more than 10'000 soldiers, the vast majority of which were poorly trained conscripts. As expected, the Argentine populace reacted favorably, with large crowds gathering at the Plaza de Mayo (in front of the presidential palace) to demonstrate support for the military initiative.
In response to the invasion, the British government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher declared a war zone for 320 km around the Falklands and assembled a naval task force with which to retake the islands. Most European powers voiced support for Great Britain, and European military advisers were withdrawn from Argentine bases; however, most Latin American governments sympathized with Argentina. A notable exception was Chile, which maintained a state of alert against its neighbor, owing to a dispute over islands in the Beagle Channel. The perceived threat from Chile prompted Argentina to keep most of its elite troops on the mainland, distant from the Falklands theatre. In addition, Argentine military planners had trusted that the United States would remain neutral in the conflict, but, following unsuccessful mediation attempts, the United States offered full support to Great Britain, allowing its NATO ally to use its air-to-air missiles, communications equipment, aviation fuel, and other military stockpiles on British-held Ascension Island, as well as cooperating with military intelligence.
On 25 April, while the British task force was steaming 13'000 km to the war zone via Ascension Island, a smaller British force retook South Georgia island, in the process capturing one of Argentina's vintage diesel-electric submarines. On 02 May the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano was sunk outside the war zone by a British submarine. Following this controversial event, most other Argentine ships were kept distant from the conflict, but Argentine submarine action continued to threaten the British fleet. Meanwhile, the British naval force and the land-based Argentine air force fought intensive battles, during which the Argentines sank the HMS Sheffield and the container ship Atlantic Conveyor with Exocet air-to-sea missiles. In addition, two frigates and another destroyer were sunk and several other vessels damaged, but the majority of Argentine bombs did not detonate. Argentina also failed to prevent the British from making an amphibious landing near Port San Carlos, on the northern coast of East Falkland, on 21 May. From this beachhead the British infantry advanced southward to capture the settlements of Darwin and Goose Green, after which they turned eastward to surround Stanley on 31 May.
The large Argentine garrison in Stanley surrenders on 14 June, effectively ending the conflict.
British forces would reoccupy the South Sandwich Islands on 20 June. The British captured some 11'400 Argentine prisoners during the war, all of whom were afterward released. Nearly 750 Argentine military men were killed—including 368 in the sinking of the General Belgrano—while Britain lost 256. Scores of Argentine aircraft of various types were destroyed, most while on the ground, and the British lost 10 Harrier jets and more than two dozen helicopters.
Military strategists have debated key aspects of the conflict but have generally underscored the roles of submarines (both Britain's nuclear-powered vessels and Argentina's older, diesel-electric subs) and antiship missiles (both air-to-sea and land-to-sea types). The war also illustrated the importance of air superiority—which the British had been unable to establish—and of advanced surveillance. Logistic support was vital as well, because the armed forces of both nations had operated at their maximum ranges.
Argentina's ignominious defeat severely discredited the military government and led to the restoration of civilian rule there in 1983. Meanwhile, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher converted widespread patriotic support into a landslide victory for her Conservative Party in that year's parliamentary election.
| 1982 Fahd Ben Abdelasis Al-Saud, Rey de Arabia, es proclamado
rey de Arabia Saudí.
1974 Se descubre en Estados Unidos que el presidente Richard Nixon había utilizado métodos ilegales en su campaña para su reelección, escándalo conocido por Watergate.
1954 US President Eisenhower signs a congressional resolution which adds the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance. The last phrase now reads: '...one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
| 1953 Se inicia en Corea una gran ofensiva comunista.
1952 Keel laid for first nuclear powered sub the Nautilus
1949 Archbishop Beran of Czechoslavakia tries to preach his Corpus Christi sermon in Cathedral of St. Vitus but Communist agitators break it up with catcalls.
1949 State of Vietnam formed Se proclama un Estado vietnamita bajo el Gobierno de Bao Dai.
1948 Cardinal Mindszenty orders church bells tolled throughout Hungary in protest of the nation’s secularization law.
1945 Los británicos celebran la reconquista de Birmania.
1944 first B-29 raid against mainland Japan
1943 The US Supreme Court ruled schoolchildren could not be compelled to salute the flag of the United States if doing so would conflict with their religious beliefs
| 1940 El Gobierno español ocupa la ciudad de Tánger con
el fin de garantizar la neutralidad de la ciudad.
1940 Auschwitz, largest of the Nazi concentration camps, is first opened near Krakow, Poland. Before its liberation by the Allies in 1945, over 3 million Jews would be exterminated there.
1938 Chlorophyll patented by Benjamin Grushkin
1938 Dorothy Lathrop wins the first Caldecott Medal (kid books author)
1935 Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay ends
1925 Béatification de Bernadette Soubirou, à qui la Vierge est apparue à plusieurs reprises à Lourdes, dans les Pyrénées. Elle ne sera canonisée que 8 ans plus tard en 1933.
1923 Pres Harding is first US president to use radio, dedicating the Francis Scott Key memorial in Baltimore
1919 first nonstop air crossing of Atlantic (Alcock and Brown) leaves Nfld
| 1917 General Pershing and his HQ staff arrived in Paris
during WW I
1904 Fracaso del Ejército ruso en Port Arthur.
1900 Las legaciones extranjeras en China son amenazadas por 20'000 boxers que rodean Pekín.
1900 Hawaiian Republic becomes the US Territory of Hawaii
1864 Battle of Pine Mt, Gen Leonidas Polk killed in action
1863 Second assault on Port Hudson, Louisiana 1863 Siege on Vicksbur
| 1841 first Canadian parliament opens in Kingston,
1808 Guerra de la Independencia española. La escuadra francesa del almirante Rossilly, en Cádiz, se rinde a las fuerzas navales de Ruiz de Apodaca.
1793 JOURDIE Gracien, vicaire de Sevrac, domicilié à Inox (Lozère), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1791 Loi Le Chapelier: Cette loi qui doit son nom à Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier (député du Tiers état aux Etats généraux et fondateur du le Club breton, plus tard Club des Jacobins), interdit le droit de grève, le droit de coalition et le droit d'association aux ouvriers. Commentaire de Marat : "Nous sommes à Paris vingt mille ouvriers qui ne nous laisserons pas endormir par la bourgeoisie."
1645 Las tropas del Parlamento inglés (Cabezas redondas) consiguen la victoria de Naseby sobre las tropas reales del príncipe Rupert, lo que obligó al rey a retirarse a Escocia.
1642 The first compulsory education law in the British Colonies in America is passed by Massachusetts
1619 Decreto de beatificación del futuro San Isidro Labrador, en el que se establece que su fiesta se celebrará el 15 de mayo.
Deaths which occurred on a 14 June:
2003 Jim Reed, 43, 110 kg, 1.83-m tall, struck by two cars while crossing a street in the middle of a block, in Phoenix, Arizona, in the evening. The drivers of both cars speed away without rendering assistance or waiting for police. Witnesses note a partial license plate number of the first car, which is traced to Catholic Bishop Thomas Joseph O'Brien, who was driving home after celebrating Mass when he hit Reed. The bishop is arrested on 16 June 2003; he says that he remembers hitting something, but thought it was an animal. He was already in enough trouble without that. Earlier in the month, to avoid prosecution for improperly concealing abuse allegations against priests, he had been forced by prosecutors to delegate part of his authority. O'Brien would resign as Bishop of Phoenix on 18 June 2003. Born on 29 November 1935, O'Brien was ordained a priest of the diocese of Tucson on 07 May 1961, and consecrated bishop of Phoenix on 06 January 1982.
2003 Douglas Davis, of Garibaldi; Dennis Tipton and Kathy Corley, both of Ukiah; Steve Albus of Ephrata, Wash., and his brother Tim Albus, of Madras; Sigmud Bohnet, from Florida; Edward Loil of Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Larry Frick of Spokane, Wash.; Terry Galloway of Portland; Richard Hidalgo of Green Bay, Wis.; Barry Sundberg of Cheney, Wash.; none wearing a life-jacket, drown as 10-m-long chartered fishing vessel Taki-Tooo — with 17 passengers, skipper Davis, and one other crew member aboard — heading out of Tillamook Bay, Oregon, for a day of bottom fishing, is broadsided by 5-m-high breaking surf and capsizes at 07:26 (14:26 UT). The eight survivors, some of them wearing life-jackets, are not seriously hurt.
[below: two views of the boat after it washed ashore]
|2002 Donald Cruse, 57, his wife Mary, 53, daughter Shannon, 23,
her daughter Shaniya, 6, and Peter Kiss, 30, who shoots the others
and then himself, in Grimsby, Ontario. Kiss had Shannon Cruse at a trucking
convention, and then lived maritally with her for about two months in Milwaukee,
Wisconsin, his home town. Shannon Cruse ended the relationship in April
2002 and moved back to her parents' house in Grimsby. Kiss shoots Shannon
with a semiautomatic weapon in the driveway of a friend's house, then goes
down the street to her parents' home where he kills the other three and
2002 About 100 persons during fighting between Ninja rebels and the army in the Kinzoundi district Brazzaville, Congo. The rebels call themselves Ninjas after the ancient Japanese warriors made famous in movies. They reject the 29 December 1999 truce that was supposed to put an end to civil war. They are led by renegade pastor Frederic Bitsangou (aka pasteur Ntoumi) but their original loyalty was to exiled former Prime Minister Bernard Kolelas. They have conducted attacks since 29 March 2002, after President Denis Sassou-Nguesso won the 10 March 2002 election, from which his main rivals were excluded.
2002 Eleven Pakistanis by a car bomb exploding outside the US consulate in Karachi at 11:10, possibly hidden and then detonated by remote control in a Khanum Motor Training School's 1981 Toyota Corolla that was carrying four unaware women (Farkhanda Jabeen, 38, Nida Nazeer, 20, Nazish, 19, and Rehana Parveen, 38, returning from the Driving Licence Branch after getting their licences). The dead also include an unidentified person reduced to scattered body parts (who would be the suicide driver of the car bomb, if it is the another possibly for it: a Suzuki Hi-roof, also shattered by the explosion); a policeman guarding the consulate, Constable Munawar Azama; Ikramullah; Ilyas and his son Rizwan; a physician living in Kenya, Dr. Warsi Aliya, and her uncle Shafaat, who had just left the nearby Marriott Hotel after making arrangements for her wedding that was to have taken place the next day. Some 25 persons are injured.
2002 Kaseeran Bibi, 45, and Thoomi Bibi, 40, (both wives of Ghulam Mohammad) when a shell hits their house in Digwar village, Forward Kahuta sector of the southern Bagh district, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, during Indian shelling from 12:00 to 15:00.
2002 Mohammad Iqbal, 60, his son Shahzad, 6, and a relative, Parveen Akhtar, 22, wife of Mohammad Riaz, after heavy Indian shelling resumes at 09:30 and one of the shells lands in the courtyard of their house in Hatli Bala village, Nakyal sector of the southern district of Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Iqbal's wife, Jamila, 35, son Irshad, 15, and daughters, Rabia 4, and Asia, an infant, are injured.
2001 Jay D. Scott, 48, executed by lethal injection for the 06 May 1983 murder of Cleveland V&E Confectionery delicatessen owner Vinney Prince, 75, who was shot in the chest after she prepared food at noon for Scott and an accomplice. Scott killed security guard Ralph Alexander Jones, 64, the next day at about 01:15 at the Shrimp Boat restaurant and was sentenced to death a second time, but that sentence was overturned because it was found that a juror knew of the first sentence. Scott was a schizophrenic with a low IQ who suffered an abusive childhood and spent all but 28 months in prison since the age of 13. Despite international protests, the courts ruled that mental illness did not exempt him from the death penalty, after ordering delays on 17 April and on 15 May to consider his competence. By the time the scheduled 15 May execution was delayed, the execution team had already placed into Scott's arms the shunts that would carry the drugs to kill him.
2001 Leonardo Anselmo Alzate, párroco de Pantanillo, 250 km al Norte de Bogotá, por numerosos disparos de arma de fuego, después de secuestrado desde su domicilio por una banda armada. Su cuerpo es encontrado al día siguiente.
2001 Khamurat Berdyev, 41, hit from behind by train he crossed a railway line at the main railway station in Turkmen capital, Ashgabat. Berdyev was head of the railway since January 2001.
1986 Jorge Luis Borges, 86, Argentine author, in Geneva.
1944 Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, comediógrafo español, hermano de Serafín A. Q..
1931 Ahogados varios centenares de personas cuando se hunde una embarcación de recreo en el río Loire (Francia), la mayor catástrofe naval desde el hundimiento del Titanic.
1926 Mary Stevenson Cassatt, expatriate US Impressionist painter born on 22 May 1844, specialized in Children. — Photo of Mary Cassatt MORE ON CASSATT AT ART 4 JUNE LINKS Self-Portrait (1878) Self-Portrait (1880) — Children Playing with a Cat — The Caress — Jules Being Dried by His Mother — Girl Arranging Her Hair — Lydia Seated at an Embroidery Frame — Hélène de Septeuil — Lady at the Tea Table — Maternal Kiss — Elsie in a Blue Chair — Moise Dreyfus — At the Window Mrs. Cassatt, the Artist's Mother Sara Holding a Cat Portrait of a Lady — Portrait of a Little Girl — Woman Standing, Holding a Fan — Lydia in a Loge, Wearing a Pearl Necklace — Le thé — Autumn— Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly — Self-portrait — Lydia Seated at an Embroidery Frame — Driving — Woman in Black — Lady at the Tea Table — Young Girl at a Window — Children on the Beach — Girl Arranging Her Hair — Mother and Child — The Bath — The Lamp — The Letter — Young Woman Trying on a Dress — La Toilette — Young Women Picking Fruit — Child Picking a Fruit — The Boating Party — The Banjo Lesson — Summertime — another Mother and Child — Young Mother — The Crochet Lesson — Toreador — Mrs. Cassatt Reading to her Grandchildren — Woman and Child Driving — Robert and His Sailboat — Master Robert Kelso Cassatt Spanish Dancer Wearing a Lace Mantilla The Cup of Tea Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly Portrait of an Elderly Lady Mary Ellison Embroidering Reading Le Figaro The Bath The Letter In the Omnibus — 220 images at Webshots
1920 Max Weber, sociólogo alemán.
| 1914 Más de 500 en la I Guerra Mundial cuando
una escuadrilla de aviones alemanes bombardea Londres.
1907 Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo, Italian painter born on 28 July 1868. — BIOGRAFIA MORE ON PELIZZA AT ART 4 JUNE — Il Quarto Stato _ detail — Speranze deluse — Carità cristiana — Panni al sole — Lo specchio della vita - (E ciò che l'una fa e l'altre fanno) — Il sole nascente — Idillio primaverile — La Processione — L'appeso — La piazza di Volpedo — Ricordo di un dolore o Ritratto di Santina Negri — Ritratto di mio papà — Ritratto di mia mamma
1905 El comandante y varios oficiales del acorazado ruso Potemkin fusilados por la tripulació que se rebela.
1887 Vincent Vidal, French artist born on 20 January 1811.
1886 Guillaume Jules Hoüel, 63, French mathematician who did work on celestial mechanics and on geometry.
1874 Julien-Léopold (Jules) Boilly, French artist born on 30 August 1797.
1698 Gerrit Berckheyde, Dutch architectural painter born on 06 June 1638. — more
1381 Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England; the Treasurer of England; and Steward of England John of Gaunt's physician, captured in the Tower of London by the rebels of the Peasants' Revolt, led by Wat Tyler (who would be killed the next day), then dragged out to Tower Hill and beheaded.
Births which occurred on a June 14:
1928 Ernesto Che Guevara, revolucionario cubano de origen argentino.
| 1903 Alonzo
Church, he grew up to be a US mathematician whose work is of
major importance in mathematical logic, recursion theory, and in theoretical
computer science. In the 1930's he created the L-calculus which today is
an invaluable tool for computer scientists. Church died on 11 Aug 1995.
1881 Player piano is patented by John McTammany, Jr, Cambridge, Mass
1868 Karl Landsteiner immunologist/pathologist (Nobel 1930)
1856 Andrey Andreyevich Markov, Russian mathematician who died on 20 July 1922. He is best known for his work in probability and for stochastic processes especially Markov chains.
1855 Robert Marion La Follette Wisconsin, presidential candidate (Progressive party)
1847 Bunson burner is invented, by Bunson (of course). It is a gas burner.which would become ubiquitous in school labs worldwide.
1844 Antonino Leto da Capri, Italian artist who died in 1913.
1834 Sandpaper is patented by Isaac Fischer Jr, Springfield, Vermont
1820 John Bartlett, in Plymouth, Mass. American compiler and publisher. While he worked in his university book store in Cambridge, he compiled the invaluable Familiar Quotations (1855), which ran through nine editions in his lifetime and has been revised and enlarged several times since. Bartlett joined the publishing firm of Little, Brown & Company in 1863 and in 1878 became senior partner. His Shakespeare concordance (1894) is still a standard work. BARTLETT ONLINE: [Bartlett's Quotations by keywords] [by authors]
1814 Adriana Johanna van Haanen, Dutch artist who died on 08 October 1895.
1812 Willem Troost, Dutch artist who died after 1881.
1775 US Army is founded by the Continental Congress.
1736 Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, French mathematician, physicist, who died on 23 August 1806. He worked on applied mechanics but he is best known for his work on electricity and magnetism (formulated Coulomb's Law).
1654 Louis Dorigny, French painter and engraver who died on 29 November 1742. — more