• US Supreme Court rules against Communist teachers... • US Congress bans obscene mailings... • US Geological Survey created... • US Special Forces withdraw from Vietnam... • US bombs Ho Chi Minh Trail... • Finland declares war on Germany... • Sniper kills 10 Israelis... • Guerillas kill 12 soldiers in India... • Michel Romanov élu tsar... • Bill Gates testifies... • Tsar for one day... • Russia makes separate peace... • Lucy appears in Peanuts... • Missouri Compromise... • Jaguar founder retires... • The Star Spangled Banner anthem... • Salary Grab Act... • Soviet aggression forces Finland to ask for peace... • Labor leader Green is born... • Plane explodes before Thai PM boards... • Poet Merrill is born... • Afghan quake...
a March 03:
2003 After Barron's magazine values the stock of Royal Gold (RGLD) at $9, 8 million of the 20 million RGLD shares are traded on the NASDAQ, dropping from their previous close of $19.45 to an intraday low of $12.70 and closing at $13.10. They had traded as high as $28.80 as recently as 04 February 2003 and as low as $2.38 on 04 December 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2003 Quality of life.
Mercer Human Resource Consulting publishes a ranking of 216 cities for quality of life. This is a sample (ties listed on same line) [some scores in brackets]:
Mercer’s study is based on detailed assessments and evaluations of 39 key quality of life determinants, grouped in the following categories:
Political and social environment (political stability, crime, law enforcement, etc)
Economic environment (currency exchange regulations, banking services, etc)
Socio-cultural environment (censorship, limitations on personal freedom, etc)
Medical and health considerations (medical supplies and services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste disposal, air pollution, etc)
Schools and education (standard and availability of schools, etc)
Public services and transportation (electricity, water, public transport, traffic congestion, etc)
Recreation (restaurants, theatres, cinemas, sports and leisure, etc)
Consumer goods (availability of food/daily consumption items, cars, etc)
Housing (housing, household appliances, furniture, maintenance services, etc)
Natural environment (climate, record of natural disasters)
2003 The Guangzhou, China, weekly newspaper 21st Century World Herald publishes an interview with Li Rui, a former secretary to Mao Zedong, who criticizes Mao and single-party rule and calls for free elections and other Western-style political reforms. Soon thereafter the Communist authorities close down the newpaper.
2002 In a referendum the Swiss vote to join the United Nations (12 cantons to 11, with 54% of the voters in favor) as its 190th nation, leaving only the State of Vatican City not a member, but an observer. There is no expectation that Switzerland will join the European Union in the next few years.
2000: Former dictator General Augusto Pinochet returned to Chile a free man, 16 months after he was detained in Britain on torture charges. El Ejército chileno recibe como a un héroe al criminal ex presidente Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, de regreso a su país tras 503 días de detención en Londres.
1996 El Partido Popular, encabezado por José María Aznar López, gana por un estrecho margen las elecciones generales en España.
1994 La Santa Sede y Jordania establecen relaciones diplomáticas.
1991 Iraqi generals and US General Schwarzkopf meet to arrange terms of a formal cease-fire in the Gulf War. Irak acepta las condiciones de rendición: restitución de la soberanía kuwaití y acatamiento de las sanciones de la ONU, con lo que se pone fin oficialmente la Guerra del Golfo Pérsico.
1991 Latvia and Estonia vote to become independent of the USSR
1991 Switzerland votes on lowering voting age from 20 to 18.
Rodney Kind videoed being beat up by LAPD. ^top^
At 00:45, robbery parolee Rodney G. King stops his car after leading police on a 12-km pursuit through the streets of Los Angeles. The chase began after King, who was intoxicated, was caught speeding on a freeway by a California Highway Patrol cruiser but refused to pull over. Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) cruisers and a police helicopter joined the pursuit, and when King was finally stopped by Hansen Dam Park, several police cars descended on his white Hyundai. A group of LAPD officers led by Sergeant Stacey Koon ordered King and the other two occupants of the car to exit the vehicle and lie flat on the ground. King's two friends complied, but King himself was slower to respond, getting on his hands and knees rather than lying flat. Officers Laurence Powell, Timothy Wind, Ted Briseno, and Roland Solano tried to force King down, but he resisted, and the officers stepped back and shot King twice with an electric stun gun known as a Taser, which fires darts carrying a charge of 50'000 volts.
At this moment, civilian George Holliday, standing on a balcony in an apartment complex across the street, focused the lens of his new video camera on the commotion unfolding by Hansen Dam Park. In the first few seconds of what would become a very famous 89-second video, King is seen rising after the Taser shots and running in the direction of Officer Powell. The officers alleged that King was charging Powell, while King himself later claimed that an officer told him, "We're going to kill you, nigger. Run!" and he tried to flee. All the arresting officers were white, along with all but one of the other two dozen or so law enforcement officers present at the scene. With the roar of the helicopter above, very few commands or remarks are audible in the video. With King running in his direction, Powell swung his baton, hitting him on the side of the head and knocking him to the ground. This action was captured by the video, but the next 10 seconds were blurry as Holliday shifted the camera.
From the 18- to 30-second mark in the video, King attempted to rise, and Powell and Wind attacked him with a torrent of baton blows that prevented him from doing so. From the 35- to 51-second mark, Powell administered repeated baton blows to King's lower body. At 55 seconds, Powell struck King on the chest, and King rolled over and lay prone. At that point, the officers stepped back and observed King for about 10 seconds. Powell began to reach for his handcuffs. At 65 seconds on the video, Officer Briseno stepped roughly on King's upper back or neck, and King's body writhed in response. Two seconds later, Powell and Wind again began to strike King with a series of baton blows, and Wind kicked him in the neck six times until 86 seconds into the video. At about 89 seconds, King put his hands behind his back and was handcuffed. Sergeant Koon never made an effort to stop the beating, and only one of the many officers present briefly intervened, raising his left arm in front of a baton-swinging colleague in the opening moments of the videotape, to no discernible effect. An ambulance was called, and King was taken to the hospital. Struck as many as 56 times with the batons, he suffered a fractured leg, multiple facial fractures, and numerous bruises and contusions.
Unaware that the arrest was videotaped, the officers downplayed the level of violence used to arrest King and filed official reports in which they claimed he suffered only cuts and bruises "of a minor nature." George Holliday sold his video of the beating to the local television station, KTLA, which broadcast the footage and sold it to the national Cable News Network (CNN). The widely broadcast video caused outrage around the country and triggered a national debate on police brutality. Rodney King was released without charges, and on 15 March Sergeant Koon and officers Powell, Wind, and Briseno were indicted by a Los Angeles grand jury in connection with the beating. All four were charged with assault with a deadly weapon and excessive use of force by a police officer. Though Koon did not actively participate in the beating, as the commanding officer he was charged with aiding and abetting it. Powell and Koon were also charged with filing false reports.
Because of the uproar in Los Angeles surrounding the incident, the judge, Stanley Weisberg, was persuaded to move the trial outside Los Angeles County to Simi Valley in Ventura County. On 29 April 1992, the 12-person jury, which included 10 Whites and no Blacks, issued its verdicts: not guilty on all counts, except for one assault charge against Powell that ended in a hung jury. The acquittals touched off rioting and looting in Los Angeles that grew into the most destructive US civil disturbance of the 20th century. In three days of violence, more than 50 people were killed, more than 2000 were injured, and nearly $1 billion in property was destroyed.
On 01 May, President George H. Bush ordered military troops and riot-trained federal officers to Los Angeles to quell the riot. Under federal law, the officers could also be prosecuted for violating Rodney King's constitutional rights, and on 17 April 1993, a federal jury convicted Koon and Powell for violating King's rights by their unreasonable use of force under color of law. Although Wind and Briseno were acquitted, most civil rights advocates considered the mixed verdict a victory. On 04 August Koon and Powell were sentenced to two and a half years in prison for the beating of King.
| 1972 "Los saharauis elegirán libremente su destino",
según declaraciones de Gregorio López-Bravo.
1961 Hassan II es coronado rey de Marruecos.
1959 first US probe to enter solar orbit, Pioneer 4, is launched
1959 By a vote taken in both bodies, the Unitarian Church and the Universalist Church, along with their fellowships __ the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged into a single denomination.
1952 Lucy appears for
the first time in Peanuts [shown below]
Lucy Van Pelt works hard at being bossy, crabby and selfish. She is loud and yells a lot. Her smiles and motives are rarely pure. She's a know-it-all who dispenses advice whether you want it or not--and for Charlie Brown, there's a charge. She's a fussbudget, in the true sense of the word. She's a real grouch, with only one or two soft spots, and both of them may be Schroeder, who prefers Beethoven. As she sees it, hers is the only way. The absence of logic in her arguments holds a kind of shining lunacy. When it comes to compliments, Lucy only likes receiving them. If she's paying one--or even smiling--she's probably up to something devious.
| 1952 Puerto Rico approves its first self written constitution.
1945 US and Philippine forces recaptures Corregidor
1943 US wins Battle of Bismarck Sea over Japan
1943 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi cesa en su huelga de hambre, signo de protesta contra la presencia británica en la India.
1916 Portugal declara la guerra a Alemania en el marco de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1910 Se conocen los primeros éxitos en el tratamiento de la sífilis con "Salvarsán". Este remedio lo han desarrollado los serólogos Paul Ehrlich y su colaborador japonés Sahachiro Hata.
1906 Vuia I aircraft built by Romanian Traja Vuia tested in France.
1904 El Emperador de Alemania Guillermo II graba el primer documento político sonoro, en un cilindro Edison.
1901 Congress creates National Bureau of Standards, in Dep't of Commerce.
1899 Francisco Silvela y La Vielleuze es encargado por primera vez de formar Gobierno en España.
1887 Anne Mansfield Sullivan arrives at the Alabama home of Captain and Mrs. Arthur H. Keller to become the teacher of their blind and deaf six-year-old daughter, Helen.
1886 Se firma el segundo Tratado de Bucarest, por el que se finaliza el conflicto entre Serbia y Bulgaria.
1879 En España, primera crisis total de Gobierno del reinado de Alfonso XII: cesa Cánovas y le sustituye Martínez Campos.
1878 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey.
1878 Se firma el Tratado de San Stefano, que pone fin a la guerra ruso-turca.
1877 Rutherford B. Hayes takes the oath of office as the 19th US president, in a private ceremony. A public swearing-in took place two days later.
1875 Congress authorizes 20-cent coin, lasts only 3 years
1865 Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands established.
1863 Gold certificates (currency) authorized by Congress.
1863 Free city delivery replaces zone postage; 449 letter carriers hired
1861 Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom
1859 "The Weeping Time", a grim slave sale which took place over two rainy days on the eve of the Civil War and was attended by journalist Q. K. Philander Doesticks (Mortimer Thomas). Over 400 men, women and children formerly held by Pierce M. Butler were auctioned in order to pay debts incurred in gambling and the financial crash of 1857-58. Doesticks' account, "What Became of the Slaves on a Georgia Plantation?," includes vivid descriptions of the largest recorded slave auction in US history.
1851 Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cents piece)
1849 The US Congress creates the Minnesota Territory.
1849 Gold Coinage Act passed, allowing gold coins to be minted.
1849 Congress authorizes $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
1847 Post Office Department authorized to issue postage stamps.
1845 Florida becomes 27th US state.
1845 First US law overriding a presidential veto (John Tyler's)
1843 After lobbying Congress for six years, Samuel Morse won financial support from the US Congress to test the "practicability of establishing a system of electromagnetic telegraphs by the United States." Congress granted him $30,000 to build an experimental telegraph line between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore. The line became operational on 24 May 1844, when he sent the historic message, "What hath God wrought?"
1842 First US child labor law regulating working hours passed, Massachusetts.
1812 Congress passes first foreign aid bill.
1803 first impeachment trial of a federal judge, John Pickering, begins.
1791 Internal Revenue Act taxes distilled spirits and carriages.
1791 Congress establishes US Mint.
0468 Saint Simplicius elected Pope.
0078 Origin of Saka Era (India)
which occurred on a March 03:
2004 Pedro Pietri, 59, of a bleeding ulcer and renal failure, Nuyorican (NY Puertorican) poet and playwright.
2003 Ronald K. Ferris, 39, of a heart attack after being brought to a hospital by rescuers who reached 18 hours later the plane he was piloting which crashed on 02 March into snow-covered Mount Wilcox in southwest Massachusetts, killing his wife Tayne Ferris and two of their five sons (the other three survive, suffering from hypothermia and frostbite, one of them with a broken leg).
2003 Ten Palestinians, killed in pre-dawn Israeli attacks on the Nusseirat and al-Bureij refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Thu dead include a policeman, a Hamas member, and at least four innocent civilians — in Nusseirat, boy Tareq Aqal, 13, who is shot dead; in Bureij boy Fadi al-Hawajry, 16, shot dead, and Nuha Swidan Makadmah, 41, and “Noname” Makadmah, her baby due to be born 10 days later, whose house collapses from the force of the blast next door, one of four houses blown up by the Israelis (her husband Shukri Makadmah, 40, and their 8 born children survive with injuries). 40 are wounded, many of them lie in the streets untreated for hours. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1887 Palestinians and 706 Israelis.
2003 David Messer, 43, of injuries suffered on 20 February in explosion and fire in Corbin, Kentucky, at the CTA Acoustics plant which makes insulation for automakers, where he was a worker. He becames its fourth fatality.
2002 Seven men in a shootout in Skopje, early in the morning, with Macedonian police, which says the men were terrorrists planning attacks on foreign diplomats.
2002 Avi Hazan, 36, Israeli, of wounds suffered in the previous day's suicide bombing in Jerusalem.
2002 Israeli sergeant Steven Kenigsberg, 19, from Hod Hasharon, shot at an army position south of the Kissufim crossing between Israel and Gaza. Four other persons are injured.
2001 All 21 aboard a US National Guard C-23 Sherpa plane which crashes in heavy rain outside Unadilla, Georgia.
2001 Ahmed Allan, 25, Palestinian, shot while he was waiting for a ride just south of Nablus, presumably by Jewish settlers from nearby Shilo.
1996 Marguerite Duras, escritora francesa.
1991: 25 persons as a United Airlines Boeing 737-200 crashes while approaching the Colorado Springs airport.
1991 Penney, mathematician.
1983 Georges Prosper Remi, "Hergé", autor de historietas belga creador del personaje de cómic "Tintín".
1983 Arthur Koestler, escritor inglés.
1974 346 die in world's worst air disaster, as a Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashes shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport in Paris.
1932 Alfieri Maserati, 44, from complications resulting form injuries incurred in a 1927 car racing accident.
1922 Henri Bataille, autor dramático francés.
1911 Isidre Nonell Monturiol, en Barcelona, pintor catalán.
1901 Achille Jean-Baptiste Zo, French artist born on 30 July 1826.
1879 Clifford, mathematician.
1857 Guillermo Brown, almirante argentino de origen irlandés.
1855 Anthony-Vandyke Copley Fielding, British artist born on 22 November 1787. LINKS
1853 Juan Donoso Cortés, escritor y político español.
1808 Anton van Maron, Austrian painter born in 1733. LINKS
1703 Robert Hooke, mathematician, scientific genius, in London.
1695 Jean Michelin, French painter born in 1623. LINKS
1459 Ausiàs March, en Valencia, poeta español.
0561 Pelagius I, pope
| Births which
occurred on a March 03:|
1982 Mi último suspiro, autobiografía de Luis Buñuel, se edita en París.
1940 Germán Castro Caycedo, periodista y escritor colombiano.
1936 Achille Occhetto, político italiano.
1933 Francisco Otero Besteiro, escultor español.
1930 Ion Iliescu, presidente de Rumanía.
1918 Arthur Kornberg, bioquímico estadounidense, Premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina en 1959.
1916 Paul Halmos, mathematician.
1915 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) se crea, organización predecesora de la agencia espacial estadounidense ( NASA).
1912 Guinand, mathematician.
1901 Otto Schreier, mathematician.
1898 Emil Artin, mathematician.
1895 General Matthew Ridgeway US, military leader (WW II, Korea). He died on 26 July 1993.
1891 Damaskinos, Greek archbishop of Athens who died on 20 May 1949.