• Anschluß !… • Clement Studebaker is born… • Declaration of (cold) war... • First movie with sound on film... • Jack Kerouac is born... • Racist treaty forced on China... • Longdistance phone inventor dies... • AOLMicrosoft deal... • Australia quits Vietnam War... • Carnegie donates for libraries… • Petrograd troops join the revolution... • Anne Frank is exterminated... • Marche du sel pour l'indépendance de l'Inde... • FDR's first fireside chat... • The blizzard of 1888... • The storm of the century... • Soviet aggressors break through in Kollaa, Finland...
a March 12:
2004 South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun, 57 [11 Mar 2004 photo >], is impeached by the National Assembly, after he refuses to apologize for campaigning for the Uri Party (which supports him, but to which he does not belong) for the 15 April 2004 parliamentary elections. The National Elections Commission had ruled one week earlier that Roh had broken the law, but in such a minor way that it did not warrant criminal charges. Prime Minister Goh Kun takes over Roh's duties, while the Constitutional Court rules on the validity of the impeachment, for which it has a maximum of 180 days. The 47 members of the Uri Party in the National Assembly resign in protest. Self-made human rights lawyer Roh came to office in February 2003 on a populist ticket that promised better relations with North Korea and a more equal footing with the the US. The opposition Grand National and Millennium Democratic parties cite two more reasons for the impeachment: corruption scandals and his mismanagement of the economy. In December 2003, three former Roh aides were indicted on charges of collecting illicit funds from Samsung LG and other big businesses for the December 2002 presidential campaign. South Korea's economic growth rate slowed to 2.9% in 2003, from 6.3% in 2002.
2003 An unpublished Israeli military report puts at 1945 the Palestinian body count of the al-Aqsa intifada which started on 29 September 2000 (Palestinian organizations and human rights groups have higher numbers). 130 children under the age of 16 and 235 adults, many of them women and old people, were innocent civilians. Another 441 were Hamas and Islamic Jihad activists, 324 were Fatah and Tanzim activists, 329 belonged to Palestinian Authority security forces, 69 were from the Popular Front, Democratic Front, Fatah Abu Mussa, and Ahmed Jibril. Another 417 were not identified with any group but were suspected of terrorism by the Israelis. These include Palestinians killed while carrying out terrorist attacks apparently independently. Some in the Israeli military claim that it is not clear that all the civilians were killed by Israelis, as some may have been hit by Palestinian bullets during exchanges of gunfire. This would include, for example, some of those killed in the Jabalya refugee camp in Gaza on 07 March 2003. The Israeli army claims they were killed by a Palestinian explosive charge, while the Palestinians say that these civilians were hit by an Israeli tank shell. Another claim is that some of the children killed were throwing fire bombs, and a few were using firearms. An Israeli investigation into the death of an 11-year-old boy in Nablus some two months earlier concluded that he was killed when an improvised explosive charge he was about to throw on soldiers, went off in his hands.
2003 In an elaborate commando-style 10-minute operation, Antonio Ferrara “Succo”, 29, is helped to escape from Fresnes prison, near Paris, where he was serving an 8-year sentence for armed robbery of armored bank trucks.
2002 For the first time, the UN Security Council (14-to-0) votes a Resolution (drafted by the US) envisioning Israel and Palestine: Resolution 1397 (2002)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 4489th meeting, on 12 March 2002
The Security Council,
Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, in particular resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973),
Affirming a vision of a region where two States, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders,
Expressing its grave concern at the continuation of the tragic and violent events that have taken place since September 2000, especially the recent attacks and the increased number of casualties,
Stressing the need for all concerned to ensure the safety of civilians,
Stressing also the need to respect the universally accepted norms of international humanitarian law,
Welcoming and encouraging the diplomatic efforts of special envoys from the United States of America, the Russian Federation, the European Union and the United Nations Special Coordinator and others, to bring about a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East,
Welcoming the contribution of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah,
1. Demands immediate cessation of all acts of violence, including all acts of terror, provocation, incitement and destruction;
2. Calls upon the Israeli and Palestinian sides and their leaders to cooperate in the implementation of the Tenet work plan and Mitchell Report recommendations with the aim of resuming negotiations on a political settlement;
3. Expresses support for the efforts of the Secretary-General and others to assist the parties to halt the violence and to resume the peace process;
4. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
2001 Stocks drop on Wall Street: the NASDAQ Composite Index closes down 128.63 to 1924.15 (its high was on 10 March 2000: 5048.62). The Dow Jones Industrial Index closes down 436.37 to 10'208.25 (its high was 11'722.98, on 14 January 2000). The Standard & Poor's 500 Index closes down 53.12 at 1180.30 (its high was 1527.46, on 24 March 2000). The stock of networking company Cisco, which had announced that it will reduce its work force. falls $1.81 to $18.81. It had traded as low as $5.16 on 25 March 1996 and as high as $80.07 on 27 March 2000. [5-year price chart >]
2001 Presidential election in Uganda, after a violent campaign.
2001 El juez Juan Guzmán decreta la libertad provisional bajo fianza del general chileno Augusto Pinochet, días después de que la Corte de Apelaciones de Santiago rebajara, de autor a encubridor, el grado de procesamiento del criminal ex dictador.
2000 Unprecedentedly Pope John Paul II asked God's forgiveness for the sins of Roman Catholics through the ages, including wrongs inflicted on Jews, women and minorities. El papa Juan Pablo II pide perdón públicamente por los pecados cometidos por la Iglesia en sus 2000 años de existencia.
2000 La izquierda de la antigua guerrilla representada por el Frente Farabundo Martí de Liberación Nacional (FMLN) triunfa en las elecciones legislativas y municipales celebradas en El Salvador.
2000 Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar scored a major victory in general elections. El Partido Popular (PP), liderado por José María Aznar, logra la mayoría absoluta en las elecciones generales españolas, en las que obtiene 183 diputados.
1999 Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic join NATO. Polonia, la República Checa y Hungría se convierten en miembros de pleno derecho de la OTAN, con lo que la Alianza Atlántica pasa a estar integrada por 19 países.
1999 Slobodan Milosevic, presidente de Yugoslavia, descarta de forma tajante la presencia de tropas internacionales de la OTAN en Kosovo y rechaza las condiciones de paz propuestas en las conversaciones de Rambouillet (Francia).
1998 Astronomers repudiate a warning that 2-km-wide asteroid might collide with Earth on 26 October 2028, saying that the calculations were off by one million kilometers.
1996 China begins new war games in the Taiwan Strait in a show of force, using jets and warships to drive home its warning to Taiwan not to seek independence.
1996 AOL and Microsoft make deal. ^top^
Directly contradicting an agreement signed with Netscape the previous day, AOL agrees to use and promote Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser exclusively. In exchange, Microsoft agrees to bundle AOL software with its Windows 95 operating system. The abrupt about-face would became an important issue in the Department of Justice's 1998 antitrust suit against Microsoft. A senior vice president at AOL testified that his company had initially avoided selecting the Microsoft browser because Microsoft seemed to be in direct competition with AOL.
| 1994 The Church of England ordains its first women priests,
in Bristol Cathedral.
1994 The South African government and the ANC agreed to depose Bophuthatswana homeland President Lucas Mangope.
1993 Janet Reno [21 Jul 1938~] is sworn in as the US's first female Attorney General. She would prove as ready to abuse the power of the office as any previous Attorney General (e.g. what she did about Waco, Ruby Ridge, Elián González, Wen Ho Lee, ...), but would be far surpassed by John Ashcroft [09 May 1942~], Attorney General in the devious regime of USurper president “Dubya” Bush.
1992 Mauritius becomes a republic dropping its links with the British crown 24 years to the day after independence.
1992 La Comunidad Europea reconoce como república independiente a Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1990 Mongolia's ruling Politburo resigns and Communist leader Zhambyn Batmunkh proposes amending a constitutional clause guaranteeing the party's "leading role."
1989 2 cyanide-contaminated Chilean grapes found (Philadelphia)
1987 Federal judge dismisses lawsuits sought by Oliver North.
1987 The Dow Jones Industrial Average includes Coca-Cola and the Boeing Company in replacement of Inco Ltd. and Owens-Illinois Glass.
1986 210.25 million shares traded in NY Stock Exchange
1986 Triunfa el sí en el referendum sobre la permanencia de España en la OTAN.
1986 Ingvar Gösta Carlsson, socialdemócrata de 52 años, confirmado por el Parlamento sueco como primer ministro, en sustitución del asesinado Olof Palme [30 Jan 1927 – 28 Feb 1986].
1985 Former US President Richard M. Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] announces that he planned to forgo his Secret Service bodyguards in favor of private protection, saving the US some $3 million a year.
1981 Walter R T Witschey installs world's largest sundial, Richmond, VA
1980 A Chicago jury found John Wayne Gacy Jr. guilty of the murders of 33 men and boys. (The next day, Gacy was sentenced to death; he was executed in 1994.)
1979 Luis Herrera Campins is sworn in as president of Venezuela.
1979 in Grenada, Prime Minister Sir Erik Gairy and his government are overthrown and replaced by Maurice Bishop of the New Jewel Movement.
1978 In the first round of French parliamentary elections, the Left claimed an absolute majority for the first time in French history.
1977 Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 28 Feb 1986] pledges to regain Arab terrority from Israel.
1973 In Syria, a new and permanent constitution is endorsed by over 97% of voters in a national referendum.
Australia quits Vietnam War. ^top^
The last remnants of the First Australian Task Force withdraw from Vietnam. The Australian government had first sent troops to Vietnam in 1964 with a small aviation detachment and an engineer civic action team. In May 1965, the Australians increased their commitment with the deployment of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (RAR). The formation of the First Australian Task Force in 1966 established an Australian base of operations near Ba Ria in Phuoc Tuy province. The task force included an additional infantry battalion, a medium tank squadron, and a helicopter squadron, as well as signal, engineer, and other support forces.
By 1969, Australian forces in Vietnam totaled an estimated 6600 persons. The Australian contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the "many flags" program. Australia began to withdraw its troops in 1970, following the lead of the United States as it drastically reduced its troop commitment to South Vietnam.
1971 Syrian Premier Hafiz al-Assad [06 Oct 1930 – 10 Jun 2000] is elected president in a national referendum.
1970 US lowers voting age from 21 to 18.
1968 Mauritius becomes an independent member of the British Commonwealth, having been a British colony since 1810.
1966 the Indonesian Congress strips Dr. Sukarno [06 Jun 1901 – 21 Jun 1970] of all powers including the title of president. General Suharto [08 Jun 1921~] becomes acting president until general elections in 1968, and would rule dictatorially and corruptedly until losing the support of the armed forces and being forced to resign on 21 May 1998.
1968 Mauritius gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1964 Malcolm X [19 May 1925 – 21 Feb 1965] resigns from Nation of Islam
1960 Paris-Match #570 comes out with this cover [photo >] on the Agadir earthquake of 600229
1959 The US House of Representatives joins the Senate in approving Hawaii statehood La Cámara de Representantes de EE.UU. aprueba el ingreso de las islas Hawaii como Estado número 50 de la Unión.
1958 Concluyen los ataques de bandas armadas marroquíes del partido Istiqlal contra las guarniciones españolas de Ifni.
1956 La Cámara de los Comunes aprueba la abolición de la pena de muerte para el asesinato en el Reino Unido.
1950 Los belgas aprueban en referéndum el retorno del rey Leopoldo.
1950 Pope Pius XII publishes the encyclical On combating atheistic propaganda
Truman Doctrine: (cold) war on international Communism.
In a speech to a joint session of the US Congress, President Harry S. Truman [08 May 1884 – 26 Dec 1972] asks for US assistance for Greece and Turkey to forestall communist domination of the two nations. Historians have often cited Truman's address, which came to be known as the Truman Doctrine, as the official declaration of the Cold War. In February 1947, the British government informed the United States that it could no longer furnish the economic and military assistance it had been providing to Greece and Turkey since the end of World War II. The Truman administration believed that both nations were threatened by communism and it jumped at the chance to take a tough stance against the Soviet Union. In Greece, leftist forces had been battling the Greek royal government since the end of World War II. In Turkey, the Soviets were demanding some manner of control over the Dardanelles, territory from which Turkey was able to dominate the strategic waterway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.
On 12 March 1947, Truman appears before a joint session of Congress to make his case. The world, he declares, faced a choice in the years to come. Nations could adopt a way of life "based upon the will of the majority" and governments that provided "guarantees of individual liberty" or they could face a way of life "based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority." This latter regime, he indicated, relied upon "terror and oppression." "The foreign policy and the national security of this country," he claimed, were involved in the situations confronting Greece and Turkey. Greece, he argued, was "threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by communists." It was incumbent upon the United States to support Greece so that it could "become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy." The "freedom-loving" people of Turkey also needed US aid, which was "necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity."
The president declared that "it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman requested $400 million in assistance for the two nations. Congress approved his request two months later. The Truman Doctrine was a de facto declaration of the Cold War. Truman's address outlined the broad parameters of US Cold War foreign policy: the Soviet Union was the center of all communist activity and movements throughout the world; communism could attack through outside invasion or internal subversion; and the United States needed to provide military and economic assistance to protect nations from communist aggression.
Not everyone embraced Truman's logic. Some realized that the insurgency in Greece was supported not by the Soviet Union, but by Yugoslavia's Tito [07 May 1892 – 04 May 1980], who broke with the Soviet communists within a year. Additionally, the Soviets were not demanding control of the Dardanelles, but only assurances that this strategic waterway would not be used by Russia's enemies-as the Nazis had used it during World War II. And whether US assistance would result in democracy in Greece or Turkey was unclear. Indeed, both nations established repressive right-wing regimes in the years following the Truman Doctrine. Yet, the Truman Doctrine successfully convinced many that the United States was locked in a life-or-death struggle with the Soviet Union, and it set the guidelines for over 40 years of US-Soviet relations.
Part of Petsamo province ceded by Soviet Union to Finland
1945 The British Empire celebrates it's first British Empire Day
1945 NY is first to prohibit discrimination by race and creed in employment
1941 II Guerra Mundial. El Congreso de EE.UU. aprueba la ley de préstamo y arriendo que permite enviar refuerzos militares a los aliados.
1940 Finland signs a peace treaty with the Soviet Union (effective next day at 11:00 local time), ending the 14-week winter war which the Russians won by sheer weight of numbers. Finland surrenders some territory.
1939 Pope Pius XII [< photo] (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli). 63, crowned in Vatican ceremonies.
1938 Nazi Germany takes over Austria. ^top^
Adolf Hitler announces an "Anschluß" (annexation) of Austria by Germany. Union with Germany had been a dream of Austrian Social Democrats since 1919. The rise of Adolf Hitler and his authoritarian rule made such a proposition less attractive, though, which was an ironic twist, since a union between the two nations was also a dream of Hitler's, a native Austrian. Despite the fact that Hitler did not have the full approval of Austrian Social Democrats, the rise of a pro-Nazi right-wing party within Austria in the mid-1930s paved the way for Hitler to make his move. In 1938, Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg, bullied by Hitler during a meeting at Hitler's retreat home in Berchtesgaden, agreed to a greater Nazi presence within Austria. He appointed a Nazi minister of police and announced an amnesty for all Nazi prisoners. Schuschnigg hoped that agreeing to Hitler's demands would prevent a German invasion.
But Hitler insisted on greater German influence on the internal affairs of Austria-even placing German army troops within Austria--and Schuschnigg repudiated the agreement signed at Berchtesgaden, demanding a plebiscite on the question. Through the machinations of Hitler and his devotees within Austria, the plebiscite was canceled, and Schuschnigg resigned. The Austrian president, Wilhelm Miklas, refused to appoint a pro-Nazi chancellor in Schuschnigg's stead. German foreign minister.
Hermann Goering then faked a crisis by engineering a "plea" for German assistance from inside the Austrian government (really from a German agent). On 12 March 1938, German troops march into Austria. Hitler announces his Anschluss, and a plebiscite is finally held on 10 April. Whether the plebiscite was rigged or the resulting vote simply a testament to Austrian terror at Hitler's determination, the Fuhrer garnered 99.7% approval for the union of Germany and Austria. Austria was now a nameless entity absorbed by Germany. It was not long before the Nazis soon began their typical ruthless policy of persecuting political dissidents and, of course, all Jewish citizens.
1935 England establishes 30 MPH speed limit for towns and villages
1933 FDR's first fireside chat ^top^
Eight days after his inauguration, President Franklin D. Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945] gives his first "fireside chat," a Sunday night radio address to the entire nation. Journalist Robert Trout later coins the name "fireside chat" for these frequent presidential broadcasts, invoking an image of President Roosevelt sitting by a fire in a living room, speaking earnestly to the US people.
The subject of Roosevelt’s fist fireside chat was the reopening of the banks, closed by presidential order the week before to prevent a recent surge in mass withdrawal of US savings. Roosevelt’s down-to-earth radio broadcasts serve as a great reassurance to the many US citizens who felt isolated from the US government during the hard times of the Great Depression. They also contribute to President Roosevelt’s tremendous popularity among ordinary people of the US, leading to a record three reelections as president despite often fervent opposition to the president’s policies from the business community and other quarters.
1924 El máximo órgano del poder turco abole el califato y el sultanato.
1919 Estalla en Egipto un movimiento nacionalista contra los ingleses, que alcanzaría grandes proporciones.
Petrograd troops join the February Revolution (on 27 February
Julian = 12 March Gregorian) ^top^
On 08 March (23 February Julian) thousands of women textile workers in Petrograd shut down their factories, partly in commemoration of International Women's Day but mainly to protest bread shortages, thus adding to the already large number of men and women on strike. Strikers marched through the streets shouting "Give us bread" (Daite khleb and Khleba, khleba). Crowds headed toward the city center. Demonstrators -- who were in a nasty mood -- broke store windows, halted street-cars, and forced other workers to join them. During the next two days, encouraged by hundreds of experienced rank-and-file socialist activists, workers in factories and shops throughout the capital went on strike.
By 10 March, virtually every industrial enterprise in Petrograd is shut down, as are many commercial and service enterprises. The demands -- visible on banners and audible in the shouts of demonstrators and in speeches at rallies -- escalate, again with the encouragement of activists, from demands for bread to appeals to end the war and abolish the autocracy.
Demonstrators march and protest all the more boldly when police and cossacks, under orders to show restraint, hesitate to stop them. Students, white-collar workers, and teachers join workers in the streets and at public meetings. Although the protests and meetings are generally peaceful, the potential for mass violence is barely contained: some workers carry sticks, nuts, bolts, screws, pieces of metal, and, occasionally, pistols; crowds smash shop windows, especially the windows of food and bread stores; looters become more common; demonstrators attack and beat police officers -- fatally on a couple of occasions. Although socialist activists condemn the violence and vandalism, the outbreaks become more frequent. Meanwhile, liberal and socialist deputies in the Duma shrilly denounce the current government and again demand a responsible cabinet of ministers.
Nicholas receives ambiguous information about the seriousness of events. Reports are also partially overshadowed by news that his children have been stricken with measles just after he left Tsarskoe Selo. On 09 and 10 March, word of the disturbances reached him at Headquarters -- in Alexandra's letters and in telegrams from War Minister Mikhail Beliaev, Minister of Internal Affairs Protopopov, and the military commander of Petrograd, General Sergei Khabalov. Alexandra discounts the disturbances: "Its a hooligan movement, young boys and girls running about and screaming that they have no bread, only to excite -- and then the workmen preventing others from work -- if it were very cold they would. probably stay indoors. But this will all pass and quiet down -- if the Duma would only behave itself".
Although the official reports are more thorough in describing the scale of the disturbances -- the spreading strikes, the demands for bread, the mass demonstrations on Nevsky Prospect (Petrograd's main throughfare and the symbol of its urbanity), and the attacks on police officers -- they also assure Nicholas that the police and the army are having no difficulty in controlling the disorders. This is far from accurate.
About 21:00 on 10 March, General Khabalov receives a telegram from Nicholas that would transform the unrest into revolution: "I command you tomorrow to stop the disorders in the capital, which are unacceptable in the difficult time of war with Germany and Austria." Meeting with his unit commanders an hour later, Khabalov ordered them to use all necessary force to disperse crowds, including firing at demonstrators, and he issued a proclamation to the population, posted the next morning, banning demonstrations and warning that this order would be enforced with arms. He also publicly warned strikers that they would be conscripted and sent to the front if they did not return to work by the March 13. In the evening of March 10, the Council of Ministers is informed of the tsar's command to use military force to restore order. A majority of the ministers dismiss Protopopov's sanguine assurances that all would be well and suggest forming a new cabinet in consultation with the Duma as the only way to end the disorders. They delegate two members to begin negotiations with the Duma.
On 11 March, as demonstrators again pour into the streets of Petrograd, police and soldiers, as commanded, fire systematically into the crowds, wounding and killing many. The show of force convinces many socialist leaders that the regime is determined and able to restore order. It also convinced the Council of Ministers to abandon efforts to achieve a political compromise with the Duma -- that no longer seemed necessary. Instead, the council recommends to Nicholas that he again prorogue the Duma, which he does. After the confident and effective use of force, the telegram from the chairman of the Duma to Nicholas on the night of 11 March, insisting that "state authority is totally paralyzed and utterly unable to reimpose order" seems to conflict with the facts, and thus the pleas for a cabinet responsible to the Duma hardly seems worth answering. Indeed, Nicholas dismisses the warning: "That fat Rodzianko has written all sorts of nonsense to me, to which I will not even reply." That night Rodzianko is handed the order proroguing the Duma. But the tsar's confidence is premature. Leaders of the rebellion and of the government both underestimate the psychological and moral effect on the soldiers themselves of the order that they shoot at demonstrating civilians. Most obeyed the order on 11 March. But as they returned to their barracks, they thought and talked about whether to follow orders or their consciences the following day. The next day the answer would soon emerge in regiment after regiment: mutiny
On the morning of 12 March, workers in the streets, many now armed and ready for combat with troops, are joined by insurgent soldiers, often with red ribbons tied to their bayonets. With the disintegration of military authority in the capital, effective civil authority collapses. The streets become a theater of revolution: workers and soldiers break into weapon factories and arsenals and arm themselves; from prisons they liberate revolutionaries and also a great number of ordinary criminals; they invade police stations, including central police headquarters, and set them ablaze; they assault policemen. "Requisitioned" trucks and cars crammed full of rebels speed around the streets. Everywhere soldiers, workers, and students are walking and driving about, sometimes draped in cartridge belts, carrying weapons, often more than one, and firing into the air. Numerous accidental injuries and deaths occur along with deliberate ones. Looting and pillaging are also common: wine stores are broken into, store windows are smashed, goods are stolen from various businesses, and the homes of the rich are burglarized.
Increasingly aware of the gravity of the situation, Khabalov appeals to the tsar and the military command to "quickly send reliable units from the front." Although the war minister, Beliaev, is still cabling Staff Headquarters his assurances that "calm will soon arrive", by evening he, too, is urgently informing Headquarters that "the situation in Petrograd has become extremely serious" and appealing for troops from the front. Nicholas is not ill informed about the seriousness of events. As he writes to Alexandra on 12 March, "I saw many faces here with frightened expressions". In response, he announces his own departure for the capital and orders the transfer of reliable troops there, under the command of general Nikolai Ivanov, to restore order by force. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/fall.htm]
Too little and too late: three days later, the Petrograd insurgents have taken over the capital and Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate.
A provisional government composed mainly of moderates is established, and the Soviet--a coalition of workers’ and soldiers’ committees--calls for an end to violent revolutionary activity. Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik revolutionary party, leaves his exile in Switzerland and crosses German enemy lines to arrive at Petrograd on April 16, 1917. The Bolshevik Party, founded in 1903, was a militant group of professional revolutionaries who sought to overthrow the czarist government of Russia and set up a Marxist government in its place.
On 06 November 1917, the Bolsheviks seize control of the Russian state in the October Revolution, and Lenin becomes virtual dictator of the country. However, civil war and foreign intervention delay complete Bolshevik control of Russian until 1920. Lenin’s Soviet government nationalizes industry and distributes land, and on 30 December 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is established.
In the USSR, the Communist Party controls all levels of government, and the Party’s politburo, with its increasingly powerful general secretary, effectively rules the country. Soviet industry is owned and managed by the state, and agricultural land is divided into state-run collective farms. In the decades after its establishment, the Russian-dominated Soviet Union grows into one of the world’s most powerful and influential states, and eventually encompasses fifteen republics--Russia, the Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.
| 1913 Canberra becomes the capital of Australia when
the foundation stone of the Federal Parliament building is laid..
1904 Raphael Hawaweeny was ordained Eastern Orthodox bishop of Brooklyn, NY, at St. Nicholas Church. As a vicar under the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia, Hawaweeny thus became the first Russian Orthodox bishop ordained in America.
1868 Britain annexes Basutoland (Lesotho).
1864 Red River Expedition begins in Louisiana
1862 Siege of New Madrid, Missouri continues
1854 Britain and France conclude an alliance with the Ottoman Empire against Russia in the Crimean War.
1850 First US $20 gold piece issued
1849 The Sikhs surrender to the British at Rawalpindi.
1848 2nd republic established in France
1833 Guerras carlistas: combate de Larremiar (Navarra), en el que por primera vez se enfrentan Espoz y Mina y Zumalacárregui.
1815 Fernando VII crea en España el primer Ministerio de Policía y Seguridad Pública.
1814 British troops under Wellington [01 May 1769 – 14 Sep 1852] capture Bordeaux.
1812 Entra en vigencia la primera Constitución española, la Constitución de 1812.
1799 In the War of the Second Coalition, Austria declares war on France.
1789 US Post Office established.
1755 First steam engine in the US is installed, to pump water from a mine.
1689 Se concluye la alianza de Viena, entre el emperador Leopoldo I de Alemania y las Provincias Unidas, a las que se adhieren Dinamarca, Inglaterra y España.
1664 First naturalization act in England's American colonies,
1664 New Jersey becomes a British colony as King Charles II [29 May 1630 – 06 Feb 1685] grants land in the New World to his brother James, the Duke of York.
1622 Gregory XV [09 Jan 1554 – 08 Jul 1623] canonizes Ignatius Loyola [1491 – 31 Jul 1556], founder of the Jesuits; Philip Neri [21 Jul 1515 – 26 May 1595], Italian founder of the Congregation of the Oratory; Teresa of Avila [28 Mar 1515 – 04 Oct 1582], a Spanish Carmelite nun; and Francis Xavier [07 Apr 1506 – 03 Dec 1552], the Jesuit "Apostle of Eastern Asia."
1609 Bermudas becomes an English colony
1496 Jews are expelled from Syria
1470 In the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV defeats the rebels at the battle of Empingham.
which occurred on a 12 March:
2004 Nine Kurds, in a stadium in Qameshli, Iraq, in the evening, before the Syrian championship match between the teams Al-Jihad (Kurd) and Al-Fatwa (Arab), which is then canceled. More than 100 are injured. Al-Fatwa supporters started it by stoning Al-Jihad players and fans. Fleeing Al-Jihad fans stampeded. Some were hit by stones, fell to the ground, and 3 kids, aged 10 to 15, were crushed underfoot. Then, outside the stadium, Al-Jihad fans attacked a group of Al-Fatwa supporters. Police fired into the air and into the crowd, killing the other 6 Kurds. Five more Kurds are killed by police gunfire the next day, during protests against today's killings. More than one million Kurds live in Syria, mainly in the north, on the border with Iraq, and they are often oppressed by the majority Arab population.
2004 Eight of the wounded in the previous day's Madrid massacre, including Patricia Rzaca, 7-months, Polish, the youngest of those killed, whole father was killed the first day and whose mother, Yolanda Rzaca, is severely injured.
2004 A woman, 24, a girl, 17, a girl, 8, a girl, 7, two girls aged 1, a boy born on 14 March 1996, a boy, 4, and a boy, 1, found dead stacked in a room of a home at 761 W. Hammond Avenue, near Olive Avenue and Golden State Boulevard, in the vicinity of Roeding Park, Fresno, California, after Marcus Wesson, 57, comes out of the home in the evening and surrenders to police after a two-hour standoff. Ten caskets are found stacked in another room in the home. At least two of the nine children were children of Wesson and his daughter.
2003 Zoran “Zoki” Djindjic [< 14 Jan 2003 photo], after being shot in the abdomen and back, at 12:45 (11:45 UT) while leaving a Belgrade government building. Pro-reform and pro-western, he was the Prime Minister of Serbia since January 2001. On 21 February 2003 a truck suddenly cut into the path of his motorcade in an apparent assassination attempt. Djinjdic was born on 01 August 1952 in Bosanski Samac, Bosnia, the son of a Yugoslav army officer. He opposed Tito and Communism ever since his high school days in Belgrade. Djindjic would be replaced by the deputy prime minister, Zoran Zivkovic, nominated on 15 March by their Serbian Democratic Party' and confirmed by the parliament on 17 March. The assassination is believed to be the work of the criminal gang Zemun Clan, headed by Milorad Lukovic, who was commander of a Milosevic-era special police force responsible for other political assassinations.
2003 Israeli Staff Sergeant Asaf Fuchs, 21, and Islamic Jihad gunman Rami el-Ashkar, during Israeli attack on village Saida, near Tul Karm, West Bank, to hunt for wanted militants.
2003 Manzoor Dar “Sirajudin Khan”, killed at 14:30 by Indian security agents in Noida, near New Delhi. He was a Jaish-e-Mohammad militant suspected of planning a terrorist attack.
2003 Howard Melvin Fast [2000 photo >], born on 11 November 1914, US author of more than 80 books, mostly novels such as Two Villages (1933, historical romance) — Conceived in Liberty (1939, about Valley Forge) — The Last Frontier — The Unvanquished (1942, about Washington during the worst months of the War of Independence) — Citizen Tom Paine (1943) — Freedom Road (1944, about a former slave in the post-Civil War South who becomes a US senator and then fights for his life against the Ku Klux Klan) — Spartacus (1953) — April Morning (1961) — The Immigrants + Second Generation + The Establishment + The Legacy (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981, multigenerational story of the Lavette family) — Greenwich (2000, about a high-society dinner party) — (under the pen name E. V. Cunningham) a series of detective stories featuring Masao Masuto, a Zen Buddhist nisei detective. — Fast also wrote The Naked God (1957) about his political experiences; he was a Communist from 1943 to 1956 and was blacklisted during MacCarthyism. Howard Fast's son is the sci-fi novelist Jonathan Fast (The Beast), who was (1978-1982) the 3rd husband of feminist author Erica Jong [26 March 1942~] (Fear of Flying); they are the parents of novelist Molly Jong-Fast, born in 1978 (Normal Girl, 2000).
2003 Patrick Luhakha, Kevin Wambua, and John Solo, from breathing the ammonia produced in an open pit latrine in in Kisumu Dogo, in sprawling Kongowea, Mombasa, Kenya, during their failed attempt to retrieve the $80 Alcatel cell-phone of Kenyatta University student Dora Mwabela, who had offered a 1000 shilling ($13) reward (Well over half the Kenyan population of 30 million people lives on less than $1 a day each). First to try was recently married radio technician Luhakha, 30. Along with others he ripped up the toilet floor, before going down a ladder. He failed to resurface. Another neighbor, water vendor Wambua, went down the ladder to check on his friend. But he slipped and fell. Then neighbor Solo, went down to try to rescue them both in the presence of policemen. But he collapsed halfway down the ladder. He was hauled up by yet more neighbors who rushed him to a hospital but he died on the way. A fourth would-be rescuer had to be held back by Acting Mombasa police chief Peter Njenga.
2002 (Tuesday) Father Lawrence M. Penzes, and Mrs. Eileen Tosner, 73, shot during 09:00. Catholic Mass at Our Lady of Peace Church in Lynbrook, on Long Island NY (diocese of Rockville Centre). The priest (born in January 1952, ordained in 1978) is shot in the back as he turns to sit just after finishing the homily.next to the altar. The assailant, mentally-deranged Peter J. Troy, 34, fires at least six shots from a.22-caliber rifle.
2002 Eyal Lieberman, 42, Israeli from Moshav Tzuran in the Sharon region, shot from a passing car near the West Bank enclave settlement of Kiryat Sefer, east of Modi'in. Another Israeli man is injured.
2002 Yehudit Cohen, 33, of Shlomi; Ofer Kanarick, 44, of Moshav Betzet; Alexei Kotman, 29, of Kibbutz Beit Hashita; Lynne Livne, 49, and her daughter Atara Livne, 15, of Kibbutz Hanita; and Lt. German Rozhkov, 25, of Kiryat Shmona; and two Palestinians in Israeli uniforms, hiding in the undergrowth at the side of the road, who attack, with AK-47s and handgrenades, a bus heading into Kibbutz Metzuba coming from Shlomi, near the Lebanese border. A policeman and two women are among the dead Israelis. . Seven others were injured; one critically. The attackers are killed by Israeli troops after a 30-minute gun battle.
2002 Louis-Marie Billé, French, born on 18 February 1938; ordained a Catholic priest on 25 March 1962; appointed Bishop of Laval on 10 March 1984 and consecrated a bishop on 19 May 1984; appointed Archbishop of Aix, Arles, and Embrun on 05 May 1995; President of Conference of Bishops of France (05 Nov 1996 – 06 Nov 2001); appointed Archbishop of Lyon on 10 July 1998; made a cardinal on 21 February 2001.
2002 Spyros Kyprianou, of pelvic cancer, in Nicosia. Born on 28 October 1932, Kyprianou succeeded the first president of Cyprus (independent since 1960) Orthodox Archbishop Makarios when he died on 03 August 1977. Kyprianou refused plans for a federation with the Republic of Northern Cyprus of Turks in the northern part of Cyprus. He lost reelection in 1988.
2001 Five US and one NZ soldier, Maj. John McNutt, 27, by bomb from a carrier-based US plane dropped on observer's post during practice bombing on the Udairi bombing range in Kuwait. Some 10 are injured.
2001 Josep Martinell, pintor y biógrafo español.
1998 Manuel Piñeiro Losada, de 63 años de edad, colaborador de Ernesto Che Guevara, fallece en un accidente de tráfico.
1966 Victor Brauner, Romanian artist born on 15 June 1903. — more
Day 104 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland. ^top^
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Enemy achieves breakthrough in Kollaa sector after months of fighting. Retreat in Vuosalmi
At 9 o'clock in the morning President Kyösti Kallio puts his signature to a paper giving full powers of negotiation to the Finnish delegation at the Moscow peace talks. Kallio says on signing: "This is the most awful document I have ever had to sign. May the hand wither which is forced to sign such a paper."
The delegations to the Moscow peace talks meet twice in the Kremlin, but there are no changes in the Soviet Union's terms. The meeting, which begins at 10 p.m., continues on beyond midnight.
Sweden announces its readiness to begin talks with Finland on a possible defensive alliance between the two countries. Finnish Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner wanted the expression "urgently consider" to be included in the news report of the talks, but Sweden demanded removal of the word "urgently".
There is fierce fighting on the Isthmus to the northeast and south of Viipuri. The troops defending Viipuri withdraw by midnight to new positions in Patterinmäki.
The Red Army breaks through at Kollaa to a depth of approximately one kilometre. Combat Detachment Haini's daily losses total around 100 men.
On the days of fiercest fighting, the enemy is losing over 2000 men a day.
The Finns decide to abandon the defensive line along the River Kollaanjoki.
Around 50 Soviet tanks drive across the Vuoksi to the mainland, suffering losses under the Finnish artillery fire.
Colonel Hersalo's 21st Division launches a counterattack in Vuosalmi. The commander of III Army Corps, Major-General Talvela decides to pull back his troops in Vuosalmi on account of the ceasefire negotiations. However, in the evening his troops occupy the support line in the rear.
There has been a serious rail accident south of Hämeenlinna between Turenki and Harviala when a military train carrying a transport company is involved in a collision with an express train. All the company's 4 officers and around 30 men are killed, and another 40 are injured in the collision.
Karjalan kannaksella käydään kovia taisteluja Talvisodan 104. päivä, 12.maaliskuuta.1940 ^top^
Aamulla klo 9 tasavallan presidentti Kyösti Kallio allekirjoittaa avoimen neuvotteluvaltuuden Moskovan rauhanvaltuuskunnalle. Kallio lausuu valtakirjaa allekirjoittaessaan: "Tämä on kamalin asiakirja, jonka olen koskaan allekirjoittanut. Kuivukoon käteni, joka on pakotettu tällaisen paperin allekirjoittamaan."
Rauhanneuvotteluvaltuuskunnat kokoontuvat kahdesti Moskovan Kremlissä, mutta Neuvostoliiton ehtoihin ei tule muutoksia. Kello 22 alkanut kokous jatkuu yli puolen yön.
Ruotsi ilmoittaa suostuvansa aloittamaan neuvottelut puolustusliitosta Suomen kanssa. Tanner halusi, että tässä uutisessa puolustusliitosta, todettaisiin asian tulevan "nopeasti harkittavaksi". Ruotsi poistaa uutisesta sanan "nopeasti".
Karjalan kannaksella käydään kovia taisteluja Viipurin koillis- ja eteläpuolella. Viipuria puolustavat joukot vetäytyvät puoleenyöhön mennessä Patterinmäen asemiin.
Neuvostojoukot saavat noin kilometrin syvyisen murron Kollaalla, jossa Taisteluosasto Hainin päivittäiset tappiot ovat noin sata miestä.
Vihollisen päivätappiot ovat kiivaimpina päivinä yli 2000 miestä.
Kollaanjoki-linjasta päätetään luopua.
Noin 50 neuvostopanssaria ajaa Vuoksen yli mantereelle ja kärsii tappioita tykistötulessa.
Vuosalmella eversti Hersalon johtama 21. Divisioona ryhtyy vastahyökkäykseen Vuosalmella. III Armeijakunnan komentaja, kenraalimajuri Talvela tekee päätöksen joukkojen vetämiseksi taaksepäin Vuosalmella aseleponeuvottelujen vuoksi. Takana oleva tukilinja miehitetään kuitenkin illalla.
Turengin ja Harvialan välisellä rataosuudella tapahtuu tuhoisa onnettomuus. Kuormasto- komppaniaa kuljettanut sotilasjuna törmää pikajunaan. Kaikki komppanian 4 upseeria ja noin 30 sotilasta kuolee ja 40 loukkaantuu.
Hårda strider pågår på Karelska näset Vinterkrigets 104 dag, den 12 mars 1940 ^top^
På morgonen kl. 9 undertecknar president Kyösti Kallio en öppen förhandlingsfullmakt åt fredsdelegationen i Moskva. Kallio säger följande när han undertecknar fullmakten: "Det här är det hemskaste dokument som jag någonsin har undertecknat. Låt den hand, som tvingas skriva under detta papper, torka ut."
Fredsförhandlingsdelegationerna sammanträder två gånger i Kreml, Moskva, men det blir inga ändringar i Sovjetunionens villkor. Mötet som började kl. 22 fortsätter över midnatt.
Sverige meddelar att landet nu är redo att inleda förhandlingar om en försvarsallians med Finland. Tanner ville att man i nyheten om en eventuell försvarsallians skulle tala om en "snabb behandling" av ärendet. Sverige stryker ordet "snabb" ur nyheten.
På Karelska näset pågår hårda strider nordost och söder om Viborg. Trupperna som försvarar Viborg retirerar vid midnatt till ställningen i Batteribacken.
De ryska trupperna gör en ungefär en kilometer djup inbrytning i Kollaa, där Stridsavdelning Hain dagligen förlorar ungefär hundra man.
Fiendens dagsförluster uppgår under de hetsigaste dagarna till 2000 man.
Finland fattar beslut om att överge Kollaanjokilinjen.
Ungefär 50 ryska pansrar kör över Vuoksen till fastlandet och lider förluster i artillerielden.
I Vuosalmi går den 21. Divisionen under ledning av överste Hersalo till motattack. Kommendören för den III Armékåren, generalmajor Talvela fattar beslut om att dra trupperna bakåt i Vuosalmi på grund av förhandlingarna om vapenvila. Men stödlinjen bakom bemannas ändå på kvällen.
På bansträckan mellan Turenki och Harviala sker en förödande olycka. Ett militärtåg som transporterar ett trängkompani kolliderar med ett snälltåg. Kompaniets alla 4 officerare och ungefär 30 soldater omkommer, 40 skadas.
1925 Sun Yat-Sen, Chinese revolutionary leader. promotor de la revolución china desde 1893.
1914 George Westinghouse inventor.
1912 Robert Falcon Scott, explorador británico que llegó al Polo Sur.
1906 Manuel Quintana, presidente de la República Argentina.
1905 Rudolf von Alt, Austrian artist born on 28 August 1812. — more
1904 James Fairman, US artist born on 1826. [Now, wouldn't a fair man expect to see a Fairman or two on the internet?]
1898 Balmer, mathematician.
1834 Feuerbach, mathematician.
1749 Alessandro Magnasco Lissandrino, Italian artist born in 1667. MORE ON LISSANDRINO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1722 Christian Beretsz, German artist born in 1658
1681 Frans van Mieris the Elder, Dutch painter born on 16 April 1635. MORE ON VAN MIERIS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1653 Gillis Peeters I, Flemish artist born on 12 January 1612.
1648 Fray Gabriel Téllez, "Tirso de Molina", dramaturgo español, muere en Soria.
1507 Cesare Borgia, Italian politician, cardinal and adventurer, killed in battle with rebels of Navarre near Viana, Italy.
0631 Sisenando, rey de la España visigoda.
0604 Pope Saint Gregory I
0417 Pope Saint Innocent I
which occurred on a March 12:
1987 Les Miserables, the play, opens on Broadway.
1951 "Dennis the Menace", created by cartoonist Hank Ketcham, made its syndicated debut in 16 newspapers.
1945 Patodi, mathematician.
1932 Andrew Young (Mayor-D-Atlanta)
1928 Edward Franklin Albee, playwright. Albee was born in a Virginia suburb of Washington DC and adopted by a wealthy family from Larchmont, New York, very concerned in projecting the perfect image of itself into social situations. This affluent suburb of New York City was home to a rich, competitive social scene, of which his mother, in particular, was very much a part. Through his youth, Albee resisted interacting with this culture, finding it hollow and unsatisfactory. At age twenty, after years of expensive schooling at prestigious institutions,
Albee moved to New York City's Greenwich Village to join the avant-garde art scene. His first play, The Zoo Story (1959) met with fine success, and launched his career. After that, Albee earned much praise for most of his work, the most famous of which are Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?*, A Delicate Balance, and Three Tall Women. [*the play is not about Virginia Woolf 25 Jan 1882 28 Mar 1941, but about a dysfunctional marriage.] This Albee is not to be confused with vaudeville manager Edward Franklin Albee (08 Oct 1857 11 Mar 1930).
1927 Mstislav Rostropovich Baku Russia, cellist/conductor.
1927 Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Folukes, presidente argentino.
1920 Elaine de Kooning, US painter, teacher and art critic who died on 01 February 1989. — links to images
1919 Miguel Gila Cuesta, humorista español.
1915 Alberto Burri, Italian Abstract Expressionist painter who died in 1995. — more with link to images.
1912 Girl Guides (later renamed Girl Scouts) founded in Savannah, by Juliette Gordon Low
1911 Gustavo Diaz Ordaz president of Mexico.
1900 Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, militar y político colombiano.
1890 Vaslav Nijinsky Soviet ballet master (NS)
1889 Carlo Socrate, Italian artist who died in 1967.
1888 Jean Dufy, French artist who died in May 1964. — more with links to two images.
1886 El Socialista comienza a publicarse en Madrid, órgano semanal del PSOE, dirigido por Pablo Iglesias Posse y que más tarde se convirtió en diario hasta el final de la guerra civil. En 1978 reapareció como semanario.
1877 Wilhelm Frick, longtime Nazi parliamentary leader, Hitler's minister of the interior (1933-1943), protector of Bohemia and Moravia (1943-1945). He had a major role in the persecution of Jews. He was executed for his crimes against humanity, on 16 October 1946.
1867 Auguste Fred Pierre Sézille des Essarts, French artist.
1863 Carl Vilhelm Holsoe, Danish artist who died in 1935.
1859 Cesàro, mathematician.
1848 Karl Hagemeister, German artist who died in 1933. — more
1842 Francisco Domingo Marqués, Spanish painter who died in 1920 Self-Portrait (1884) Interior of Muñoz Degrain's Studio in Valencia
1831 Benjamin Williams Leader, British painter who died on 22 March 1923. MORE ON LEADER AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1835 Simon Newcomb, US, scientist/mathematician/astronomer
1821 Sir John Abbott, Canadian lawyer, statesman and prime minister (1891-92). He died on 30 October.
1695 Adrien Manglard, French artist who died on 31 July 1760.
1685 George Berkeley, Anglo-Irish Anglican bishop of Cloyne, philosopher, scientist, mathematician. He died on 14 January 1753.
1613 André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect who designed the Versailles gardens. He died on 15 September 1700.
1572 Os Lusiadas, gran poema épico del portugués Luis Vaz de Camões [1524 10 Jun 1580], se publica.
Children Have Learned
No matter how hard you try, you can't baptize cats.
When your Mom is mad at your dad, don't let her brush your hair.
If your sister hits you, don't hit her back. They always catch the second person.
Don't play with matches, play with a magnifying glass and the sunlight.
Never ask your 3-year old brother to hold a tomato.
You can't trust dogs to watch your food.
Reading what people write on desks can teach you a lot.
Don't sneeze when someone is cutting your hair.
Puppies still have bad breath even after eating a tic tac.
Never hold a dustbuster and a cat at the same time.
School lunches stick to the wall.
Non-violence does not work with the playground bully.
You can't hide a piece of broccoli in a glass of milk.
Don't wear polka-dot underwear under white shorts.
The best place to be when you are sad is in Grandma's lap.
You don't want your parents to know that you know what they don't want you to know.
Try to get the cat to share the bath with you and you'll get scratched.
There's more than one way to swing a cat, but no way not to get scratched.
Know with which grownups crying helps get you out of trouble, and with which it just makes things worse.
Your mom won't like it when your pet snails get loose around the house.
Grownups don't understand that you do your homework best with the TV on.