• Van Gogh exhibition... • First US ambassador to Poland… • Lithuania rejects Soviet annexation demand... • First Porsche car... • Paul Green is born... • Antispam software... • Prodigy adds services... • My Lai coverup uncovered... • Review of Vietnam situation... • US Treasury backs greenbacks... • Todt named Reich Minister... • British evacuate Boston... • 2nd Maori war begins... • Bali volcano kills 1000+... • First NYC St.Patrick's Day parade...
| On a March
2003 Ericsson (ERICY) and InterDigital Communications Corporation (IDCC), along with its subsidiary InterDigital Technology Corporation announce a settlement ending the companies' long-standing patent infringement litigation. The companies have entered into a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license agreement covering all of ITC's patents for GSM, TDMA (D-AMPS), GPRS, EDGE and PDC. Additionally, all claims asserted in the patent infringement litigation are dismissed. In exchange, Ericsson will make an annual payment of a limited fixed amount through 2006 for sales of covered infrastructure equipment. Sony Ericsson and ITC have entered into a similar license agreement concerning handsets, under which Sony Ericsson will pay royalties to ITC through 2006. For sales through December 2002, Ericsson and Sony Ericsson will pay ITC approximately $34 million. For the years 2003 through 2006, Ericsson will pay ITC an annual fee of $6 million for sales of infrastructure equipment. Sony Ericsson will, for the years 2003 through 2006, pay a royalty on each licensed product sold. On the NASDAQ 6.4 million of the 53 million IDCC shares are traded, rising from their previous close of $13.76 to an intraday high of $19.70 and closing at $19.54. They had traded as low as $6.22 as recently as 05 August 2002, and as high as $75.00 on 27 December 1999. — [5~year price chart >]
2002 Parliamentary elections in Portugal, held early because Socialist prime minister Antonio Guterres resigned in December 2001 after a sweeping victory by Social Democrats in local elections. The Socialists had been in power for six years. As a result of today's elections, the Social Democrats will have 102 of the 230 seats in parliament, the Socialists 95, the Popular Party 14, the Communists 12, and the Left Bloc 3. On 21 March 2002, President Jorge Sampaio would name Social Democratic leader Jose Manuel Durão Barroso as prime minister. Durão would need an alliance with the conservative Popular Party to have a narrow 116 majority in parliament.
2001 The Saint Patrick's Day parades in Ireland have been canceled, for fear that foot-and-mouth disease would be propagated.
2001 Australia's Liberal Party, headed by Prime Minister John Howard, loses a normally safe parliamentary seat to the opposition Labor Party, in a by-election in Ryan, Queensland.
2000 Pro-independence leader Chen Shui-bian wins the presidential election in Taiwan, with some 39% of the votes, vs. 37% for Vice President Lien Chan of the Nationalist Party, which has been in power for the last 51 years, and 23% for a third candidate.
2000 Smith & Wesson signed an unprecedented agreement with the Clinton administration to, among other things, include safety locks with all of its handguns to make them more childproof. In return, the agreement called for federal, state and city lawsuits against the gun maker to be dropped.
2000 El Gobierno de EE.UU. anuncia la eliminación de algunas de las sanciones que pesaban sobre Irán desde la revolución islámica de 1979, en un gesto de apoyo a la moderación del presidente Mohammad Jatamí en aquel país.
1999 A panel of medical experts concluded that marijuana has medical benefits for people suffering from cancer or AIDS.
1998 The US Justice Department expanded its antitrust investigation of Microsoft beyond Internet browsers to include the company's relationship to the Java programming language. Executives from Sun Microsystems, which had filed a lawsuit against Microsoft for violating the terms of its license to use Java, are subpoenaed to testify at the antitrust suit.
1992 La mayoría de los tres millones de electores blancos de Sudáfrica decide en referéndum el fin del apartheid y el respaldo a las negociaciones tendentes a establecer una sociedad democrática multirracial.
1991 El Partido del Centro, en la oposición, gana las elecciones parlamentarias en Finlandia.
1984 El pintor expresionista abstracto español Antoni Tàpies (nacido en 1923) es galardonado en Basilea con el Premio Rembrandt. LINKS
1980 Huelga general en El Salvador, convocada por la coordinadora revolucionaria. La organización Amnistía Internacional pide a la Junta Militar que termine la campaña de represión contra campesinos y activistas.
1978 Amoco Cadiz tanker spills 1.6 mil gallons of oil off French coast
1973 Saint Patrick Day marchers carry 14 coffins commerating Bloody Sunday.
US casts its first veto in the U.N. Security Council (against
condemning Britain for failure to use force to overthrow the white-ruled
government of Rhodesia.)
1969 Golda Meir becomes prime minister of Israel.
1967 Charlie Brown and Snoopy of Peanut comic strip appear on cover of Life magazine. [picture >]
1966 A US midget submarine locates a nuclear fusion bomb which had accidentally fallen from a US bomber into the Mediterranean off Spain.
1964 National Security Council reviews Vietnam situation. ^top^
President Lyndon B. Johnson presides over a session of the National Security Council during which Secretary of Defense McNamara and Gen. Maxwell Taylor present a full review of the situation in Vietnam. During the meeting, various secret decisions were made, including the approval of covert intelligence-gathering operations in North Vietnam; contingency plans to launch retaliatory US Air Force strikes against North Vietnamese military installations and against guerrilla sanctuaries inside the Laotian and Cambodian borders; and a long-range "program of graduated overt military pressure" against North Vietnam. President Johnson directed that planning for the bombing raids "proceed energetically." A statement issued to the public afterwards stated that the United States would increase military and economic aid to support South Vietnamese President Nguyen Khanh's new plan for fighting the Viet Cong. Khanh's intention was to mobilize all able-bodied South Vietnamese males, raise the pay and status of paramilitary forces, and provide more equipment for the South Vietnamese armed forces.
1963 Elizabeth Ann Seton of NY beatified (canonized in 1975)
1962 Fidel Castro Ruz anuncia una "purga" en el aparato del Estado cubano.
1960 Se produce el primer cambio en el Gobierno español desde 1957; dimite el ministro de la vivienda, José Luis Arrese y Magra, y le sustituye Gual Villalbí.
1959 Dwight David Eisenhower asegura que EE.UU. no retirará sus tropas de Berlín y acepta las negociaciones con la Unión Soviética.
1959 Dalai Lama flees Tibet for India.
1953 La Cámara de los Comunes británica anula la nacionalización de la industria del acero.
1950 Scientists at the University of California-Berkeley announce that they have created a new radioactive element (element 98), "californium."
1948 Firma del Pacto de Bruselas entre Benelux, Francia y Gran Bretaña, precursor del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN).
1945 Victoria electoral de los comunistas en Finlandia.
1915 El Reichstag alemán aprueba, con un solo voto en contra, el presupuesto para 1915, así como el programa para financiación de la guerra.
1914 The Fifth Avenue Coach Company of New York introduced the first bus with cross-wise seats. Prior to this introduction, all buses had been equipped with longitudinal seating. The company’s double-decker buses were capable of seating forty-four passengers.
1911 Entra en vigor en China la ley de interdicción contra los fumaderos de opio y contra los malos tratos a los presos.
1906 Vicente Blasco Ibáñez renuncia al acta de diputado por Valencia.
1906 US President Theodore Roosevelt uses the term muckrake in a speech to the Gridiron Club in Washington, DC.
1901: 71 Van Gogh paintings shown in Paris create a sensation, eleven years after the death of Vincent van Gogh , almost unknown until this exposition. MORE AT ART 4 MARCH LINKS
| 1898 First practical submarine first submerges, NYC
(for 1 hour 40 minutes)
1888 Harper's Weekly features a cartoon about the Saint Patrick's Day parade in New York City, in which a non-native born Irish-American leaves the parade because he has heard that Saint Patrick was not a native-born Irishman..
1884 John Joseph Montgomery makes first glider flight, Otay, California
1863 US Civil war engagement at Kelly's Ford, Virginia, and beyond
1813 El rey José Bonaparte, hermano de Napoleón, abandona Madrid para no volver, con lo que la Guerra de la Independencia Española llega a su fin.
1808 Motín de Aranjuez contra Manuel de Godoy y Alvarez de Faria, valido de Carlos IV.
1753 First official St Patrick's Day
1753 First Saint Patrick's Day parade in Boston
1734 Forty-two families of German Protestant refugees landed in the American colonies. Sponsored by the British Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), the 78 religious pilgrims soon founded the town of Ebenezer, 30 miles from Savannah, Georgia.
1521 Ferdinand Magellan discovers the Philippines.
0830 First day of the 10th baktun.
10 baktun / 0 katun / 0 tun / 0 winal / 0 k'in // 07 - ahaw // 18 - sip / g9
0180 Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus (31 Aug 0161 31 Dec 0192) , co-emperor of Rome since 0117 with his father Marcus Aurelius, becomes sole emperor of Rome, upon his father's death in Vindobona. Commodus would take the name Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus. The brutal misrule of Commodus would precipitate civil strife ending 84 years of prosperity and stability in the Roman Empire. [Commode n'était pas du tout commode, mais pas du tout. Devenu complètement fou, il fut étranglé par un champion lutteur par ordre de ses aides, au soulagement général, qui ne dura pas d'ailleurs, car son successeur Publius Helvius Pertinax fut lui aussi assassiné, et de même deux mois après Pertinax, son successeur Marcus Didius Julianus, pour faire place à Septime Sévère (qui, lui, mérita bien son nom).]
Deaths which occurred
on a March 17:
2004 Some 20 persons, by terrorist car bomb exploding at 17:00 UT, in the Karrada district of Baghdad, Iraq, in the middle of the street, in front of the Hotel Jabal Lubnan, which had received warnings two days earlier. A neighboring 5-story building collapses completely and other are set on fire. The dead include one Briton, and the hotel's three security guards, who were standing in front of it. Some 45 persons are injured.
2004:: 22 persons, by exchanges of gunfire during clashes between ethnic Albanians and Serbs in Mitrovica and other Kosovo locations, as Albanians protest the previous day's murder of three Albanian children by a mob of Serbs near village Cabra. Some 200 persons are injured.
2003 Elham al-Assar (or Ihlam Assar, or Hanan Ansar), 4 [< funeral photo], Palestinian girl, hit in the chest by an Israeli bullet inside her home in the Nuseirat refugee camp, Gaza Strip, which was under a pre-dawn attack which killed 6 other Palestinians (besides al-Sa'afin): including Umar Tawfiq Abu Yusif, 17; Umar Hasan Darweesh, 17; Saeed Husni at-Taweel, 16; a boy, 13, and two gunmen. — The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada (started on 29 Sep 2000) is now “at least” 1941 Palestinians and 726 Israelis.
2003 Mohammed al-Sa'afin, 34, shot by Israeli troops who were attacking Nuseirat, Gaza Strip, before dawn, and had surrounded his home and shouted for him to submit to arrest, whereupon he threw pipe bombs and fired a volley from his Kalashnikov rifle. He was a local leader of Islamic Jihad.
2003 Herbert Aptheker [1965 photo >], White US Marxist historian, born on 31 July 1915. His Ph.D. dissertation was Black Slave Revolts (1942). Among his other books: To Be Free: Studies in American Negro History (1948), the 3-volume Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (1951-1975), the multivolume History of the American People (1959-1976), Anti-Racism in U.S. History (1992). He was a friend of W. E. B. DuBois, who entrusted him with editing his writings, which Aptheker published as The Correspondence of W. E. B. DuBois (1973-1978)
2003 Palestinian Marine Policemen Shadi Khrais, 20; and Ramiz al-Sdudi, 19; by Israeli troops attacking the Atatra area northwest of Beit Lahia at 02:00.
2003 One of 28 infant girls less than 3-months-old, being smuggled in suitcases, which dies after police, acting on a tip, discover them in a bus stopped at an expressway toll plaza in Binyang, Guangxi, China, coming from the Yulin district of Guangxi, bound for Anhui province. The infants, probably drugged, apparently were being smuggled for sale.
2002 Noa Auerbach, 18, Israeli [photo >], and Amar Abed Almagig Shahrir, 27, unauthorized Fatah activist who fires his pistol at a busy intersection just as schools nearby were about to let out at 12:45 and is then killed by police, in Kfar Sava, just north of Tel Aviv. 16 persons are wounded.
2002 (Sunday) Barbara Green, her daughter Kristen Wormsley, a Pakistani, an Afghani, and a fifth person, by hand grenades thrown by two intruders in the nondenominational Protestant International Church, in the diplomatic enclave in Karachi, where some here, 400 yards from the sprawling American Embassy compound, where there were some 70 worshippers. Barbara Green was an employee in the human resources center at the US embassy, where her husband, Milton Green, is director of the computer section. He and their young son were among the 40 injured. Kristen was a high school senior. The unidentified fifth victim might be one of the attackers.
2002:: 62 Maoist rebels, in attack by Nepali troops on a rebel training camp in Gumchal, Rolpa district, in west Nepal.
1992: 29 persons in a truck bomb attack on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires.
1985 Dayle Okasaki and Veronica Yu, separately shot in Los Angeles, the first victims of the Night Stalker, Richard Ramirez, who would be arrested on 31 August 1985, after several more murders.
1979 Carmen de Icaza, escritora española.
1978 Dos personas muertas y 14 heridas por la explosión de una bomba en la central nuclear en construcción de Lemóniz (Vizcaya), efectuada por ETA.
1969 Daniel Vázquez Díaz, Spanish painter born in 1882. MÁS SOBRE VÁZQUEZ DÍAZ EN ART 4 MARCH
Over 1000 victims of the eruption of Mount Agung, on Bali
On the small Indonesian island of Bali in the Indian Ocean, one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions of the twentieth century occurs when Mount Agung erupts, producing ash flows that kill over 1000 people.
Mount Agung [photo], also known as Gunung Agung, is the highest mountain on Bali, with a height of 3014 m. With a deep volcanic crater at its summit that occasionally vents out smoke and steam, Mount Agung is considered sacred by the Bali people and is also the most-climbed peak in Indonesia.
In addition to Mount Agung, Indonesia has another 130 active volcanoes, the most of any country in the world. The most famous of all Indonesian volcanoes is Krakatau, a small volcanic island where the most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history occurred in 1883, producing 50-m tidal waves that killed more than 36'000 persons. Within months, dust from the Krakatau eruption produced a veil in the atmosphere that temporarily lowered world temperatures by over a degree.
| 1962 Blaschke,
1961 Suzanna Salter, 101, first US female mayor/temperance leader.
1960 Fernando Álvarez de Sotomayor, pintor español.
1957 Ramon Magsaysay, president of Philipines, in a plane crash
1956 Baker, mathematician.
1921 Zhukovsky, mathematician.
1913 [ Soledad Acosta de Samper, escritora colombiana.
1886: 20 Blacks killed in Carrollton Massacre, (Mississippi)
1890 John Rogers Herbert, British painter born on 23 January 1810. MORE ON HERBERT AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1878 José Amador de los Ríos, literato español.
1877 Hans Jacob Ulrich, Swiss artist born on 28 February 1798.
1864 Alexandre Calame, Swiss painter born on 28 May 1810, specialized in Landscapes. MORE ON CALAME AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1863 Major John Pelham, 132 other Rebs, 78 Yanks at Battle of Kelly's Ford.
Union cavalry attack Confederate cavalry at Kelly's Ford, Virginia. Although the Yankees were pushed back and failed to take any ground, the engagement proved that the Federal troopers could hold their own against their Rebel counterparts. In the war's first two years, Union cavalry fared poorly in combat. This was especially true in the eastern theater, where Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart boasted an outstanding force comprised of excellent horsemen. On several occasions, Stuart embarrassed the Union cavalry with his daring exploits. During the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, Stuart rode around the entire 100'000-man Union army in four days. Later that year, he made a daring raid to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and returned unmolested to Virginia after inflicting significant damage and capturing tons of supplies. In February 1863, a raid by General Fitzhugh Lee (son of Confederate commander Robert E. Lee) left the Federals running in circles in search of the enemy force.
Now, General Joseph Hooker assumed command of the Federal Army of the Potomac. He sought to bring an end to the Confederate raids by stopping Stuart's cavalry. Hooker assigned General William Averell to attack the Rebel cavalry near Culpeper Court House. Averall assembled 3000 men for the mission, but he left 900 behind to protect against a rumored Confederate presence near Catlett's Station. Averell led the rest of his men towards Kelly's Ford, a crossing of the Rappahannock River east of Culpeper Court House. Fitzhugh Lee learned of the advance and positioned his cavalry brigade, which was part of Stuart's corps, to block the ford and dig rifle pits above the river.
On the morning of 17 March, Averell's men reached Kelly's Ford and were welcomed by fire from 60 Confederate sharpshooters. It took four attacks for Averell's men to capture the rifle pits and by noon the entire force was across the Rappahannock. Now, Fitzhugh Lee arrived with 800 troopers and two pieces of artillery. As the Confederates approached, the cautious Averell ordered his men to form a defensive line, thus giving the initiative to the Confederates. Lee arrived and ordered his men to attack, but Yankee fire drove them back. He attacked again and was again repulsed. Averell had a chance to score a major rout with a counterattack, but he instead withdrew across the Rappahannock River. He later said that the arrival of Stuart on the battlefield signaled the possible approach of additional Confederate cavalry.
Averell lost 78 men killed, wounded, and captured during the day's fighting. The Confederates lost a total of 133 men. Among the Rebel dead was Major John Pelham, perhaps the best artillery officer in the Confederate army. He happened to be visiting Stuart when the battle began, and he rode forward to see the action. Pelham was mortally wounded by a shell splinter as he observed the Confederate attacks in the afternoon. Although Kelly's Ford was a Union defeat, it signaled a new phase of the cavalry war in the east. The Yankees were closing the gap with the Confederate horsemen. In the next four months, the Union cavalry fought their Confederate counterparts to a standstill at Brandy Station, and then scored a major victory at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1853 Doppler, mathematician.
1846 F. Wilhelm Bessel, mathematician, astronomer, measurer of distance to 61 Cygni
1808 Hindenburg, mathematician.
1782 Daniel Bernoulli, 81, mathematician.
1747 Josef Orient, Hungarian artist born in 1677.
1690 Jan van Mieris, Dutch painter born on 17 or 07 Jun 1660 MORE ON MIERIS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1680 François de la Rochefoucauld, escritor francés.
1652 Bramer, mathematician.
1619 Denys Calvaert Dioniso Fiammingo, Flemish painter from Antwerp, born in 1540, who emigrated to Italy in about 1562 and remained there for the rest of his life. MORE ON CALVAERT AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1406 Ibn Jaldún, historiador tunecino, fallece en El Cairo.
1190 Crusades complete massacre of Jews of York England
0659 Saint Gertrude, 33, Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles
0461 Saint Patrick, Patrick Succat, apostle of Ireland (there seems to be no divergence about the date, but the year is uncertain. Catholic Encyclopedia improbably gives the date of Saint Patrick's death as 17 March 493, and of the year of his birth as 387, which elsewhere is given as about year 360. Encarta: [389?-461?] ).
Saint Patrick's Day New York parade: cartoon in Harper's Weekly of 17 February 1888. Will the Real St. Patrick Please Stand Up? Saint Patrick at The History Channel
SAINT PATRICK ONLINE: (in English translations): Letter to Coroticus Confessio Confessio (this site notes: Saint Patrick was not Irish. He was a British Celt, first enslaved in Ireland as a teen, later a missionary to Ireland. He was not necessarily the first missionary to Ireland. No one knows his birth or death date. 17 March is traditionally considered to be one of the two, but there is no documentation for this. The only documents about Patrick are his Confession and a letter he wrote to Coroticus. There were never snakes---or other reptiles---in Ireland for Patrick to chase out.) Breastplate of St. Patrick (hymn not by St. Patrick) Hymn of St. Patrick (by his nephew Secundinus).
which occurred on a March 17:
1987 PC-DOS version 3.3 released by IBM.
1935 Valerio Adami, pintor italiano.
1935 Luis Goytisolo, escritor español.
1933 Myrlie Evers-Williams, NAACP chairwoman
1927 Brandy, mucho brandy, de José Martínez Ruiz “Azorín”, se estrena en Madrid. El público arma un sonoro escándalo y muestra ostensiblemente su desagrado por la obra.
1914 Juan Carlos Onganía, político y militar argentino.
1910 Bayard Rustin, US civil rights activist who died on 24 August 1987.
1910 The Camp Fire Girls organization is formed. It would be presented to the public exactly two years later.
1897 Fox, mathematician.
1876 Esclangon, mathematician.
1874 Stephen Samuel Wise US, president of Zionist Org of Americaife)
1874 Kincsem horse that never lost a race [but did it run in any?]
1861 Italia, el estado: el Parlamento subalpino consagra el nacimiento del nuevo Estado italiano. Aparece el primer número de la Gazzeta Ufficiale, que publica el decreto para conceder a Víctor Manuel II el título de rey de Italia.
1858 Irish Republican Broterhood (IRB) se funda, más tarde llamada Hermandad Republicana Irlandesa, base histórica del IRA.
1851 Julien Dupré, French artist who died in April 1910. MORE ON DUPRÉ AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1849 Charles Brush, 6/15/1929 US inventor and industrialist who died on 15 June 1929. [NOT a co-founder of the Fuller Brush Company]
1846 Kate Greenaway, English artist and book illustrator who died on 06 November 1901.
1839 René-François-Armand Sully Prudhomme, poeta francés, premio Nobel de Literatura en 1901.
1834 Gottlieb Daimler Germany, engineer/inventor/auto pioneer. primer constructor del motor de explosión para automóviles.
1806 Louis Haghe, Belgian artist who died on 09 March 1885.
1785 Adolf Carl Senff, German artist who died on 21 March 1863.
1777 Roger Brooke Taney, 5th chief justice of the US Supreme Court (28 March 1836 – 12 October 1864); infamous for the pro-slavery Dred Scott decision (1855) . Taney died on 12 October 1864.
1686 Jean-Baptiste Oudry, French artist specialized in Animals who died on 30 April 1755. MORE ON OUDRY AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1685 Jean-Marc Nattier, French painter specialized in portraits, who died on 07 November 1766. MORE ON NATTIER AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1591 Gerard Seghers (or Zegers), Flemish artist who died on 18 March 1651. MORE ON SEGHERS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1578 Francesco Albani, Italian artist who died on 04 October 1660.
1473 James IV, Rey de Escocia.