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• Soap bubble theorem... • American Express is founded... • Capital Cities and ABC merge ... • GM acquires Opel... • GM founder dies… • Raid on mainland China from Formosa... • John Updike is born... • Wells Fargo founded... • Microsoft Windows 3.1... • MS home banking plan... • Injunction against Alta Vista Technology.... • Anti~Communist coup in Cambodia... • US bombs Cambodia... • US concentration camps for innocent Japanese~Americans... • Tornado kills 695... • Stamp Act is repealed... • UK martyrizes workers... • First Axis war council... • Calhoun is born... • Hawaiian statehood... • Hockey puck kills girl...
| On a March
2003 The first annual Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award for Literature (for children and for the rights of children) is announced to be awarded on 04 June to Austrian Christine Noestlinger (The Fiery Frederica — Conrad the Factory-Made Boy) and to the US's Maurice Sendak (Where the Wild Things Are). They will share the 5 million kronor ($583'850) prize established in memory of the author of the Pippi Longstocking books, Astrid Lindgren [14 Nov 1907 – 28 Jan 2002]
[click for another Wild Things picture at ART “4” MARCH]
— Litteraturpriset till Astrid Lindgrens minne år 2003 CHRISTINE NÖSTLINGER OCH MAURICE SENDAK DELAR DET FÖRSTA LITTERATURPRISET — Juryns motivering är:
“Christine Nöstlinger (Österrike) är en pålitlig ouppfostrare av Astrid Lindgrens kaliber. Hennes mångskiftande och djupt engagerade författarskap är präglat av respektlös humor, klarsynt allvar och lågmäld värme och hon ställer sig oreserverat på barnens och de marginaliserades sida.”
“Maurice Sendak (USA) är den moderna bilderbokens portalgestalt. Som ingen annan har han utvecklat bilderbokens unika möjligheter att berätta - till glädje för ständigt nya bilderbokskonstnärer. Och han är en av de modigaste utforskarna av barndomens mest hemlighetsfulla skrymslen - till glädje för ständigt nya läsare.”
Litteraturpriset till Astrid Lindgrens minne har instiftats av den svenska regeringen och är ett årligt internationellt barn- och ungdomslitteraturpris. Priset på fem miljoner kronor (€540'000) kan gå till författarskap, illustratörskap och läsfrämjande insatser i Astrid Lindgrens anda. Utdelningen av litteraturpriset sker vid en ceremoni på Skansen i Stockholm den 4 juni 2003.
2002 The stock of Nortel Networks Corporation (NT) falls to its lowest price since December 1995, to $4.64 intraday, because of poor prospects due to weak spending by network carriers. The stock sold as high as $124 in recent years. [5-year price chart >] . It would close at $2.35 on 18 March 2003, after having traded as low as $0.44 on 10 October 2002.
2001 El socialista Bertrand Delanoë, candidato de la coalición de izquierda (PSF-Verdes) a la alcaldía de París, se proclama vencedor en la segunda vuelta de las elecciones municipales y consigue romper con más de un siglo de dominio de la derecha en la capital francesa.
2000 Taiwan ends more than a half century of Nationalist Party rule, electing Chen Shui-bian, leader of the Progressist Democratic Party which favors Taiwan's formal independence from mainland China.
2000 Soap bubble theorem. ^top^
Mathematicians announce the proof of Plateau's conjecture that two joined soap bubbles are portions of spheres separated by part of a sphere that bulges into the bigger bubble.
Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (born 18011014 Brussels, died 18830915 Ghent) was a physicist who is best remembered in mathematics for Plateau Problems. He used a solution of soapy water and glycerine and dipped wire contours into it, noting that the surfaces formed were minimal surfaces. He was blind for the last 40 years of his life after he experimented by staring at the Sun for 25 seconds.
Plateau did not have the mathematical skills to investigate the problem theoretically but Weierstrass, Riemann and Schwarz worked on minimal surfaces problems, some of which were later solved by Douglas and Radó. Plateau wrote some mathematical work on number theory and wrote a joint article with Quételet.
| 1999 The Kosovar Albanian delegation signs a US-sponsored
peace accord following talks in Paris; the Clinton administration warns
that NATO would act against Serb targets if Yugoslav ruler Slobodan Milosevic
doesn't accept the agreement.
1997 Las excavadoras israelíes comienzan a preparar el terreno para construir el barrio judío de Har Homá en zona árabe ocupada próxima a Jerusalén, una decisión rechazada o condenada por casi todo el mundo.
1996 Rejecting an insanity defense, a jury in Dedham, Mass., convicts John C. Salvi III of murdering two women in a pair of attacks at two Boston-area abortion clinics in 1994.
1992 La población blanca de Sudáfrica con derecho a voto apoya la política reformista del presidente Frederick Willem de Klerk.
1991 Results from a nonbinding referendum in the Soviet Union show overwhelming support for preserving the union, a victory for Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev. However, in a boost for Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin, voters in his republic also endorse electing the federation president by direct ballot.
1990 Los candidatos de los frentes nacionalistas de Letonia y Estonia vencen en las elecciones celebradas en ambas repúblicas soviéticas.
1990 First free elections in East Germany, Conservatives beat Communists.
1988 Declaración soviético-yugoslava al finalizar la visita del dirigente Mijail Sergeievich Gorbachov al país balcánico, en la que se considera superado el conflicto de Stalin con Tito de 1948.
1986 François Mitterrand nombra primer ministro a Jacques René Chirac, cuyo partido ganó las elecciones en Francia. De esta forma, el país galo tiene un presidente socialista y un jefe de Gobierno conservador (es la cohabitación).
1986 US Treasury Departement announces plans to alter paper money.
1973 Estado de sitio en Phnom Penh (Camboya) después del bombardeo del palacio presidencial de Lon Nol por un avión pilotado por Norodom Sihanuk.
1943 La Guayana francesa se une a la Francia Libre.
1937 Encíclica Divini Redemptoris de Pío XI contra el ateísmo comunista.
1931 El rey Alfonso XIII concede el indulto al capitán Sediles, condenado por los sucesos ocurridos en Jaca.
1930 Pluto discovered by Clyde Tombaugh (US)
1920 Greece adopts the Gregorian calendar
1915 Turkey's Canakkale (Trojan) Sea Victory against allied powers (USA, Australia, England, Italy) during First World War.
1895 200 Blacks leave Savannah, Georgia, for Liberia
1885 Se alza en Valencia el último cadalso para ejecutar en público a un condenado a muerte.
1871 Estalla en París el movimiento revolucionario conocido por el nombre de La Comuna.
1865 Wilson's Raid to Selma, Alabama begins
1865 Confederate Congress adjourns
1862 George W. Randolph named Confederate Secretary of War
1859 Vera Cruz besieged by Miramón (Cons) in Mexican War of Reform.
1839 Se ratifican los tratados que ponen fin a la Guerra de los Pasteles, conflicto entre México y Francia.
1808 Continúa el Motín de Aranjuez, levantamiento popular provocado por el descontento con el gobierno de Manuel de Godoy y Alvarez de Faria (una sola persona con demasiados nombres) y la evidente huida de la familia real española.
1785 Se prohíbe el vals en Viena mediante un edicto imperial.
1783 Carlos III deroga un mandamiento de Juan II, rey de Castilla y León, fechado en 1417, que prohibía a los caballeros el ejercicio de oficios bajos o viles, entre los que se cita una serie de artesanías y el comercio de provisiones y especias.
1543 de Soto observes first recorded flood in America (Mississippi R)
1526 François I regresa a París, tras el cautiverio sufrido en Madrid después de la batalla de Pavía.
1123 The First Lateran Council opened in Rome. It was the Ninth Ecumenical Council, and the first one to be held in the West. Lateran I settled the right of investiture (i.e., the right to choose replacement clergy) by a treaty between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. A instancias del papa Calixto II, se inaugura en la basílica de San Juan de Letrán de Roma el Primer Concilio de Letrán.
0731 St Gregory III begins his reign as Pope
0417 Saint Zosimus is consecrated bishop of Rome (and therefore Pope)
which occurred on a March 18:
2004 Jacqueline Contreras, 22, from lung and extremities burns, and fractures suffered in one of the 11 March 2004 terrorist attacks on trains in Madrid, of which she becomes the 202th dead victim. She was from Chanchamayo province, Peru, and had been in Spain for two years, working as a servant to a lawyer couple and planning to study law.
2004 Ali Abdel Aziz, shot from behind by US troops manning a checkpoint in central Baghdad, Iraq, as the car (clearly marked “TV”) in which he was drives away while another car speeds through the checkpoint and the soldiers fire on both cars. He was a cameraman for Dubai-based satellite television channel Al Arabiya, whose correspondent Ali al-Khatib, in the same car, is critically wounded and dies the next day.
2004 Mohammed Farhan (or Mohamad Ahmad), Majid Rashid, and Nadia Nasrat (or Nadia Shawkat), respectively security guard, technician, and reporter of Diyala Television, as gunmen in a car, east of Baquba, Iraq, fire at the minibus taking them to work, in the morning. The other 8 Diyala employees in the minibus are wounded. The International Federation of Journalists protests against this and the above killings.
2004 Two US soldiers, by mortar rounds fired at Logistics Base Seitz, of the 13th Corps Support Command, in Balad, Iraq. 6 US soldiers are wounded.
2004 Four Iraqi civilian men and one boy, by parked car bomb in Basra, Iraq, as British military patrol passes by and is unhurt.
2003 Louis Jones, Jr., by lethal injection, for the 18 February 1995 kidnapping from the San Angelo, Texas, Air Force base, rape, and beating to death with a tire iron of woman Pvt. Tracie Joy McBride, 19. In 1993, Jones was honorably discharged, as a master sergeant, after 22 years in the US Army. He was a decorated veteran of the Gulf War. In December 2000, after his conviction, the Pentagon informed Jones that he, along with about 130'000 other soldiers, may have been exposed to low levels of nerve gas from a weapons depot which US troops destroyed near the southern Iraqi city Khamisiyah in March 1991. During his trial, defense experts testified that Jones suffered brain damage from abuse as a child. Since the 2001 resumption of US federal executions, this is the third. The first two were those of Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh and narcotrafficker Juan Garza.
2003 Walanzo Deon Robinson, 31, by lethal injection, in Oklahoma, for the 19 May 1989 murder of rival drug dealer Dennis Hill, 26. Robinson, who was 18 at the time, and Hill were arguing over who could sell cocaine on a northeast Oklahoma City street corner when Robinson pulled out a handgun. Robinson shot Hill, 26, in the back as he tried to run away, then shot him twice more as he lay in the street asking someone to call an ambulance.
2003 Nasser Assida, 27, Hamas militant, shot, between village Al-Funduk and enclave settlement Immanuel, by Israeli troops who were hunting for him. In August 1998, he was one of the gunmen who attacked the enclave settlement Yitzhar, killing two guards. In December 2001, Asssida planned and participated in an attack on a bus heading to Immanuel, in which 11 civilians were killed. In July 2002, his cell killed nine persons at the same place. The next day, his cell encountered a troop of soldiers in a wadi near Immanuel and an Israeli officer was killed in the clash.
2003 Senior Hamas militant Ali Alan; and Israeli Sergeant Major Ami Cohen, in predawn gunfight while Israeli troops search a home in Beit Jala, West Bank, unaware that Alan was there. The Israelis arrest his father, mother, and brother. More than 50 Israelis have been killed in attacks organized by Alan, including the most recent bus bombing in Haifa, and attacks at the Pat Junction and the Kiryat Menachem neighborhood in Jerusalem.
2003 Ibrahim Barhum, 20, Palestinian, by Israeli gunfire, as he stands at the entrance of his home near Rafah, Gaza Strip.
2003 Nabil Wazan, 22, Palestinian, of wounds sustained the previous day during Israeli attack on Nusseirat refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2003 Fahd ibn Samran al-Sa'idy, 28, by explosion of a bomb in a Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, house in which police would find 20 kg of powerful explosives, a large stash of guns and ammunition, chemicals with an analysis laboratory, money and false identity papers. He was known to have been trained in arms and explosives in Afghanistan and was under surveillance by the police.
2003 Ronald Horsch, 65, from the US; William Sivell, 45, a Canadian rig manager; and Yemenis Nazem al-Kabati, who was an assistant mechanic, and Naji Abdullah al-Kumaim, approximately 43, a carpenter, who shoots them and then himself. Horsch, a US Hunt Oil superintendent and the others murdered were working in Marib province, Yemen, on a rig owned and operated by the Nabors Drilling Company, of which Sivell and the Yemenis were employees. Al-Kumaim, who was suffering from depression and yells that he is taking revenge “against those who were filing reports about him”, shoots Horsch and Sivell (and Canadian Mark Edwards, who survives critically injured) then flees, pursued by al-Kabati, whom he shoots, them commits suicide.
2002 Brittanie Cecil, from hockey puck injury.
Brittanie Cecil [photo >] dies two days after being struck in the head by a puck at an NHL hockey game at Nationwide Arena in Columbus, Ohio. Her father had taken her to the game as an early present for her 14th birthday, 20 March 2002. They were sitting behind one of the goal areas, which does not have protective netting as in some arenas. A puck flew over the 2.4-meter-high protective plexiglas enclosure, hit Brittanie on the head, ricoched to the side of the head of Larry Young, 61 (who was hurt, but not severely), and then to the mouth of a 6-year-old girl, who caught the puck, which had split her lip and knocked out a tooth. Brittanie remained conscious as her mom and dad helped her to walk to the aid station and then as an ambulance took her to Children's Hospital.
Brittanie lived in West Alexandria, a small farming town of 1500, and was an eighth-grader at Twin Valley South Middle School near Dayton.
The coroner would deduce from the autopsy that when she was hit with the puck, her head snapped back in a type of whiplash action and caused damage to her right vertebral artery. But she did not show any symptom of a rupture to the vertebral artery — lethargy, slurred speech, partial facial paralysis — until she lapsed into unconsciousness at 09:00 today. Then the hospital did an angiogram and discovered the injury to the artery, which runs along the spine and pumps blood into the brain. The rupture had caused a clot to form in the artery, leading to more clots and a swelling of the brain that results in her death later in the day.
2002 Maud Farris-Luse, in Michigan, born on 21 January 1887.
2002 Mohammed Abu Obeid, 26, Palestinian militant of the military wing of Fatah, by Israeli army gunfire in a clash Monday night near the Kissufim checkpoint in the Gaza Strip.
2002 Suleiman a-Zari'i, 50, Palestinian, by Israeli gunfire, in Dir al-Balah, adjacent to Gush Katif.
2001 Stella Riehl, 69, in Amtrak train derailment between Brooks and Nodaway, Iowa. She was returning home to Colorado Springs with the ashes of her brother Antoni Miszuk, 71, who had died in a Des Moines nursing home on 15 March, a few hours before she arrived to visit him.. They had immigrated from Prdy, Poland, in the 1950s. Some 90 of the 210 passengers on the train were injured.
2000 Big Mama, 25, halibut, and 19 other fish of the California Fish Hatchery in Redondo Beach, speared, cooked, and served at a birthday party by a very drunk Taras Poznik, 24. On 11 April 2000, he would be sentenced to 6 months in prison, 6 months in an alcoholism-treatment center, and to pay $50'000 to replace Big Mama (a sum he most likely will not be able to come up with). The murder of Big Mama, a 23-kg prolific egg-layer and a favorite of visitors, causes more outrage in the community than any murder of a human.
1998 One Kosovar shot by Serb police, during protests in Pristina. Several demonstrators are wounded.
1993 Dahlia Alvarez, stabbed, in El Paso, Texas. The murderer is not discovered, at least during the next 11 years.
1989 Jeffreys, mathematician.
1989 Francisco García Pavón, escritor español.
1986 Bernard Malamud, novelist and short story writer, born on 26 April 1914 in Brooklyn, son of Russian Jewish immigrants. About his novels: The Natural (1952) is an allegory about the rise and fall of a baseball player.. The Assistant (1957), his best novel, is about a Jewish grocery store owner (as Malamud's father Max was) and his Italian assistant during the Depression. The Fixer (1966) is inspired by the 1913 trial and acquittal of Jewish Mendel Beiliss fro ritual murder in Kiev. The Tenants through the conflict of a Jewish and a Black writer treats of the cultural and psychological upheaval among Blacks caused by the rise of nationalism, separatism and racial pride. God's Grace is concerned with man's survival in the nuclear age.Other novels are A New Life (1961) and Dubin's Lives (about a biographer in midlife). Story collections are The Magic Barrel, Idiots First (1963), Pictures of Fidelman, Rembrandt's Hat, The Sories of Bernard Malamud (1983), Story Story Story.
1983 Humberto II de Saboya, último rey de Italia.
1980 Erich Fromm, German-born US psychoanalyst and social philosopher (Sane Society). He was born on 23 March 1900.
1965 Faruk I, rey de Egipto.
1965:: 14 soldados colombianos en un convoy militar en Inzá asaltado por guerrilleros de las FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia), al mando de Manuel Marulanda “Tirofijo”.
1964 Norbert Wiener, mathematician.
1937 More than 400 persons, mostly children, in a gas explosion at a school in New London, Texas.
1934 Juan José Mingolla “Pasos Largos”, célebre bandido español, es muerto por la Guardia Civil, tras un vivo tiroteo en la serranía de Ronda (Málaga)
1922 Edward Arthur Walton, British painter born on 15 April 1860. — more with link to an image.
1913 King George I of Greece assassinated by Schinas, un desequilibrado, en Salónica.
1912: 26 persons by a locomotive which explodes in the Southern Pacific Railroad yards in San Antonio, Texas, as stem pressure is increased during repairs. Some of those killed are in a house 600 meters away, into which a 400-kg piece of the locomotive crashes. 32 persons are seriously injured.
1907 Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot, químico francés.
1900 John Bailey, Black, lynched in Cobb County, Georgia, accused of attempted rape of a White woman.
1871 Augustus De Morgan, 64, mathematician.
1870 Joaquín Gaztambide y Garbavo, Spanish composer, born on 07 February 1822, who wrote 44 zarzuelas, including La Mensajera (1849), En las Astas del Toro, Catalina, El Juramento, Las Hijas de Eva, Los Magyares.
1844 Sebastien Pether, British artist born in 1790
1584 (Julian date: go to 28 March Gregorian) Ivan IV Vasilyevich Grozniy (The Terrible).
1455 Giovanni da Fiesole, Fra Angelico, Italian painter born in 1387. MORE ON FRA ANGELICO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1314:: 39 French Knights Templars, including Jacques De Molay, 70, their last grand master, are burned at the stake. Most church history experts agree that these and other hostilities shown against the Knights Templars were caused by the greed and cunning of Philip the Fair, who sought the great wealth this medieval military religious order had amassed in the enturies following the Crusades.
1216 Inocencio III, papa.
0978 St Edward the Martyr king of Anglo-Saxons (975-78), assassinated.
which occurred on a March 18:
1949 Rodrigo Rato y Figaredo, político español, vicepresidente segundo y ministro de Economía.
1936 F.W. de Klerk, 1993 Nobel peace laureate and former South African president.
1932 John Updike poet/novelist (Rabbit Run)
1929 Fidel Ramos, político y militar filipino, presidente del país.
1928 Hans Kung, teólogo suizo.
1928 José María Setién, obispo de San Sebastián
1927 George Plimpton, author.
1927 Muhammad ben Ahmed Abdelghani, político argelino.
1911 Gabriel Celaya, poeta español.
1911 Walter Ledermann, mathematician.
1910 Chiang Ching-kuo, son of Chinese generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and his successor as leader of China. He died on 13 January 1988.
1899 Lavrenti Beria chief of Soviet secret police under Stalin.
1892 Adolf Richard Fleischmann, German artist who died in 1968 or 1969.
1891 Shewhart, mathematician.
1881 Barnum and Bailey's Greatest Show on Earth opens.
1875 Beppe Ciardi, Italian artist who died in 1932.
1869 Neville Chamberlain (C) British PM (1937-40). He proclaimed peace in our times obtained at the cost of betraying Czechoslovakia to appease Hitler at Munich in 1938. His our times only lasted a few months, until Hitler decided to gobble up Poland too. Chamberlain died on 09 November 1940, having outlived his our times by only a couple of months.
1863 William Sulzer, New York governor (1913); impeached and removed from office. He died on 06 November 1941.
1862 Eugene Fredrik Jansson, Swedish painter who died on 15 June 1915. — more with link to an image.
1860 Arthur Neville Chamberlain, estadista británico.
1858 Rudolph Diesel, German thermal engineer; he invented the internal-combustion engine. He died on 29 September 1913. inventor del motor de combustión interna que lleva su nombre.
1853 Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss Art Nouveau painter, who died on 19 May 1918. MORE ON HODLER AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1842 Stéphane Mallarmé‚ French poet. MALLARME ONLINE: MALLARMÉ ONLINE: (French original, page images): L'après-midi d'un faune : églogue -- L'après-midi d'un faune : églogue -- Préface à Vathek -- Album de vers et de prose -- Pages...
1839 Barbier, mathematician.
1838 Sir Randal Cremer Britain, trade unionist, pacifist (Nobel 1903)
1837 Grover Cleveland (22nd [1885-1889] and 24th [1893-1897] US President, only one to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms; only president to be married in White House; the first to have a child born there. He died on 24 June 1908.
1834 First railroad tunnel in US is completed, in Penn (275 m long)
1822 (1824?) Johannes Hendrik Weissenbruch, German painter who died on 15 February 1880. — more with links to images.
1813 Coal gas making apparatus, patented by David Melville, Newport, RI.
1798 Francis Lieber, German-born US political philosopher and jurist who died on 02 October 1872. LIEBER ONLINE: Manual of Political Ethics (page images).
1796 Jakob Steiner, mathematician.
1690 Goldbach, mathematician.
1640 La Hire, mathematician.
1609 Frederick III king of Denmark and Norway (1648-70); absolutist
1602 Billy, mathematician.
1548 Cornelis Ketel, Flemish painter who died on 08 August 1616. MORE ON KETEL AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1452 Amerigo Vespucci (navigator: said to be the first to discover America: it was actually the coast of South America including Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina )