• Great painter of candlelight scenes is born... • One million Jeeps... • A constitution for East Germany... • Balzac play opens to empty house... • Western artist Russell is born... • IBM plans System/360... • More South Korean troops to Vietnam... • National emergency in Cambodia... • Plotter against Hitler is executed... • Argentina tries for the Falklands... • Gambling in Nevada... • First US air combat mission... • First US bank robbery... • Född Johannes Magnus, Sveriges ärkebiskop...
a March 19:
2003 Late the previous day, Orthodontic Centers of America (OCA) reported 2002 earnings lower than in 2001, particularly for the 4th quarter, attributing the decline to litigation with some of the 364 affiliated practices to which it provides business services. On the New York Stock Exchange, 8 million of the 51 million OCA shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $9.57 to an intraday low of $5.37 and closing at $5.64. They had traded as high as $29.65 as recently as 11 April 2002 and $34.88 on 11 September 2000.. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 The voting of the 900'000 stockholders of the Hewlett-Packard Company is finalized on the proposed $21 billion acquisition of Compaq Computer Corporation, favored by HP management, but opposed by the Hewlett and the Packard families. The close vote ends up approving the acquisition, which would become known only weeks later after careful recounting.
1998 La Guardia Civil española asesta un duro golpe a ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) al detener a once miembros del comando "Araba", uno de los más activos de la organización terrorista, y confiscarles abundante armamento y material explosivo.
1997 El Gobierno italiano decreta el estado de emergencia hasta el 30 de junio para afrontar la llegada masiva de refugiados albaneses.
1990 Latvia's political opposition claimed victory in the republic's first free elections in 50 years.
1987 Jim Bakker, 48, stepped down as head of the PTL ministry amid disclosures of a 1980 sexual liaison with church secretary Jessica Hahn and a related money scandal. (PTL was not intended to mean "Pass The Loot" but "Praise The Lord")
1985 IBM discontinues its junk, chiclet-keyboard PC Jr., of which it had sold only 240'000 during its 16 months on the market. [photo >]
1984 Irak y Jordania firman un tratado de delimitación de fronteras.
1982 Argentina tries to reconquer the Falkland Islands ^top^
Following the failure of Argentinean diplomatic efforts to reclaim the Falkland Islands from the British, an Argentine warship lands a party of "scrap dealers" on South Georgia Island, a dependency of the Falkland Islands British crown colony. The Argentine scrap dealers, known as such for their poor economic condition, plant the Argentinean flag on the scarcely populated island and reclaim it from the British.
The Falklands Islands, known as the Islas Malvinas to South Americans, are located some eight hundred kilometers east of Argentina in the Atlantic Ocean. There are two large islands, East and West Falklands, and some two hundred small ones that make up the Falklands. South Georgia Island is located some 2200 km east of the Falklands. The British have long claimed South Georgia and the Falklands, based on their discovery by British navigator John Davis in 1592, but they have also been claimed and occupied at various times by Spain, France, and Argentina. In 1832, a seizure of the a US vessel near the Falklands led to a US military expedition to the area, and the British responded by formally claiming sovereignty and occupying the Falkland and South Georgia islands.
In 1981, Argentina petitioned the United Nations for possession of the Falkland Islands, but the U.N. failed to comply, so in March 1982, Argentine dictator General Leopoldo Galtieri sent a party of civilians to South Georgia to reclaim the island. On April 2, this preliminary operation was followed by a full-scale military invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentine forces. When diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict failed, Britain sent a task force of thirty warships with supporting aircraft to the islands, and within six weeks had completely routed the Argentines, who surrendered on June 14, 1982. Some one thousand people died as a result of the Falklands War. In 1989, the approximately 2000 residents of the Falkland Islands reaffirmed their allegiance to Britain by rejecting a pro-Argentina political party.
| 1973 Dean tells Nixon, "There is a cancer growing on
1962 Por los acuerdos de Evián, Francia decide otorgar la independencia a Argelia, proclamada el 03 Jul.
1945 Adolf Hitler issues his so-called "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German facilities that could fall into Allied hands.
1944 II Guerra mundial: los alemanes ocupan Hungría.
1942 FDR orders men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
1938 Guerra civil española: el Gobierno de Burgos concede a la ciudad de Teruel los títulos de "abnegada y mártir".
1937 Pius XI declares in the encyclical Divini redemptoris: 'There would be neither Socialism nor Communism today if the rulers of the nations had not scorned the teachings and material warnings of the Church.
1934 La Cámara de Representantes de los EE.UU. aprueba la concesión de la independencia a las islas Filipinas.
1931 Se crea el partido político Esquerra Republicana de Cataluña durante la Conferencia d'Esquerra.
| 1920 US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for 2nd
time refusing to ratify League of Nations' covenant (maintaining isolation
policy), by a vote of 49-35, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed
1918 The US Congress authorizes time zones and approves daylight saving time
1917 The US Supreme Court upholds the eight-hour work day for railroads.
1913 Ocupación de Tetuán por las tropas españolas, durante la guerra de Marruecos.
1873 Se produce un terremoto en San Salvador.
1865 Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, begins Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
1863 Marriage of Princess Alexandra Oldenburg of Denmark [01 Dec 1844 – 20 Nov 1925] to the future Edward VII [09 Nov 1841 – 06 May 1910] — about a commemorative painting.
1822 Boston, Mass incorporated as a city.
1818 Acción de Cancha Rayada, por la independencia de Chile: dos mil españoles, mandados por Osorio, ponen en fuga a 13'000 soldados y diez mil caballos de las tropas de San Martín y O'Higgins.
1775 El sultán de Marruecos levanta el sitio que había puesto a Melilla.
1775 4 people buried by avalanche for 37 days, 3 survive (Italy)
1812 Se promulga la Constitución de 1812, primera en la historia de España.
1808 Carlos IV, rey de España, abdica y deja la corona a su hijo Fernando VII.
1641 A General Court ended which declared the Colony of Rhode Island a democracy. The Court also adopted a constitution granting religious freedom to all its citizens.
1565 La expedición del navegante y conquistador español Miguel López de Legazpi a Filipinas descubre la isla de Bohol, de la que aquél toma posesión en nombre de Felipe II.
1563 The Edict of Amboise granted a limited amount of freedom to French Protestants, thereby ending the First Huguenot War. Se firma la paz de Amboise, por la que se pone fin a la primera guerra de religión entre los hugonotes y los católicos franceses.
1179 Se pone fin al Tercer Concilio de Letrán, tercer concilio ecuménico (universal) celebrado por la Iglesia de Occidente.
--721 -BC- first recorded lunar eclipse. Location, Babylon
which occurred on a March 19:
2004 George Elias Khouri, 20 [photo >], in the evening as he jogged in Jerusalem's French Hill district, near Hebrew University, was shot in drive-by militants of al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, and dies soon afterwards. George Khouri, an economics student at Hebrew University, was the son of prominent Israeli-Arab lawyer Elias Khouri, a well known activist for the Palestinian cause, who has often represented Palestinian militants jailed by Israel, and whose father was among 14 people killed in a Palestinian bomb attack Zion Square in central Jerusalem in 1975. The next day the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades announce: “"The fighters thought that he was a settler jogging in an area full of settlers. It was a mistake and we extend our apology to his family" and "We will consider him as a martyr like hundreds of Palestinians killed by Israeli occupation forces."
2004 Ali al-Khatib, from wounds sustained the previous day when he was shot from behind by US troops manning a checkpoint in central Baghdad, Iraq, as the car in which he was drove away. He was a correspondent for Dubai-based satellite television channel Al Arabiya, whose cameraman Ali Abdelaziz, in the same car, was killed immediately.
2003 Zion Boshirian, 50, Israeli, shot in the head, in the afternoon, by gunmen of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, near Jenin, between the West Bank enclave settlements and Shaked and Movo Dotan, to which he was driving home alone, from his place of work as a tax adviser in Hadera.
2002 Tal Tzemach, 20 [< photo], Israeli lieutenant, and Ahmad Atik and Salah Kamil, of the military arm of Hamas, from nearby Jenin, who, in the early morning, fire their Kalashnikov rifles from a distance of about 30 meters at Tzemach (who is from Kibbutz Hulda) and 14 other Israeli soldiers from an elite (?!) unit camped out for the third night in the same spot of Hamam al-Malih area in the northern Jordan Valley, without adequate sentries. Within 10 minutes, Israeli reinforcements start arriving, then kill the assailants. The Israeli brigade headquarters had received specific warnings about the infiltration of two terrorists in this area several hours before the attack, but this information did not reach the soldiers in the field.
2002 Amjad al-Alami, 22, Palestinian journalist, shot by Israeli troops while standing outside his photography shop in Beit Omar, north of Hebron, West Bank.
2002 Marco Biagi, 51 [photo >], shot by two gunmen on a motorcycle as he arrived at his Bologna home on his bicycle at about 20:30. An economist and law professor at the University of Modena, he was an advisor to the Italian center-right government's labor minister, Roberto Maroni, of the anti-immigrant Northern League. The previous week, the cabinet had approved Biagi's proposals to amend the current labor law, to make it easier to fire workers. His last editorial, headlined "Chi frena le riforme è contro l'Europa," was published the very same day in Milan's Il Sole 24 Ore. Previously, other Italian government economy advisers have been the victims of attacks. To mention only two that were fatal: Ezio Tarantelli, professore di Economia del lavoro alla Sapienza e sindacalista della Cisl, fu ucciso nella notte tra il 26 e il 27 marzo 1985 in un attentato rivendicato dalle Brigate Rosse. Il 20 May 1999 Massimo D'Antona, 51 anni, fu freddato da due killer con tre colpi di pistola al torace. D'Antona, docente di diritto del lavoro all'Università La Sapienza, era stato sottosegretario ai Trasporti nel Governo Dini e aveva collaborato con il ministro del Lavoro Treu. Bassolino gli aveva affidato l'incarico di coordinare sia la commissione di esperti per la riforma degli ammortizzatori sociali sia il comitato consultivo per la riforma della legislazione del lavoro. L'omicidio D'Antona fu rivendicato dalle Brigate RossePartito Comunista Combattente, e D'Antona era indicato come uno dei protagonisti della politica economica del Governo.
2002 Khattab, Saudi Chechen Resistance leader, by the Russian secret service by means of a poisoned letter.
2002 Suzanne Bartlett, 39, beaten with an iron pestle and strangled with a computer cord by her husband Lt. Col. David Bartlett Jr., 46, branch chief of the operations research group at the Center for Strategic Leadership at the US Army War College, as the was harassing him, calling him insulting names, and shoving him, after several days of quarelling about his viewing pornography on the Internet. At his court martial on 30 September 2002 he would, in a plea agreement, plead guilty to unpremeditated murder and be sentenced in October 2002 to prison for life without the possibility of parole..
2001 Baruch Cohen, 58, Israeli resident of the West Bank enclave settlement of Efrat, near Bethlehem, shot as he was driving. Since the beginning of the al-Aqsa intifada, 430 people have been killed, including 352 Palestinians, 59 Israeli Jews, and 19 others.
2001 Charles K. Johnson, 76, a retired aircraft mechanic for Pan Am, president of the Flat Earth Society (the Earth is a disk with the North Pole at the center and ice along the circumference, no Antarctica) [July 1980 article on his beliefs].[critical quoting of some Flat Earth vituperations]
1999 Al menos 60 personas por una bomba que explota en el mercado central de Vladikavkaz, capital de la república rusa de Osetia del Norte. Causa heridas a más de 100 personas.
1999 José Agustín Goytisolo, poeta español.
1997 Willem de Kooning, 92, in East Hampton, NY, Dutch US Abstract Expressionist painter born on 24 April 1904. MORE ON DE KOONING AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1994 José Coronel Urtecho, poeta nicaragüense.
1988 Two British soldiers, shot after they were dragged from a car and beaten by mourners attending an Irish Republican Army funeral in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
1987 Louis de Broglie, 94, French mathematician, physicist (Nobel 1929) Premio Nobel de Física 1929 por sus investigaciones acerca del comportamiento ondulatorio del electrón.
1984 Un supuesto agente de los GAL (Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación) es destrozado en Biarritz al estallar un coche-bomba.
1978 Gaston Julia, mathematician.
1945 Some 800 killed in Kamikaze attack of USS Franklin off Japan The ship is saved.
1930 Arthur James Balfour, 81, British Foreign Secretary.
1922 Mathews, mathematician.
1918 Edward William Stott, British artist born in 1859. [All weigh Stott from what he always taught.] LINKS
1896 George Richmond, English painter born on 28 March 1809. — more with links to images.
1862 Wilhelm Friedrich Schadow, German artist born on 06 September 1862. — more with link to an image.
1687 Robert Cavelier [LaSalle] French explorer murdered in what is now TX
1685 Sluze, mathematician.
1677 Anthonie van Borssom (or Borssum), Dutch artist born in 1631. [Does his artwork bore some people? Is that why I cannot find any example of it on the internet?]
which occurred on a March 19:
2003 Licensed to Kill Inc., receives its corporate certification from the Virginia State Corporation Commission, which says that it is required to accept any application for incorporation as long as the application meets certain basic requirements, the proposed name isn't already used by another company, and the applicant pays the filing fee. The consumer activist group Essential Action made the application just to show how easy it is to incorporate a company in the US and how the government has literally given corporations a license to do whatever they want, regardless of the threats to public health and safety. It chose Virginia because the state is biased in favor of the tobacco industry. According to the filing, Licensed to Kill was created expressly for "the manufacture and marketing of tobacco products in a way that each year kills over 400'000 Americans and 4.5 million other persons worldwide." The Web site features a message purporting to be from Licensed to Kill's chairman and chief executive, Rich Fromdeth, and touts the company's cigarette brands, including Global Massacre, Genocide, Serial Killer, WOMD (short for Weapon of Mass Destruction), and, “coming soon”: Throat Hole, Chemo, Grim Reaper, Morgue. — LTK Articles of Incorporation (PDF)
2001 The Pentium 3 microprocessor for notebook computers is introduced by Intel, their fastest (1 Ghz) mobile microprocessor to date. At this time, their fastest microprocessor for desktops, the Pentium 4, runs at 1.5 Ghz.
1951 The Caine Mutiny, Herman Wouk's war novel, is published.
1943 Mario Molina, químico y físico estadounidense de origen mexicano de origen, Premio Nobel de Química 1995, por sus investigaciones sobre la capa de ozono.
1933 Philip Roth, author.
1928 Hans Kung theologian.
1918 Eduardo Mendoza Varela, poeta y periodista colombiano.
1916 José Cepeda Adán, historiador español.
1913 Hernán Siles Zuazo, presidente de Bolivia.
1910 Jacob Wolfowitz, mathematician.
1906 Adolf Eichman Ruhr Germany, Nazi Gestapo officer, criminal against humanity. Israel would kidnap him in South America where he was hiding after WW II, judge him, and, on 31 May 1962, hang him.
1905 Albert Speer, German Nazi minister for war production. He would be sentenced to 20 years in prison at the Nuremberg war crimes trial, and die on 01 September 1981.
1904 John J. Sirica, United States district court judge; presided at trial of Watergate burglars (1973). He died on 14 August 1992.
1903 La Verdad, periódico de Murcia, que sigue publicándose en la actualidad, publica su primer número.
1900 Frederic Joliot-Curie, French Nobel Prize-winning physicist; shared prize with his wife, Irene. He died on 14 August 1958. Named after them is the curie unit of measurement of radioactivity. In modern nuclear physics it is precisely defined as the amount of a substance in which 37 billion atoms per second undergo radioactive disintegration. A curie was originally defined as the amount of radon in equilibrium with 1 g of radium, or the amount of any radioactive substance that undergoes the same number of radioactive disintegrations in the same time as 1 g of radium. So defined, the unit is still used as a measure of radiation dosage in medicine. In the International System of Units, (SI) the becquerel is the preferred unit of measure for radioactivity. One curie equals 3.7 x 10^10 becquerels.
1892 James Van Fleet, US commander who led troops in Normandy on D-Day (06 June 1944) in World War II. He died on 23 September 1992.
1891 Earl Warren Cal, (Gov-R-Cal) / 14th US Supreme Court chief justice (05 October 1953 – 23 June 1969). He died on 09 July 1974.
1891 Joseph Sima, French artist who died on 24 July 1971.
1864 Charles Marion Russell, great US Western artist, in St. Louis, Missouri MORE ON RUSSELL AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1862 Kneser, mathematician.
1862 Ruggero Panerai, Italian artist who died on 26 October 1923.
1860 William Jennings Bryan , Democratic and Populist leader, "The Great Commoner" orator/statesman, gifted orator and three-time presidential candidate was born in Salem, Illinois. Trained as a lawyer, Bryan never abandoned his Midwestern values. His deeply held religious beliefs and his consistent defense of the ordinary American earned him the moniker "the Great Commoner." Defense lawyer Clarence Darrow made a monkey of him in the Monkey Trial in which Brian, as prosecutor, attacked the theory of evolution. He died shortly afterwards on 26 July 1925.
1851 Roque Saenz Peña, president of Argentina (1910-1914)
1849 Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral and chief builder of German navy before World War I. He died on 06 March 1930. A powerful German battleship was named after him and commissioned in February 1941. The Tirpitz spent its last year in repairs and being subject to Allied bombing, which finally destroyed it on 12 November 1944.
1848 Wyatt Earp, US frontiersman; became lawman and gambler. He died on 13 January 1929.
1847 Albert Pinkham Ryder, US painter who died on 28 Mar 1917. — links to images.
1843 Joseph Wopfner, Austrian artist who died on 23 July 1927.
Les Ressources de Quinola, play by Balzac, opens to empty house.
French writer Honoré de Balzac's play Les Ressources de Quinola opens to an empty house thanks to a failed publicity stunt. Hoping to create a buzz for the play, the writer circulated a rumor that tickets were sold out. Unfortunately, most of his fans stayed home. By this time, Balzac was already a well-known literary figure.
Born in Tours, France, on 20 May 1799, Balzac was educated in Paris, where he started writing plays at the age of 20 while working as a lawyer's apprentice. His plays bombed, and he took to writing thrillers under an assumed name. Needing money, he launched disastrous ventures in printing and silver mining and went bankrupt. While struggling under his debts, he resumed writing, and by 1829 he was publishing under his own name, convinced that he was a genius. By 1830, he had become a celebrated writer who frequented literary salons. Balzac drove himself ruthlessly, working 14 to 16 hours at a stretch, aided by some 50 cups of coffee a day. He completed 90 novels, all part of a single series, La Comédie Humaine, and died in Paris in on 18 August 1850 at age 51. He helped to establish the orthodox classical novel and is generally considered to be one of the greatest fiction writers of all time.
Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 1,
Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 2,
Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 3,
Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 3-4,
Etudes de moeurs. 1er livre, Scènes de la vie privée. T. 4,
Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 1,
Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 2,
Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 3,
Etudes de moeurs. 2e livre, Scènes de la vie de province. T. 4,
Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. T. 1,
Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. T. 2,
Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. T. XI (sic),
Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes.
Etudes de moeurs. 3e-4e livres, Scènes de la vie parisienne et scènes de la vie politique. T. XII (sic),
| Etudes de moeurs. 5e livre, Scènes de la vie
militaire et scènes de la vie de campagne.
Etudes de moeurs. 6e livre, Scènes de la vie militaire et scènes de la vie de campagne.
Etudes philosophiques. T. 1,
Etudes philosophiques et études analytiques.
Etudes de moeurs. 3e livre, Scènes de la vie parisienne. Les parents pauvres. 1,
Scènes de la vie parisienne. Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. 4,
Scènes de la vie politique. L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine.
Scènes de la vie de campagne.
Scènes de la vie parisienne. Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. 4,
Scènes de la vie politique. L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine. 2,
IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
| 1821 Sir Richard Burton, (in Trieste to expatriate English
parents) English scholar, Orientalist, explorer, writer, and translator.
He was the first European to discover Lake Tanganyika and to go into hitherto
forbidden Muslim cities. He wrote 43 books about his explorations and almost
30 of translations, including an unexpurgated Arabian Nights. Burton
died on 20 October 1890. Not to be confused with the unrelated British
actor Richard Burton (real name Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.,
10 Nov 1925 05 Aug 1984) BURTON ONLINE: The
Jew, the Gypsy, and El Islam The
Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi (Translator of:) The
Arabian Nights The
Arabian Nights Catullus's Carmina
and the Vampire: Classic Hindu Tales of Adventure, Magic, and Romance
and the Vampire: Classic Hindu Tales of Adventure, Magic, and Romance
(Co-translator of:) Priapeia
(with the Latin)
1813 David Livingstone, Scottish missionary, writer, translator, explorer: the Livingstone of "Dr. Livingstone, I presume," spoken by Henry M. Stanley who found Livingstone in Africa after a two year search. Livingstone ceased living in this world on 01 May 1873. LIVINGSTONE ONLINE: Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa A Popular Account of Dr. Livingstone's Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries, and of the Discovery of Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864
1809 (Julian date: go to 31 March Gregorian) Nicolay Vasilyevich Gogol.
1807 Louis Pierre Verwee, Belgian artist who died in November 1877.
1803 Felice Schiavoni, Italian artist who died on 30 January 1881.
1803 Christine Marie Lovmand, Danish artist who died on 10 April 1872.
1775 Ramsay Richard Reinagle, British painter who died on 17 November 1862. — more with link to images.
1769 Jacques François José Schwebach Desfontaines, French artist who died on 10 December 1823.
1748 Elias Hicks, US Quaker minister; advocated the abolition of slavery He died on 27 February 1830.
1712 or 1711 Carl Gustav Pilo, Swedish artist who died on 02 March 1792. — more with links to images.
1681 Hendrik van Limborch (or Limborgh), Dutch artist who died on 03 February 1759.
1604 Juan IV, rey de Portugal.
1601 Alonso Cano, Granada, Spain, painter, sculptor, architect who died on 03 September 1667. MORE ON CANO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1593 Georges de La Tour, French painter who died on 30 January 1652. MORE ON DE LA TOUR AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1591 Dirk Hals, Dutch painter who died on 17 May 1656. MORE ON HALS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.