• Inflationary budget slightly trimmed... • Pope mourns Holocaust... • Give me liberty or give me death... • Fascist Party is founded... • Star Wars defense... • Mexican President~to~be assassinated... • Mormon who massacred wagon train is executed... • Studebaker~Packard seeks merger... • Zeppelin factory formed… • Chilean government murderers sentenced... • Thomas Harris's novel Hannibal... • Lewis and Clark head home... • WordStar wants to buy Delrina... • IBM underestimates System/360 demand... • US domain name proposal criticized... • Deposed Cambodian Red Prince tries for come~back... • US plane shot down over Laos... • Défaite piémontaise à Novare... • SS soldiers killed by Italian partisans... • The slaughter of the lambs...
|On a 23 March:|
2003 Referendum in Chechnya, rigged by the Russian occupiers, purports to show that the majority of Chechens does not want to by free and independent, but prefers to be subjects of the Russian Federation.
2002 Hundreds of thousands demonstrate in Rome to protest Premier Silvio Berlusconi's efforts to make it easier to fire workers, and to denounce the 19 Mar 2002 assassination of Marco Biagi, government adviser who advocated Berlusconi's labor reform.
2001 As planned, the Russian orbiting space station Mir returns to Earth, breaks up in the atmosphere, and the debris fall into the South Pacific. The first element of Mir was launched on 20 February 1986. [photo >] Con una demora de algunos días sobre los primeros cálculos, se produce la caída controlada de la estación orbital Mir sobre el Pacífico.
2001 Death penalty for innocent lambs. ^top^
US Federal officials seize a flock of sheep feared infected with a version of mad cow disease.
The 126 East Friesian milking sheep, are owned by Larry and Linda Faillace of East Warren, Vermont. Heartbhroken, the three Faillace children Jackie, Francis and Heather each held young lambs marked with red dye for removal. Neigbors and their children gathered to protest.
The sheep, imported from Belgium and the Netherlands in 1996, were placed under certain federal restrictions when they entered the country as part of USDA's scrapie control efforts. In 1998, USDA learned that it was likely that sheep from Europe were exposed to feed contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. At that time, the state of Vermont, at the request of USDA, imposed a quarantine on these flocks, which prohibited slaughter or sale for breeding purposes.
[< photo: Weeping, Mary Jo Cahilly-Bretzin, 8, carries out the last lamb to a waiting federal stock truck at the Faillace farm in East Warren, Vermont]
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) is a class of degenerative neurological diseases that is characterized by a very long incubation period and a 100% mortality rate. Two of the better known varieties of TSE are BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease) in cattle and scrapie in sheep. Unlike BSE, there is no evidence that scrapie poses a risk to human health. Based on current testing methodology, there is no way to determine whether the sheep have BSE or scrapie.
On 14 July 2000, USDA issued a declaration of extraordinary emergency to acquire the sheep. This action was contested by the flock owners. A federal district court judge ruled in favor of USDA based on the merits of the case. The flock owners appealed to the Second Circuit Court requesting a stay, which was denied. The sheep will be transported to USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa, where they will be humanely euthanized. Tissue samples will be collected from the sheep for diagnostic testing. The owners will be compensated for the fair market value of the sheep.
The first such seizure of any US farm animals took place two days earlier in Montpelier, Vermont, when Houghton Freeman's flock of 233 sheep was taken away. On July 10, 2000, four sheep from this flock tested positive for TSE.
Another flock of 21 sheep from the same family of sheep was voluntarily turned over to government officials in the summer of 2000 by their Lyndonville owner. The sheep were destroyed.
The human version of BSE, which like the animal version has a lengthy incubation period, has killed almost 100 people in Great Britain since 1995, when it nearly wiped out the British beef industry (as it was recovering, it was devastated again in 2001 by foot-and-mouth disease). Scrapie has been in the United States since at least 1947, but there are no known domestic cases of mad cow disease. Destroying the sheep would eliminate them as a possible source of BSE. BSE has been transmitted to sheep experimentally through the feeding of small amounts of infected cattle brain. Testing to determine whether the Vermont sheep have scrapie or BSE wirr take two to three years to complete.
More on this Silence the Lambs operation.
Backgrounder on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (PDF)
|2000 The Pope mourns
the Holocaust ^top^
In March of 2000, Pope John Paul II conducted an historic week-long pilgrimage to the Holy Land, visiting several sites in Israel for the first time including the location in Bethlehem believed to be the birth place of Jesus.
In Jerusalem, the Pope visited Yad Vashem, Israel's main Holocaust memorial, to pay tribute to the six million Jews killed by the Nazis from 1938-45. During the Nazi era, the Pope had been a seminary student in his native country of Poland, which was also the location of the largest Nazi death camps including Auschwitz, Treblinka and Majdanek. Jewish friends and neighbors of the Pope had been killed by the Nazis.
At Yad Vashem, the frail Pope first laid a wreath in the Hall of Remembrance at a massive granite slab that covers the cremated remains of some of the unidentified Jews killed in death camps. He then ceremoniously lit the eternal flame. Among those present during the ceremony was Israel's Prime Minister, Ehud Barak, whose mother's parents had been killed at Treblinka. Also in attendance were 50 Holocaust survivors, including 13 originally from the Pope's hometown of Wadowice, Poland, several of whom remembered the Pope as a child. The entire event was broadcast live on Israel's two major TV networks.
The Pope's visit was not without controversy, however, as debate continues in Israel and elsewhere over whether or not the Catholic Church owes an apology to Jews for failing to sufficiently come to their aid during the Holocaust. During the Nazi era, Pope Pius XII never spoke out publicly against the ongoing extermination of Europe's Jews, despite his awareness of the death camps.
At Yad Vashem, Pope John Paul II stopped short of making the apology some had hoped for, but also moved several of the Jews at the ceremony to tears.
| 1999 La Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo
ratifica en Viena el nuevo recorte mundial de producción de 2,1 millones
de barriles de crudo diarios para forzar un aumento de su precio.
1998 El presidente de Rusia, Boris Nikolaievich Yeltsin, destituye de manera inesperada al primer ministro, Viktor Chernomirdin, y a todo su gabinete, y abre la carrera por su sucesión al frente del Kremlin.
1997 Miles de manifestantes, convocados por la organización Coordinadora Gesto por la Paz de Euskal Herria, piden en San Sebastián (España) el final de la violencia de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) y la liberación del funcionario de prisiones José Antonio Ortega Lara (431 días secuestrado) y del empresario Cosme Delclaux (132 días).
1990 Lothar de Maiziere, presidente de la CDU de la RDA, acepta el encargo de formar el primer Gobierno democrático del país tras su victoria en las elecciones del 18 marzo.
1990 Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood was sentenced by a judge in Anchorage, Alaska, to help clean up Prince William Sound and pay $50'000 in restitution for his role in the 1989 oil spill.
1989 Se legaliza el derecho a la huelga en Hungría, segundo país de la Europa del Este, tras Polonia.
1989 2 Utah scientists claim (falsely) that they have produced nuclear fusion at room temperature.
1987 Willy Brandt dimite como presidente del Partido Socialdemócrata Alemán. Le sucede Hans Jochen Vogel.
1966 Archbishop of Canterbury Arthur Michael Ramsey met and exchanged public greetings with Pope Paul VI in Rome. It was the first official meeting between heads of the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches in over 400 years.
1956 Sudan becomes independent.
1942 Japanese forces occupy Andaman Islands in Indian Ocean
1942 During World War II, the abusive US government begins moving Japanese-Americans, innocent of any crime, from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
1933 The German Reichstag adopts the Enabling Act, which effectively grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers.
1929 First telephone installed in White House.
1925 Tennessee becomes first state to outlaw teaching theory of evolution
| 1919 Bashkir ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted.
1918 Lithuania proclaims independence. Proclamación de la independencia de Letonia.
1903 Wright brothers obtain airplane patent.
1901 Estados Unidos entrega a España el precio de la venta de las islas de Joló (Filipinas).
1873 Slavery is abolish in Puerto Rico.
1862 Battle of First Kernstown, Virginia Jackson begins his Valley Campaign.
1832 British Parliament passes reform bill
1808 Napoléon's brother Joseph takes the throne of Spain
Patrick Henry voices American opposition to British policy
During a speech before the second Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry [29 May 1736 – 06 Jun 1799] responds to the increasingly oppressive British rule over the American colonies by declaring, "I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!"
Following the signing of the American Declaration of Independence on 04 July 1776, Patrick Henry was appointed governor of Virginia by the Continental Congress. The first major American opposition to British policy came in 1765 after Parliament passed the Stamp Act, a taxation measure to raise revenues for a standing British army in America. Under the banner of "no taxation without representation," colonists convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the tax. With its enactment on 01 November 1765, most colonists called for a boycott of British goods and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1765, and most colonists quietly accepted British rule until Parliament’s enactment of the Tea Act in 1773, which granted the East India Company a monopoly on the American tea trade. Viewed as another example of taxation without representation, militant Patriots in Massachusetts organized the "Boston Tea Party," which saw British tea valued at some ten thousand pounds dumped into Boston harbor. Parliament, outraged by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant destruction of British property, enacted the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, in the following year. The colonists subsequently called the first Continental Congress to consider a united American resistance against the British. With the other colonies watching intently, Massachusetts led the resistance to the British, forming a shadow revolutionary government and establishing militias to resist the increasing British military presence across the colony. In April 1775, Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, ordered British troops to march to Concord, Massachusetts, where a Patriot arsenal was known to exist. On 19 April 1775, the British regulars encountered a group of American militiamen at Lexington and the first volleys of the American Revolutionary War were fired.
Note: In March of 1770, the English, had, in fact, abolished all the duties it had imposed, except that on tea. Quite aside from the rumblings coming from the colonies, these duties were being felt at home. The Townsend duties had an impact on the British commercial classes, for, there was a decline in exports. Even the tax on tea was reduced so as to cure the smuggling problem. At these lower rates, this tea tax would likely have been tolerable in the colonies, except for this: in May of 1773 the East India Company had been given authority to sell its tea free of duty except that which was to be sold in North America. In December of 1773, there then occurred the Boston Tea Party. In response, England, in 1774, passed a number of acts including The Boston Port Act, The Quartering Act and The Massachusetts Government Act. The effect of these acts was to close Boston to foreign traffic, change the government and the courts of justice of Massachusetts and to legalized the quartering of British troops in colonial homes. The aim of these measures was to curb rebellion. In return the civilian leaders of the colonies met at Philadelphia, on 05 September 1774: The first Continental Congress. It passed five measures affecting the relations of the colonies with the mother-country. It forbade the import of English wares and ordered the cessation of all exports to Great Britain, unless they were to be given redress of the colonial grievances prior. Further, it approved of the opposition offered to the late acts of Parliament by the people of Massachusetts Bay. It then issued proclamations to the colonies, both north and south, which called for their support.
Thus, it was, that on 23 March 1775, at Virginia, the largest British colony in America, and with the greatest ties and more English-like then any of the other colonies, a meeting of its delegates took place in St. John's church in Richmond. A number of the delegates were abhorred by the notion that they should take steps which might lead to war with the mother-country. The resolution was presented by Patrick Henry. Before the vote was taken, he delivered a speech in support. He stood; silent at first, then spoke quietly and proceeded gradually to increase his speech in force and in loudness reaching at the end a crescendo that still echoes and will likely always echo in the hearts of men.
1851 painting by Peter Frederick Rothermel:: Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses of Virginia, Delivering his Celebrated Speech Against the Stamp Act
|1766 Empieza en Madrid el Motín de Esquilache, revuelta
popular en Madrid en protesta por la política del ministro de Carlos III,
el marqués de Esquilache.
1752 Pope Stephen II elected to succeed Zacharias, died 2 days later.
1657 France and England form alliance against Spain; England gets Dunkirk.
1568 Se produce la batalla de Lonjumeau, por la que se puso fin a la segunda guerra de religión entre los hugonotes y los católicos franceses.
1540 In a show of growing support for Henry VIII, Waltham Abbey in Essex became the last monastery in England to transfer its allegiance from the Catholic Church to the newly established Church of England.
1534 El papa Clemente VII declara excomulgado a Enrique VIII de Inglaterra si persiste en divorciarse de Catalina de Aragón.
1508 Capitulaciones de Fernando el Católico con Juan Díaz de Solís y Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, por las que éstos se comprometen a tratar de buscar un estrecho entre el Atlántico y el Pacífico.
1066 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
0752 Stephen II is unanimously elected Pope. His pontificate will end with his death on 27 March 752, after he suffers “apoplexy” (a stroke) on 26 March 752.
which occurred on a March 23:
Master Sgt. Robert J. Dowdy, 38, of Cleveland, the 507th's first sergeant,
mechanical maintenance supervisor.
Pfc. Ruben Estrella-Soto, 18, of El Paso, automated logistics specialist,
was a graduate of Mountain View High, where he played football.
Pfc. James Kiehl, 22, of Comfort, Texas, computer repair technician.
Pfc. Howard Johnson II, 21, of Mobile, Ala.,
automated logistics specialist.
Kiehl's wife, Jill, who lives with her parents in Des Moines, Iowa,
is expecting the couple's first child, a boy due the last week of April 2003.
Pfc. Lori Ann Piestewa, 22, of Tuba City, Ariz., automated logistics specialist.
She was a Hopi, the youngest of four children. She was one of very few Amerindian women
in the US armed forces and is believed to be the first to die as a result of combat.
Pvt. Brandon U. Sloan, 19, of Bedford Heights, Ohio, automated logistics specialist.
Chief Warrant Officer Johnny Villareal Mata, 35,
of Pecos, Texas, maintenance officer.
Sgt. Donald R. Walters, 33, of Salem, Ore.. cook and mechanic.
He was an aspiring writer of children's books, served in the first Persian Gulf war,
then left the military in 2001. He re-enlisted in the Army in the summer of 2002,
to give his family a better life.
The nine, who are among 18 soldiers of the vehicle repair 507th Maintenance Company from Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas; and Sgt. George E. Buggs, 31, and Spc. Edward John Anguiano, 24, both of the 3rd Infantry Division Support Battalion; all in a US Army convoy of six vehicles which is traveling north on Iraqi Highway 1 on its way to supply an antiaircraft battery. At 01:00, at Souq al-Shuyuk, the convoy takes a wrong turn off Highway 1, into Nassiriya. As they approach the town, they realize their mistake and make a U-turn and are attacked by rockets and small-arms fire from by two Iraqi T-55 tanks and an infantry company. The eight are killed either fighting or murdered after being taken prisoner. The US convoy's first two vehicles — a Humvee and a tool truck — get separated from the four other vehicles. An Army captain drives the Humvee carrying three wounded soldiers through the gunfire. 6 km further the bullet-riddled tires go flat. As the captain begins changing the tires, a US Marine patrol sees it and calls in a medevac helicopter, which evacuates the captain and his wounded soldiers. A few hours later, four of the dead Marines are shown on Qatar-based al-Jazeera satellite television, together with the 5 taken prisoner [photos below, Sgt. James Riley, 31, is first at left; Specialist Joseph Hudson 585650287, 23, from El Paso is 3rd; Pfc. Patrick Miller, 23, is 4th; Edgar Hernandez, 21, wounded, is 5th], of which some are wounded and one is a woman [Shosawna Johnson, 30, cook, wounded in the foot, second from left] (These 5 would be freed on 13 April 2003, near Samarra, when Iraqi guards, their officers having fled, would bring them to US troops advancing towards Tikrit).The US makes the dubious claim that the TV broadcast violates the 12 August 1949 3rd Geneva Convention, the one relative to the treatment of prisoners of war (particularly Articles 13 and 14). One US soldier, Pfc. Jessica Lynch, 19, a supply clerk, suffers fractures of both legs and of her right forearm, and spine injuries, and is taken prisoner but not shown on TV. She would be freed from a hospital (equipped with ammunition, mortars, military maps) in Nasiriya, Iraq, on 01 April 2003 by a US special forces helicopter raid acting on a tip from Muhammad, a humane Iraqi lawyer. The bodies of the eight dead US soldiers are found, some in the hospital's morgue and most in a nearby shallow grave.
1999 Marist Brother Raymond Foster is found dead by suicide, hanging from a sheet at a Marist Brothers retirement home in Mittagong, Australia, at about 07:00. He was to face extradition proceedings the next day on five charges of indecent assault on a child at Chanel College, Gladstone, Queensland, Australia, in the early 1970s.
1993 Hans Werner Richter, escritor alemán.
1993 Mousa Sulaiman Abu Sabiha, 21, murdered in the Sweisa neighborhood of Hebron, West Bank, by Jewish enclave settler Yoram Shkolinik, who would be sentenced to life in prison, but released in March 2000 by Israeli President Ezer Weizman [15 Jun 1924~].
1992 Friedrich von Hayek, británico de origen austriaco, padre del neoliberalismo económico, Premio Nobel de Economía 1974.
Barney Clark, first to receive an artificial heart.
Dentist Barney Clark, 61, dies 112 days after becoming the world's first recipient of a permanent artificial heart. He spent the last four months of his life in a hospital bed at the University of Utah Medical Center in Salt Lake City, attached to a 350-pound console that pumped air in and out of the aluminum-and-plastic implant through a system of hoses. In the late 19th century, scientists began developing a pump to temporarily supplant heart action. In 1953, an artificial heart-lung machine was employed successfully for the first time during an operation on a human patient. In this procedure, which is still used today, the machine temporarily takes over heart and lung function, allowing doctors to operate extensively on these organs. After a few hours, however, blood becomes damaged by the pumping and oxygenation. In the late 1960s, hope was given to patients with irreparably damaged hearts when heart-transplant operations began. However, the demand for donor hearts always exceeded availability, and thousands died every year while waiting for healthy hearts to become available. On April 4, 1969, a historic operation was performed by surgeon Denton Cooley of the Texas Heart Institute on Haskell Karp, a patient whose heart was on the brink of total collapse and to whom no donor heart had become available. Karp was the first person in history to have his diseased heart replaced by an artificial heart. The temporary plastic-and-Dacron heart extended Karp's life for the three days it took doctors to find him a donor heart. However, soon after the human heart was transplanted into his chest, he died from infection.
Seven more failed attempts were made, and many doctors lost faith in the possibility of replacing the human heart with a prosthetic substitute. In the early 1980s, however, a pioneering new scientist resumed efforts to develop a viable artificial heart. Robert K. Jarvik had decided to study medicine and engineering after his father died of heart disease. By 1982, he was conducting animal trials at the University of Utah with his Jarvik-7 artificial heart. On 02 December 1982, a team led by Dr. William C. DeVries implanted the Jarvik-7 into Barney Clark. Because Jarvik's artificial heart was intended to be permanent, the Clark case drew worldwide attention. Clark spent his last 112 days in the hospital and suffered considerably from complications and the discomfort of having compressed air pumped in and out of his body.
He dies on 23 March 1983, from various complications. Clark's experience left many feeling that the time of the permanent artificial heart had not yet come. During the next decade, Jarvik and others concentrated their efforts on developing mechanical pumps to assist a diseased heart rather than replace it. These devices allow many patients to live the months or even years it takes for them to find a donor heart. Battery powered, these implants give heart-disease patients mobility and allow them to live relatively normal lives. Meanwhile, in the 1990s, the Jarvik-7 was used on more than 150 patients whose hearts were too damaged to be aided by the mechanical pump implant. More than half of these patients survived until they got a transplant.
Jarvik and others went on to work to develop smaller and more efficient mechanical pump implants. A company called AbioMed developed the AbioCor, a new permanent artificial heart. This "total replacement" device, is powered by an internal battery and does not require air pumps, thus promising unprecedented mobility to recipients.
| 1963 Skolem,
1961 Mason, mathematician.
1953 Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist painter born on 03 June 1877. MORE ON DUFY AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1946 Francisco Largo Caballero, político socialista español que llegó a ser presidente del Gobierno
1946 Alberto Ghiraldo, escritor argentino.
1945 Los japoneses realizan una matanza de españoles en Manila.
1932 Boris Schatz, Russian Israeli artist born on 23 December 1867. — more
1801 Pablo Petrovich I, zar de Rusia.
1770 Martin Mytens (or Meytens) II, Swedish artist born on 24 July 1695.
1678 Cornelis Gerritszoon Decker (or Dekker), Dutch artist born in 1625.
1661 (burial) Pieter de Molyn, Dutch landscape painter born on 06 April 1595. MORE ON DE MOLYN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1640 Symon Jordaens, Flemish artist born in 1690.
1555 Julio III, Papa.
which occurred on a March 23:
1937 Robert Gallo, médico estadounidense, codescubridor del virus del SIDA.
1936 Jannis Kounellis, Greek artist. LINKS
1919 Los Fasci di combattimento se fundan en Milán, siguiendo una iniciativa de Benito Mussolini.
1912 Werner von Braun Wirsitz Germany, (scientist: developer of WWII German V-2 rocket, head of US Army missile team; technological leader of American space program)
1903 Alejandro Casona, dramaturgo español.
1900 Erich Fromm Frankfurt, Germany, US psychoanalyst and social philosopher (Sane Society). He died on 18 March 1980.
1897 Synge, mathematician.
1893 Lydia Newton, in Illinois, who would live (in Arizona) past her 2004 birthday.
1889 Yukichi Chuganji, in Fukuoka prefecture, Kyushu island, Japan. He would become a silkworm breeder, a bank employee, and, later, a community welfare officer. At the 03 January 2002 death of Italian shepherd Antonio Todde (born 22 January 1889), Chuganji became the oldest living man in the world, and would live (at least) past his 114th birthday, at which time the oldest living woman in the world was Kyushu woman Kamato Hongo, born on 16 September 1887.
1887 Sidney Hillman, US labor leader and one of the founders of the C.I.O. He died on 10 July 1946.
1887 Juan José Victoriano González Gris, Spanish Cubist painter and sculptor who died on 11 May 1927. MORE ON GRIS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1887 Josef Capek, Czech painter, printmaker, illustrator of children's book, and writer, who died in early April 1945 in the Nazis' Bergen-Belsen death camp. — more with links to images.
1882 Emmy Noether, mathematician.
1881 Roger Martin du Guard, France, novelist (Les Thibault Nobel 1937). He died on 22 August 1839.
1878 Waka Shirahama, Japan, who would die on 16 June 1992.
1874 Joseph Christian Leyendecker, US illustrator who died in 1951. — links to images.
1874 Henri-Charles Manguin, French Fauvist painter who died on 25 September 1949. MORE ON MANGUIN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1857 Alphonse Osbert, French Symbolist painter who died in 1939. MORE ON OSBERT AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1839 Otto Eerelman, Dutch artist who died in 1926.
1816 John Frederick Kensett, US Hudson River School painter, specialized in landscapes, who died on 16 December 1872. — more with links to images.
1814 Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, poetisa española.
1809 Hippolyte-Jean Flandrin, French artist who died on 21 March 1864. MORE ON FLANDRIN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1795 Holmboe, mathematician.
1763 Andries Meulen (or Vermeulen), Dutch artist who died on 05 July 1814.
1754 Jurik Vega, mathematician.
1749 Pierre-Simon Laplace, mathematician, astronomer, physicist. He died on 05 March 1827 saying: Ce que nous savons est peu. Ce que nous ne savons pas est immense. [sans compter que ce que nos savons peuvent est peu.]
1746 Gérard van Spaendonck, French artist who died on 18 May 1822. — more
1651 Jean-Baptiste Santerre, French painter who died on 21 November 1717. MORE ON SANTERRE AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1584 La ciudad de Rey don Felipe, junto al río San Juan, en el Estrecho de Magallanes es fundada por Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.
1490 Mishna Torah of Maimonides, first dated edition.