• 9 innocent young Blacks on the way to the death penalty... • Day 1 of Christian Era... • Angel visits Mary and inspires artists... • Mexicans execute 17 Texan POWs... • US troops out of Somalia... • March on Washington... • UK abolishes slave trade... • Maryland settled... • First supersonic flight of Concorde... • Mount Rushmore sculptor is born... • Snoopy takes Linus's blanket... • Walter Chrysler resigns from GM… • USSR announces withdrawal from Iran... • Traîté de Rome... • The European Common Market... • US Customs seizes poem Howl... • Cheyenne Chief Little Wolf surrenders... • Johnson meets with the "Wise Men"... • Martin Luther King leads march against Vietnam War... • Workers die in fire of locked factory... • Yugoslavia joins the Axis...
| On a March
2001 Municipal elections in Ivory Coast, first vote to include all the country's main parties since a military coup in December 1999.
1998 El ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) y el Gobierno colombiano hacen público un acuerdo de paz.
1998 La Comisión Europea propone que once países (España, Alemania, Francia, Bélgica, Holanda, Luxemburgo, Finlandia, Austria, Suecia, Portugal e Irlanda) formen el núcleo fundador del euro, la moneda europea del siglo XXI, el próximo 01 Jan 1999.
1997 Las ciudades españolas de Toledo, Segovia, Córdoba, Ávila, Cáceres, Salamanca y Santiago de Compostela son declaradas Patrimonio de la Humanidad.
1996 A team of Princeton University researchers announced they had found a serious security flaw in Sun Microsystems' Java programming language on this day in 1996. Hackers exploiting the flaw could potentially use Netscape Navigator to destroy files or otherwise wreak havoc on personal computers running Java. Sun quickly acknowledged the problem and created a patch.
1996 Microsoft announced that more than one million subscribers had joined its online service, the Microsoft Network, since it went live in the fall of 1995.
1996 CompuServe starts WOW, a new online service aimed at families and home users, instead of their traditional business audience. The service, called WOW, featured parental controls over content. The $17.95 per month service launched at a time when online services were being threatened by the Internet. WOW folded after only eight months in service.
1996 US issues newly-redesigned $100 bill, more difficult to counterfeit.
1996 Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) approaches within 0.1018 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth.
1996 An 81-day standoff between the antigovernment Freemen and federal officers begins at a ranch near Jordan, Montana.
1995 Undécima encíclica del Papa Juan Pablo II, Evangelium Vitae, un llamamiento para defender la vida.
1994 Last US troops leave Somalia ^top^
At the end of a largely unsuccessful fifteen-month mission, the last US troops depart Somalia, leaving 20'000 U.N. troops behind to keep the peace and facilitate "nation building" in the divided country.
In January 1991, Siyad Barre, dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, was ousted by rebels after intense and bloody fighting. Ali Mahdi Muhammad of the United Somali Congress subsequently took control of the Somali capital at Mogadishu and the rest of the southern region of the country. The Somali National Movement gained control of the north, the old British Somaliland, and proclaimed the region the independent Somaliland Republic.
In 1992, civil war between the two Somalias, internal clan-based fighting, and the worst African drought of the century created a devastating famine which threatened one-fourth of the Somali population with starvation. In response, U.N. troops occupied Somalia in August 1992 to assure distribution of food aid and to suppress Somalia’s warring factions.
Although many of the U.N.’s temporary humanitarian aims were achieved, the military operation was largely unsuccessful, and in late 1992, US President George Bush sent 25'000 US troops into Somalia to bolster the U.N. force.
In 1993, the new US president, Bill Clinton, took over the mission but also the former president’s promise to withdrawal to the US troops as soon as the U.N. mission was stabilized. On May 4, the Somalia mission was formally handed back to the U.N. from the United States, and by June, only 1200 US combat soldiers remained in Somalia along with 3000 support troops.
However, on 05 June, twenty-four Pakistani soldiers were ambushed and massacred while inspecting a weapons storage site, allegedly under orders of Somali warlord General Hussein Mohammed Farah Aidid [< photo]. US and U.N. forces subsequently began an extensive search for the elusive strongman, and in August, some four hundred elite US troops from Delta Force and the US Rangers landed in Somalia with the mission to capture Aidid.
Two months later, eighteen US soldiers were killed and eighty-four wounded during a disastrous assault on Mogadishu’s Olympia Hotel in search of Aidid. The bloody battle, which lasted seventeen hours, was the most violent US combat firefight since Vietnam and resulted in the deaths of hundreds of Somalians. Three days later, with Aidid still at large, President Clinton decided to call off the US mission to Somalia. By 25 March 1994, the last US troops left the country, and, later in the year, the U.N. called off its peacekeeping mission to Somalia, completing its withdrawal by early 1995.
1992 British mathematicians find new largest prime number (2^756839 -1)
1992 Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returns to Earth after a 10-month stay aboard the Mir space station.
1991 Amadu Tumani Ture encabeza un golpe de Estado que derroca a Moussa Traore, presidente de Malí, con el objetivo de iniciar un proceso de democratización en el país.
1991 Leonard Rose, 32, of Middletown, Maryland, pleads guilty to felony computer-crime charges. He denies being a member of the Legion of Doom, a band of hackers notorious for computer break-ins, but admits to misappropriating and modifying a copy of UNIX without a license. The government accuses him of loading a Trojan horse virus into part of the UNIX program. Rose would be sentenced to two concurrent one-year prison terms.
1990 El PP (Partido Popular) consigue el escaño para el Congreso español y los dos para el Senado por Melilla, en la repetición de las elecciones del 29 de octubre en esa circunscripción, con lo que el PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) pierde la mayoría absoluta en el Congreso.
1987 Sexta encíclica del Papa Juan Pablo II, Redemptoris Mater, que versa sobre el papel de la Virgen María.
1986 Corazón Aquino, presidenta de Filipinas, promulga una nueva Constitución de carácter provisional hasta la realización de una formal.
1985 Edwin Meese III becomes US Attorney General.
1983 ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) secuestra a Diego Prado y Colón de Carvajal, ex presidente del Banco de Descuento.
1979 The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch, which would take place on 12 April 1981. On 01 February it would breakup during reentry at the end of its 28th mission.
1977 Juan Luis Cebrián Echarri, director del diario español El país, es procesado por un delito de propaganda de anticonceptivos.
1976 Argentine military junta bans leftist political parties.
1971 European council accepts Mansholt plan laying off 5 million farmers
1970 Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (1127 km/h) [photo >]. ^top^
Its prototype was first shown, in Toulouse, France, on 11 December 1967. Its first subsonic test flight was on 9 January 1969. It would be put into service on 21 January 1976 by Air France from Paris to Rio de Janeiro, and by British Airways from London to Bahrain. On 21 November 1977, after overcoming objections to its polluting effect, the Concorde would begin scheduled flights between New York and London or Paris, which remained its sole route after Paris-Rio, London-Bahrain, and other routes were dropped in 1982 due to their unprofitability.
The Concorde's specifications are:
Capacity: 100 passengers, and 590 kg of cargo / Seating: 100 x 2:2, with a 94 cm pitch / Range: 5943 km / Engines: Four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593s, each producing 38,000 lbs (170 KN) thrust with reheat / Take-off speed: 402 km/h / Cruising speed: 2150 kph / Mach 2 at 16'765 m / Landing speed: 300 km/h / Length: 62.1 m / Wingspan: 25.5 m / Height: 11.3 m / Fuselage width: 2.9 m / Fuel capacity: 119'500 liters / 95'600 kg / Fuel consumption: 25'629 liters / 20'500 kg per hour / Maximum take-off weight: 185 tons / Landing gear: Eight main wheels (tires 232 lbs sq in), two nose wheels (tires 191 lbs/sq in) / Flight crew: Two pilots, one flight engineer / Cabin crew: Six.
The Concorde would be taken out of service following the death of 113 persons in its first crash, on 25 July 2000.
1969 Pakistan General Agha Mohammed Jagja Khan succeeds Ayub Khan as President.
1969 Andes Pact signed in Peru.
1965 Martin Luther King Jr leads 25'000 marchers to the state capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks.
1965 West German Bondsdag extends war crimes retribution
1960 DH Lawrence' "Lady Chatterley's Lover" ruled not obscene (New York NY)
1960 Italian government Tambroni forms.
The first time Snoopy goes after Linus's blanket in the Peanuts
comic. [picture below] ^top^
| 1955 East Germany granted sovereignty by occupying
1945 US 4th Armored division arrives at Hanau & Aschaffenburg
1945 El general británico Bernard Law Montgomery comunica a sus tropas que les está prohibido confraternizar con la población alemana.
1944 RAF Sergeant Nicholas S. Alkemade survives a jump from his burning Lancaster bomber from 5500 m without a parachute. He was the tail gunner and his parachute was burning forward. He falls through trees onto snow on a steep hillside in Germany. His only injury is a twisted ankle suffered while leaving the plane. The Germans who capture him ask where he hid his parachute. When they finally believe his story, they give him a celebration..(some sources give the date as 23 March).
1935 1st Belgium government of Van Zealand resigns
| 1924 Greek parliament selects Admiral Paul Koundouriótis
as premier Proclamación de la República en Grecia.
1923 British government grants Trans-Jordan autonomy
1920 Greek Independence Day
1912 Redacción del Plan Orozquista, petición formal de la reforma social más amplia y general de toda la Revolución Mexicana.
1895 Italian troops invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1865 Battle of Mobile, Alabama, siege of Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely, begins.
1865 Battle of Bluff Spring FL.
1864 Attack on Paducah, Kentucky by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest
1863 Skirmish at Brentwood TN.
1847 Pope Pius IX encyclical On aid for Ireland.
1842 Marc Brunel finaliza, tras 18 años de trabajos de construcción, la perforación del túnel de 1100 m de longitud que pasa por debajo del Támesis y une Wapping con Rotherhithe. El túnel se ha perforado gracias al empleo del sistema de escudo por él inventado y más tarde servirá para el paso del ferrocarril metropolitano.
1835 Aparece el primer cuadernillo de los cuentos de Hans Christian Andersen.
1821 Greece gains independence from Turkey (National Day)
1820 Greeks revolt against Ottoman empire.
1813 Napoléon nomme douze évêques, ripostant ainsi contre la rétractation que, la veille, le pape Pie VII a fait du semblant de concordat en onze articles, que Napoléon lui a fait signer le 25 janvier 1813 à Fontainebleau.
France, Netherlands, Spain, and England sign Peace of Amiens
1789 Francisco de Goya y Luciente es nombrado pintor de cámara por Carlos IV. Nació el 30 marzo 1746 y murió el 13 Apr 1828. LINKS Carlos IV y su familia Carlos IV cazador
1753 Voltaire leaves the court of Frederik II of Prussia
1700 England, France, and Netherlands ratify 2nd Extermination treaty
1655 Christiaan Huygens discovers Titan (Saturn's largest satelite)
1634 The settlement of Maryland ^top^
The first colonists to Maryland land at St. Clement’s Island on Maryland’s western shore, and the town of St. Mary’s is founded.
In 1632, King Charles I of England granted a charter to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, yielding him propriety rights to a region east of the Potomac River in exchange for a share of the income derived from the land. The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, the queen consort of Charles I.
Before settlement began, however, George Calvert died and was succeeded by his son Cecilius, who sought to establish Maryland as a haven for Roman Catholics persecuted in England. In March 23, 1634, the first English settlers to Maryland--a carefully selected group made up of both Catholics and Protestants--arrived at St. Clement’s Island aboard the Ark and the Dove.
Religious conflict was strong in ensuing years as the American Puritans, growing more numerous in the colony and supported by Puritans in England, set out to destroy the religious freedom guaranteed with the founding of the colony. In 1649, Maryland Governor William Stone, under the direction of the second Lord Baltimore, passed an act ensuring religious liberty and justice to all who believed in Jesus Christ.
However, in 1654, the so-called Toleration Act was repealed after the Puritans seized control, leading to a brief civil war that ended with Lord Baltimore losing control of propriety rights over the colony in March 1655. Although the Calverts later regained control of Maryland, anti-Catholic activity persisted until the nineteenth century, when many Catholic immigrants to America chose Baltimore as their home and helped enact laws to protect their free practice of religion.
1609 Henry Hudson embarks on an exploration for Dutch East India Co.
1409 Council of Pisa opens.
1306 Robert the Bruce crowned king of Scotland.
1133 William the Conqueror orders 1st Domesday Survey of England.
0708 Constantine begins his reign as Pope.
0433 Saint Patrick arrives in Ireland.. [< picture]
0031: 1st Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus.
which occurred on a March 25:
Mary Goldstein, 11, and at least 145 others in fire of locked garment factory.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Company was typical of the garment shops that packed New York City's Lower East Side in the early 1900s: staffed primarily by young, female immigrants, the factory lacked basic safety measures like fire escapes and working exit doors. These conditions, clearly ripe for disaster, did indeed lead to trouble on this day in 1911. During the afternoon, a pile of rags in the shop burst into flames; the fire quickly, and tragically, engulfed the factory. Effectively trapped inside the flaming building, many of the workers either expired from asphyxiation or leapt from windows, a fatal, ten-story fall. The blaze, which lasted less than an hour, claimed 146 lives, marking one of the worst fire-related industrial disasters in America's history. The Triangle Shirtwaist tragedy shed a harsh light on the hazardous conditions that factory owners had allowed to exist in the name of industrial capitalism. It also galvanized various portions of the public, as reformers, workers, and survivors of the fire banded together to push for factory reform. The state government heeded this call and passed a set of laws aimed at safeguarding workers' health and safety. Along with this landmark legislation, workers also won a modicum of justice: the owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist were eventually found guilty on charges of manslaughter.
The last survivor, Rose Freedman, died on 15 February 2001, at age 107. She had survived the fire by running up one flight of stairs, to the top floor. That's where the company executives worked, and she figured they would have a way to escape. She was right. Rather than unlocking any of the doors below to save the women, the executives had fled to the roof, from which they were rescued. The tenth floor of the factory housed the offices of company executives, the switchboard, 40 garment pressers and the packing and shipping room. After receiving a warning call from the 8th floor most were able to escape over the roof to the adjacent New York University building with the aid of faculty members and students. Of the 70 people on that floor, all were saved but 1. [photos of Rose Freedman>]
Paqualina Russo, 19, also made it to the rooftop and jumped to safety onto another building. Sarah Dubow (Sorenson) was even luckier: she had the day off.
But the 240 employees sewing shirtwaists on the ninth floor had their escape blocked by back-to-back chairs and workbaskets in the aisles. The 25-meter-long paired sewing machine tables obstructed essential access to the windows, stairs, and elevators.
In the ensuing years, Rose Freedman spoke out about the conditions that led to the fire. Company executives tried to buy her silence; she refused. Freedman went on to attend college, get married, and raise a family. After almost a century, she found herself back in the spotlight as the oldest survivor of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. She gave speeches and granted interviews and was featured in a documentary about her life that aired on many US public television stations in early 2001.
Here is the list of those who died, most of them at the scene, the severely injured were taken to hospitals, were some of them died after a few hours, and one died the next day at St. Vincent's Hospital: Sara Kupla, who had a fractured right leg (plus probably some internal injuries). With her, the list totals 154 fatalities, possibly due in part to some inadvertent duplications (Sara and Serafina Saracino #115 and 116, Sprunt and Gussie Spunt #130 and 131 ?).
| 1910 Kálmán Mikszáth, 63, Hungarian author (Szent Péter
1880 Valentín Carderera y Solano, pintor, arqueólogo y escritor español.
1874 Hermania Sigvardine Neegard, Danish artist born on 12 August 1799.
1873 Wilhelm Marstrand, Danish artist born on 24 December 1810. — more with links to images.
1865: Some 400, as SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire and sinks.
1818 Wessel, mathematician.
1801 Friedrich Leopold, (Freiherr) von Hardenberg “Novalis”, of tuberculosis, born on 02 May 1772, early German Romantic poet and theorist who greatly influenced later Romantic thought. Author of Hymnen an die Nacht (1797), Glauben und Liebe oder der König und die Königin (1798), Die Christenheit oder Europa (1799), Geistliche Lieder (1802), Heinrich von Ofterdingen (1802), and other writings.
1751 Frederik of Hesse-Kassel, born on 17 Apil 1676, first king of Sweden to reign (1720-1751), almost powerless, during the 18th-century Age of Freedom, a period of parliamentary government. He devoted his time to hunting and to extra-marital love affairs.
1697 Hendrik Casimir II, King of Nassau-Dietzstadhouder.
1669 Some 20'000 in eruption of Mount Etna, which destroys Nicolosi in Sicily.
1635 Jacques Callot, French engraver born in 1592. MORE ON CALLOT AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1583 Juan de Garay, conquistador vasco, en una emboscada en el Río de la Plata.
1458 Inigo López de Mendoza, Spanish marquis of Santillana, poet. poeta y prosista renacentista español,.fallece en Guadalajara (España).
1223 Afonso II, 36, 3rd King of Portugal (1211-1123).
which occurred on a March 25:
1989 Chicken Kentucky (chicken), 1st partial birth in space
1942 Jacqueline Lichtenberg, US, sci-fi author (Star Trek Lives!, Dreamspy)
1934 Gloria Steinem, feminist author.
1926 Fernando Morán, político socialista español, ministro de Asuntos Exteriores.
1925 Flannery O'Connor, Georgia, novelist (A Good Man Is Hard to Find)
1914 Norman E. Borlaug, US agriculture scientist (Nobel 1970) genetista estadounidense, premio Nobel de la Paz en 1970 por sus investigaciones en cereales para luchar contra la pobreza en el Tercer Mundo.
1911 Jacob Rubenstein, who would use the name Jack Ruby, and, on 24 Novemebr 1963, murder the murderer of president Kennedy, Lee Harvey Oswald, and be murdered himself in prison.
1900 US Socialist Party is formed at Indianapolis.
1899 Jacques Audiberti, French poet (Race of Men)
1887 Josef Capek, Czechoslovakian painter / author / critic (Kulhavy Poutník)
1885 Veit Valentin, German / US, historian (Deutsche Revolution)
1881 Béla Bartók, Hungary, composer, pianist (Concerto for Orchestra)
1880 Eva Aubert (future Mme. Jourdan), in France. She would die on 06 May 1992.
1876 Alson Skinner Clark, US artist who died in 1949. — links to images.
1867 John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum, sculptor who in 1927 started carving Mount Rushmore into a colossal monument to Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and T. Roosevelt. He died on 06 March 1941, with the work almost completed. a bit MORE ON BORGLUM AT ART 4 MARCH with a photo of Mount Rushmore.
1859 Shatunovsky, mathematician.
1849 Alexander Pope, US artist who died in 1924.
1808 José de Espronceda y Delgado, Spanish revolutionary, poet (Cortes) poeta romántico español.
1800 Paulin Paris, French historian
1798 Gudermann, mathematician.
1797 Louis Adolphe Thiers, político francés.
1767 Joachim Murat, marshal of France / King of Naples (1808-15). Le futur maréchal d'Empire Joachim Murat naît à Labastide (Quercy). Il deviendra un éphémère roi de Naples avant d'être fusillé à la chute de Napoléon.
1614 Don Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish artist who died in September 1685. pintor de Cámara de Carlos II. MORE ON CARREÑO AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1538 Christopher Clavius, mathematician.
1500 Antón Martín, discípulo y sucesor de san Juan de Dios.
1133 Henry II, King of England (1154-1189)