• Arabs offer peace to Israel... • Painter Chagall dies... • British bomb Lubeck... • Gorky is born... • Maine enters the Union... • Virginia Woolf dies... • Ford's Willow Run plant... • Near meltdown at 3MileIsland… • Nuclear control plan... • Mario Vargas Llosa is born... • San Francisco is founded... • US to buy UNIVAC cheap... • Adobe Acrobat wins support... • Electronic publishing royalties... • Diem's popular support questioned... • US Senate censures President... • Italian fleet incapacitated...
a 28 March:
2003 The previous evening, Lifecore Biomedics (LCBM) announced that it suspended global marketing and sales of its ferric hyaluronan adhesion prevention product, Gynecare Intergel Adhesion Prevention Solution in order to assess information obtained from postmarketing experience with the device, as requested by the distributor, Johnson & Johnson. The gel, which is used to help heal wounds caused by gynecological surgery, accounts for about 10% of LCBM's annual sales of $40 million, but investors hoped that it would become dominant in a potential $500 million market. On the NASDAQ, 3.5 million of the 13 million SCBM shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $6.09 to an intraday low of $3.01 and close at $3.55. They had traded as high as $11.75 as recently as 19 April 2002, and $22.50 on 10 January 2000. [5~year price chart >]
|2002 Arabs offer
peace to Israel. ^top^
At the conclusion of its two-day meeting in Beirut, the Arab League unanimously adopts the following::
The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level, at its 14th ordinary session:
REAFFIRMING the resolution taken in June 1996 at the Cairo extraordinary Arab summit that a just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East is the strategic option of the Arab countries, to be achieved in accordance with international legality, and which would require a comparable commitment on the part of the Israeli government.
HAVING LISTENED to the statement made by His Royal Highness Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, the crown prince of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in which his highness presented his initiative, calling for full Israeli withdrawal from all the Arab territories occupied since June 1967, in implementation of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, reaffirmed by the Madrid Conference of 1991 and the land-for-peace principle, and Israel's acceptance of an independent Palestinian state, with East Jerusalem as its capital, in return for the establishment of normal relations in the context of a comprehensive peace with Israel.
EMANATING FROM the conviction of the Arab countries that a military solution to the conflict will not achieve peace or provide security for the parties, the council:
1. Requests Israel to reconsider its policies and declare that a just peace is its strategic option as well.
2. Further calls upon Israel to affirm:
a. Full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied since 1967, including the Syrian Golan Heights to the lines of 04 June 1967, as well as the remaining occupied Lebanese territories in the south of Lebanon.
b. Achievement of a just solution to the Palestinian refugee problem to be agreed upon in accordance with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194.
c. The acceptance of the establishment of a sovereign, independent Palestinian state on the Palestinian territories occupied since 04 June 1967, in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
3. Consequently, the Arab countries affirm the following:
a. Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended, and enter into a peace agreement with Israel, and provide security for all the states of the region.
b. Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this comprehensive peace.
4. Assures the rejection of all forms of Palestinian patriation which conflict with the special circumstances of the Arab host countries.
5. Calls upon the government of Israel and all Israelis to accept this initiative in order to safeguard the prospects for peace and stop the further shedding of blood, enabling the Arab countries and Israel to live in peace and good neighborliness and provide future generations with security, stability and prosperity.
6. Invites the international community and all countries and organizations to support this initiative.
7. Requests the chairman of the summit to form a special committee composed of some of its concerned member states and the secretary general of the League of Arab States to pursue the necessary contacts to gain support for this initiative at all levels, particularly from the United Nations, the Security Council, the United States of America, the Russian Federation, the Muslim states and the European Union.
Juliusz Paetz, 67, Catholic archbishop of Poznan, Poland, resigns, while
denying the allegations that he had made homosexual advances to teenaged
2001 It is announced that US President Bush (Jr.) will not implement the Kyoto climate treaty (signed by the US on 12 November 1998), which requires the US to cut emissions about a third by 2012. This goes contrary to the advice given three weeks earlier by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman. One week after that Bush announced that he would go back on a campaign promise to regulate carbon dioxide. [6 March 2000 Report to US Congress on the treaty] [Share of Greenhouse warming due to various gases >]
2001 Ivan Boroughs, 76, is released from prison in Jamaica, where he had been since December 1972 after he broke a pane of glass at a bank, a charge which carries a maximum sentence of three years, but he had never been brought to trial, as we was considered mentally ill by court officials. and thus unfit to stand trial. Commissioner of Corrections John Prescod said officials had known that Boroughs was in prison, but had to wait on the court, which did not order the release until 27 March 2001. The Legal Aid Council plans to seek justice for Boroughs.
2001 La 'comandante' Esther, miembro de la dirección política del Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN), se dirige a los diputados y senadores mexicanos desde la tribuna de oradores del Congreso para defender los derechos de la comunidad indígena.
2000 La policía israelí solicita el procesamiento de Benjamín Netanyahu y de su esposa por supuestos delitos de malversación de caudales públicos, soborno y apropiación ilegal de 700 regalos oficiales.
2000 In a unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court sharply curtails police power to rely on anonymous tips to stop and search people.
1999 El presidente paraguayo Raúl Alberto Cubas Grau presenta su dimisión.
1996 US Congress passed the line-item veto, giving the president power to cut government spending by scrapping specific programs.
1996 Atlantic Monthly settles intellectual property suit ^top^
Atlantic Monthly agrees to settle an intellectual property lawsuit brought by a professor who accused the magazine of illegally posting his work in electronic format on the LEXIS-NEXIS database system. A writer's group had sued six publishing companies, including Atlantic Monthly and The New York Times, for reusing freelancers' work in electronic format without purchasing electronic rights. Electronic property rights became a hot issue as more and more publications began reprinting their content on the Web.
1991 Tens of thousands of supporters of Boris N. Yeltsin marched in Moscow in defiance of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev's ban on rallies.
1991 Former President Reagan declared his support for the "Brady Bill" requiring a seven-day waiting period for handgun purchases.
1990 El Parlamento de Israel reafirma a Jerusalén como capital del Estado.
1983 El volcán Etna entra en erupción.
accident at 3-Mile-Island power plant.
At 04:00, the worst accident in the history of the US nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor fails to close at Three Mile Island. Cooling water, contaminated with radiation, drained from the open valve into adjoining buildings, and the core began to dangerously overheat. The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant was built in 1974 on a sandbar on Pennsylvania's Susquehanna River, just 16 km downstream from the state capitol in Harrisburg [photo >]. In 1978, a second state-of-the-art reactor began operating on Three Mile Island, which was lauded for generating affordable and reliable energy in a time of energy crises. After the cooling water began to drain out of the broken pressure valve on the morning of 28 March 1979, emergency cooling pumps automatically went into operation. Left alone, these safety devices would have prevented the development of a larger crisis. However, human operators in the control room misread confusing and contradictory readings and shut off the emergency water system. The reactor was also shut down, but residual heat from the fission process was still being released. By early morning, the core had heated to over 4000ºF, just 1000 degrees short of meltdown. In the meltdown scenario, the core melts, and deadly radiation drifts across the countryside, fatally sickening a potentially great number of people. As the plant operators struggled to understand what had happened, the contaminated water was releasing radioactive gases throughout the plant. The radiation levels, though not immediately life-threatening, were dangerous, and the core cooked further as the contaminated water was contained and precautions were taken to protect the operators.
Shortly after 08:00, word of the accident leaked to the outside world. The plant's parent company, Metropolitan Edison, downplayed the crisis and claimed that no radiation had been detected off plant grounds, but the same day inspectors detected slightly increased levels of radiation nearby as a result of the contaminated water leak. Pennsylvania Governor Dick Thornburgh considered calling an evacuation. Finally, at about 20:00, plant operators realized they needed to get water moving through the core again and restarted the pumps. The temperature began to drop, and pressure in the reactor was reduced. The reactor had come within less than an hour of a complete meltdown. More than half the core was destroyed or molten, but it had not broken its protective shell, and no radiation was escaping. The crisis was apparently over. Two days later, however, on 30 March, a bubble of highly flammable hydrogen gas was discovered within the reactor building. The bubble of gas was created two days before when exposed core materials reacted with super-heated steam.
On 28 March, some of this gas had exploded, releasing a small amount of radiation into the atmosphere. At that time, plant operators had not registered the explosion, which sounded like a ventilation door closing. After the radiation leak was discovered on 30 March, residents were advised to stay indoors. Experts were uncertain if the hydrogen bubble would create further meltdown or possibly a giant explosion, and as a precaution Governor Thornburgh advised "pregnant women and pre-school age children to leave the area within a five-mile radius of the Three Mile Island facility until further notice." This led to the panic the governor had hoped to avoid; within days, more than 100'000 persons had fled surrounding towns.
On 01 April, President Jimmy Carter arrived at Three Mile Island to inspect the plant. Carter, a trained nuclear engineer, had helped dismantle a damaged Canadian nuclear reactor while serving in the US Navy. His visit achieved its aim of calming local residents and the nation. That afternoon, experts agreed that the hydrogen bubble was not in danger of exploding. Slowly, the hydrogen was bled from the system as the reactor cooled. At the height of the crisis, plant workers were exposed to unhealthy levels of radiation, but no one outside Three Mile Island had their health adversely affected by the accident. The 600'000 persons living within 30 km of the plant got no more than minor radiation doses. Nonetheless, the incident greatly eroded the public's faith in nuclear power. The unharmed Unit-1 reactor at Three Mile Island, which was shut down during the crisis, did not resume operation until 1985. Cleanup continued on Unit-2 until 1990, but it was too damaged to be rendered usable again. For more than two decades following the accident at Three Mile Island, not a single new nuclear power plant would be ordered in the United States. The business-corrupted environment-unfriendly regime of USurper “Dubya” Bush would push for legislation promoting the building of new nuclear power plant, but the US Senate, though controled by a Republican majority, would demur.
1957 Los ingleses ponen en libertad al arzobispo Makarios III, dirigente de Chipre.
1933 German Reichstag confers dictatorial powers to Adolph Hitler
1930 Constantinople and Angora change names to Istanbul and Ankara.
1917 Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities
1899 Guglielmo Marconi  establece por primera vez comunicación radiotelegráfica entre las dos orillas del Canal de la Mancha.
1898 The US Supreme Court rules that a child born in the United States to Chinese immigrants is a US citizen, and therefore may not be deported under the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1895 Los hermanos Lumiére presentan en el Fomento de la Industria Nacional, de París, su invento llamado cinematógrafo.
1892 Charles Duryea and Erwin Markham sign a contract to design and finance the construction of a gasoline-powered automobile.
1865 Siege of Spanish Fort, Alabama, continues.
1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory.
1854 Crimean War starts as Britain and France declared war on Russia. Francia y Gran Bretaña declaran la guerra a Rusia por el ataque de este país a los principados turcos, hecho que da comienzo de la Guerra de Crimea.
1844 Real Decreto de Isabel II de España por el que se crea la Guardia Civil, que fue completado por otro del 12 de abril del mismo año.
1834 US Senate censures President Jackson  for taking federal deposits from Bank of US
1767 Se firma en Marrakech el primer tratado de paz y de amistad entre España y Marruecos.
1661 Scottish Parliament passed the Rescissory Act, which repealed the whole of the legislation enacted since 1633. Its effect was to overthrow Presbyterianism and to restore the Anglican episcopacy to Scotland.
1556 Felipe II es proclamado solemnemente en Valladolid rey de España.
1556 Origin of Fasli Era (India)
1480 Una pragmática de los Reyes Católicos autoriza a los campesinos a trasladarse libremente con todos sus bienes.
which occurred on a 28 March:
2003 Some 60 persons, by a misguided US bomb which, at 18:00, hits the al-Nasr market in the working-class al-Shoala neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq. Some 100 are injured.
2003 Eight persons in Baath party headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq, bombed by the US.
2003 British Cpl. Matty Hull, in combat in Iraq, possibly shot from his own side.
2003 Mohammed Ghanem, 24, Palestinian, shot by Israeli troops in Tul Karm refugee camp, West Bank.
2002:: 29 workers as a wall of water floods into a giant dry dock in Dubai. Dubai DryDocks employs some 3500 workers, most of them Asians, mainly Indians, Filipinos, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans and is one of the largest facilities in the world for ship repairs.
2002 Rachel Gavish and David Gavish, 50, their son Avraham Gavish, 20, his maternal grandfather Yitzhak Kanner, 83; and, after midnight, Ahmed Abdel Jawad, a Hamas member, who had shot them in their home in the Jewish enclave settlement of Elon Moreh, West Bank, south of Nablus, and is killed by Israeli soldiers.
2001 Palestinian boy, 9, by explosion of unexploded Israeli shell with which he was playing with three others, who are injured, in Rafah, Gaza Strip.
2001 Palestinian suicide bomber and 2 Jewish teen-agers of a group waiting near the Sdeh Hemed kibbutz (close to Qalqiliya) for an armored bus to their seminary in West Bank settlement of Kedumim, shortly after 07:30. Two other seminarians are severely injured.
1997 Treinta y nueve componentes de la secta religiosa Higher Source se suicidan colectivamente al creer que, tras la cola del cometa Hale-Bopp, viajaba una nave extraterrestre que los recogería.
1994 Eugène Ionesco, dramaturgo francés de origen rumano.
1985 Marc Chagall, French painter and designer born on 07 July 1887 in Vitebsk, Russia (now Belarus). Distinguished for his surrealistic inventiveness, he is recognized as one of the most significant painters and graphic artists of the 20th century. MORE ON CHAGALL AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1985 All 40 passengers and 6 crew members aboard a Fokker F-8 Fellowship 3000 of Satena airline which had stopped at San Vicente del Caguán after leaving Bogotá and, in rain and fog, crashes into a mountain as it attempts to land at Florencia, Colombia.
1969 Dwight David Eisenhower, 78, the 34th US president (1953-1961), in Washington. He was born on 14 October 1890.
1957 Jack Butler Yeats II, Irish artist born on 29 August 1871. MORE ON YEATS AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1950 Hellinger, mathematician.
1944 Rabbi Chayyim Most, Maggid of Kovono, killed by nazis
1943 Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff composer, in Beverly Hills, California. — compositor, pianista y director de orquesta ruso.
1942 Miguel Hernández, poeta español.
1942: 768 Italian soldiers and sailors, in sinking of liner Galilea, transporting troops from North Africa back to Italy, by a British sub, near Antipaxo.
1933 Henri Émilien Rousseau, French artist born on 17 December 1875. MORE ON ROUSSEAU AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1931 Derwent Lees, British artist born in 1885.
1918 Bernhard Wiegandt, German artist born on 13 March 1851.
1917 Joe Nowling, Black, lynched in Mitchell County, Georgia.
1881 Modest Petrovich Mussorgski, compositor ruso.
1856 Se realiza la última ejecución pública en Inglaterra.
1850 Holmboe, mathematician.
1840 Lhuilier, mathematician.
1839 Pieter Gerardus van Os, Dutch artist born on 08 October 1776. — more with links to images.
1712 Jan van der Heyden (or Hyde) [not Jekyll at times?], Dutch painter born in 1637. MORE ON VAN DER HEYDEN AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1678 Dechales, mathematician.
1622 Adam (Adrian) Pynaker, Dutch artist born on 15 February 1622.
1584 (18 March Julian) Ivan IV Vasilyevich Grozniy (The Terrible), born on 25 August 1530, grand prince of Moscow (04 Dec 1533-1584), first tsar of Russia (16 Jan 1547-1584).
0193 Roman Emperor Publius Helvius Pertinax, assassinated by a small group of Praetorian Guards, after he tried to enforce unpopular economies in military as well as in civilian expenditures. The Guards auction off the imperial title to Marcus Didius Julianus. Born on 01 August 126, son of a freed slave, Pertinax taught school, then entered the army, commanded units in Syria, in Britain, and on the Danube and the Rhine. He earned distinction during the great invasion by German tribes in 169. Given senatorial rank and command of a legion, he was soon promoted to the consular commands of Moesia, Dacia, and Syria, but under the emperor Commodus (reigned 180–192) he fell from favor, together with the future emperor Lucius Septimius Severus [146 – Feb 211], during the ascendancy of the praetorian prefect Perennis. In the last years of Commodus' life, Pertinax became prefect of the city of Rome, while Severus commanded the armies of the upper Danube. After Commodus [31 Aug 161 – 31 Dec 192] was murdered, the Senate met before dawn on 01 January and proclaimed Pertinax (then senior marshal of the empire) emperor. After Severus was proclaimed emperor by his troops on 13 April 193, he declared himself the avenger of Pertinax, marched on Rome, and entered it without resistance a few days after Julianus was assassinated on 01 June 193. Later in the year, he decreed divine honors for Pertinax and added his name to his own, becoming Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax.
which occurred on a 28 March:
1955 Julio Alonso Llamazares, poeta y novelista español.
1946 Alejandro 'Cholo' Toledo, político peruano.
1928 Zbigniew Brzezinski national security advisor to US President Carter
1928 Grothendieck, mathematician.
1923 Yitz Herstein, mathematician. He died in 1988.
1914 Edmund S Muskie (Sen-D-Me), US Sec of State (1980), candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination (but he weeped).
1905 Radio fax a system for transmitting intelligence is patented by Cornelius Ehret of Rosemont, Pennsylvania. Faxing would not become a practical mode of communication until the 1920s, and high-speed faxes not be available until the 1940s.
1899 August Anheuser Busch, Jr., US businessman who built Anheuser-Busch into the world's largest brewery, owner of the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team. He died on 29 September 1989.
1888 Zelda Viola Strongman (future Mrs. McCague), in Canada, who would die on 06 August 2001.
1871 Frederick John Mulhaupt, US artist who died in 1938. — links to images.
1864 Léopold Schmutzler, German artist who died in 1941.
1862 Aristide Briand France, premier 11 times (1909-22) (Nobel 1926). He died on 07 March 1932.
1861 Alphonse Étienne Dinet, French painter specialized in Orientalism. who died on 24 December 1929. MORE ON DINET AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1860 José Moreno Carbonero, pintor español.
1845 Don Juan Tenorio, de José Zorrilla y del Morral, la obra teatral más representativa del romanticismo español, se estrena en Madrid.
1818 Wade Hampton, Confederate war hero of the US Civil War. He died on 11 April 1902.
1811 St. John Neumann, Bohemian-born US bishop canonized the first American male saint in 1977. He died on 05 January 1860.
1810 Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho Araújo, narrador, historiador y político portugués.
1809 George Richmond, English painter who died on 19 March 1896. MORE ON RICHMOND AT ART 4 MARCH with links to images.
1797 A washing machine is patented by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire.
1793 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, US explorer and ethnologist; discovered source of Mississippi River. He died on 10 December 1864.
1674 William Byrd, US planter, satirist, and diarist who died on 26 August 1744.
1515, religiosa española.