• Battle of Manila Bay... • Mayday as Labor Day... • Empire State Building opens... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Mother Jones is born... • Author of Catch 22 is born... • Silone is born... • US spy plane shot down over USSR... • Lusitania sails to its doom... • North Vietnamese capture provincial capital... • Senator criticizes Vietnam War... • Locomobile... • US climber reaches top of Everest... • US president empowered over foreign trade... • Watson hired by future IBM... . • Cordwainers unite... • Gloria Carpenter found dead... • Pur Sang des Autos... • Missing intern dies...
a May 01:
2003 Aron Ralston, 27, of Aspen Colorado, is stuck in an eastern Utah desert, with his right arm pinned down by a 400-kg chalkstone boulder which fell about 50 cm onto his arm as he was climbing alone in narrow Blue John Canyon, adjacent to the Maze District of Canyonlands National Park, in the afternoon of 26 April. He ran out of water on 29 April. There is no chance anyone will find him and rescue him. The alternative being death, he cuts off his arm below the elbow with a pocket knife, improvises a tourniquet, rappels 20 meters down a rock wall, hikes 20 km until he meets some hikers who call a rescue helicopter 100 km south of Green River, Utah. [< Ralston when he still had two arms]
2002 California Condor AC-9 [do NOT pronounce it asinine] is released to the wild. When it was brought into captivity in 1987, it was the last free-flying California Condor. It became part of the fledgling captive breeding program. Many of the offspring that AC-9 produced and raised in captivity were released to the wild in both California and Arizona.
2000 Joerg Haider resigns after 14 years as leader of Austria's far-right [meaning far-wrong] Freedom Party.
1991 The government of Angola and US-backed guerrillas initialed agreements ending their civil war.
1991 Pope John Paul II publishes his Encyclical Centesimus annus [English text] two weeks in advance of the 100th anniversary of the 15 May 1891 Encyclical Rerum Novarum [English text] of Leo XIII.
1986 Tass reports Chernobyl nuclear power plant mishap
1981 US Senator Harrison A. Williams Jr., D-N.J., is convicted in New York of charges related to the FBI's Abscam investigation.
1979 Marshall Islands (in the Pacific) become self-governing
1979 Home rule introduced to Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)
1978 Naomi Uemura became first to reach North Pole overland alone
|1967 Anastasio Somoza Debayle became president of Nicaragua (of the dictator,
1965 USSR launches Luna 5; later impacts on Moon
1964 first BASIC program run on a computer (Dartmouth)
1961 Tanganyika granted full internal self-government by Britain
1961 first US airplane hijacked to Cuba
1961 Fidel Castro announces there will be no more elections in Cuba
| 1948 The People's Democratic Republic of Korea is
proclaimed in North Korea.
1948 Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes"
1947 Vice Adm Roscoe Hillenkoeter becomes first director of the CIA
1944 Messerschmitt Me 262 Sturmvogel, first jet bomber, makes first flight
1934 Philippine legislature accepts US proposal for independence
1925 Cyprus becomes a British Crown Colony
| 1908 World's most intense shower (6.3 cm in 3 minutes)
at Portobelo Panama
US Origin of Mayday as Labor Day in most countries other than the US
MAYDAY — the first of May — is recognized around the world as a day to celebrate international workers’ solidarity. It is often forgotten that this day of commemoration of working class revolutionary awareness originated with the movement for the eight-hour day and the other basic rights of labor that are taken for granted by American workers today — the movement that was centered in Chicago and that reached its peak in 1886.
The story begins at a convention of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1884. The Federation (the predecessor to the American Federation of Labor) called for a great movement to win the 8-hour workday, which would climax on 01 May 1886.
The plan was to spend two years urging all American employers to adopt a standard 8-hour day, instead of the 10 to 12, even up to 16-hour days that were prevalent. After 01 May of 1886, all workers not yet on an 8-hour schedule, were to cease work in a nation-wide strike until their employer would meet the demand.
Although some employers did meet the deadline, many did not. Accordingly, great demonstrations took place on 01 May all across the US. Chicago's was the biggest with an estimated 80'000 marching on Michigan Avenue, much to the alarm of Chicago's business leaders and newspapers who saw it as foreshadowing "revolution," and demanded a police crackdown.
In fact, the Anarchists and other political radicals in Chicago were reluctant to have anything to do with the 8-hour day strike, which they saw as "reformist;" but they were prevailed upon by the unionists to participate because Albert Parsons and others were such powerful orators and had a substantial following.
On 03 May, strikers and their supporters at the McCormick Reaper plant on Blue Island Ave. were killed and injured by police.
A mass protest meeting was called for the night of 04 May 1886 in the city haymarket at Randolph St. and DesPlaines Ave. It was so poorly planned that the organizers had to round up speakers, including Parsons, at the spur of the moment. A rain began to fall, and as the last speaker was concluding, a large force of 200 police arrived with a demand that the meeting disperse.
Someone, unknown to this day, then threw a bomb at the massed police. In their confusion, the police began firing their weapons in the dark, killing at least four in the crowd and wounding many more. Several police were killed (only one by the bomb), the rest probably by police fire. The myth of the Haymarket Riot was born.
In the aftermath of the event, unions were raided all across the country. The Eight-Hour Movement was derailed and it was not until passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1935, that the 8-hour workday became the national standard, a part of the Fair Labor Standards Act passed during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal."
Albert Parsons and seven others associated with radical organizations were prosecuted in a show trial. None were linked to the unknown bomb thrower, and some were not even present at the time. They were held to be responsible for the bomb thrower's act, because their public criticism of corporate America, the political structure, and the use of police power against the working people, was alleged to have inspired the bomber.
They were found guilty in a trial which Governor John Peter Altgeld subsequently held to be grossly unfair.
The Haymarket case became a world-wide scandal. Governor Oglesby was petitioned by hundreds of thousands, including AFL President Samuel Gompers, to grant clemency, and thus prevent a miscarriage of justice by stopping the executions. It was to no avail. They were hanged on 11 November 1887.
In July of 1889, a delegate from the AFL attending an international labor conference in Paris, urged that 01 May of each year be celebrated as a day of labor solidarity. It was adopted. Accordingly, with the glaring exception of the United States, workers throughout most of the civilized world consider May First to be their "Labor Day."
On 26 June 1894, Governor John Peter Altgeld, having found the trial to be grossly unfair, pardoned those defendants still alive and in prison; but Parsons, Spies, Fischer, and Engel had been hanged, and Lingg was an alleged suicide [in his prison cell, on the eve of the hanging, by lighting a stick of dynamite in his mouth: how he could get that dynamite is a mystery to me]. // from http://www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/haymkmon.htm
| 1884 Construction begins on Chicago's first skyscraper
1873 First US postal card issued
1867 Reconstruction of South begins, Black voter registration
1863 Confederate Congress passes resolution to kill Black soldiers
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1863 Battle of Port Gibson, Mississippi
1863 Beginning of 4-day Battle of Chancellorsville near Fredericksburg, Virginia
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1857 William Walker, conqueror of Nicaragua, surrenders to US Navy
1845 At a convention in Louisville, KY, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South was organized as a new denomination, separate from its parent, the Methodist Episcopal Church.
1841 First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence, Missouri for California
1840 First adhesive postage stamps ("Penny Blacks", in England) issued
1707 England, Wales and Scotland form UK of Great Britain
1501 In his encyclical "Ad ea quae circa decorem," Pope Alexander VI sanctioned the Minim Friars, a religious order founded by Francis of Paola (1416-1507) in 1435.
1006 Supernova observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus
| Deaths which
occurred on a May 01:
2004 Two US engineers, one Australian, two Britons, one Saudi national guardsman, and three of the four gunmen who shoot randomly in the offices of a Saudi contractor at an oil refinery co-owned by Exxon Mobil and the Saudi company SABIC in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.
2003 A US citizen, shot by an attacker wearing a Saudi navy uniform, at the King Abdul Aziz Naval base in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
2003 Khaled Makhamra, a leader of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade, and a Palestinian policeman, shot by Israeli troops attacking Yata, south of Hebron, West Bank. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 2034 Palestinians and 737 Israelis.
2003 Amer Ayad, 2; the 3 brothers Yusuf Abu Hin, 30, Mahmoud Abu Hin, 37, and Ayman Abu Hin, 29, and 9 other Palestinians, including two 13-year-old boys and a man, 67, in Israeli 03:00-to-16:00 attack (intended to arrest the Abu Hins and other militants) on the Sajayia neighborhood of Gaza City. 15 Palestinians are wounded.
2003 At least 176 persons, including 83 of the 198 boys in a collapsed school dormitory in Bingol, by magnitude 6.4 earthquake at 03:27 (00:27 UT) with epicenter at 38º58'N 40º28'E at a depth of 10 km, 10 km NNW of Bingol in Turkish-occupied Kurdistan.
2001 Assaf Hershkovitz, 31, killed by the Islamic militant group Hamas in retaliation for Palestinians killed by explosions the previous day. Hershkovitz was a resident of the Jewish enclave settlement of Ofra. His father, Arieh Hershkovitz, had been killed in another West Bank drive-by shooting in January 2001. Hershkovitz's van overturned after shots were fired at the vehicle on a road near the Beit El settlement on the outskirts of the West Bank town of Ramallah. He was wearing a bulletproof vest when he was killed. This brings the body count of the 7-month-old al-Aqsa intifada to 72 Israelis (including 4 non-Jews in Israeli army) and 431 Palestinians (including four suicide bombers, several suspected informers for Israel killed by Palestinian militants, 13 Israeli Arabs killed in pro-Palestinian riots and a German resident of the West Bank).
2001 Chandra Levy [< photo], 24, dies mysteriously, sometime after logging off her computer (where she been consulting a web site about at about Klingle Mansion in Rock Creek Park) at 13:00 in her Washington DC apartment, where her wallet, credit card, computer, and cell phone, but not her keys, remain. Soon the revelation of her love affair with married Congressman Gary Condit [photo >], 54, whose district includes her Modesto, California, home town, propels her disapperance into front-page news (eventually it ruins Condit's political career). On 22 May 2002, the dog of a man looking for turtles in Rock Creek Park a couple of kilometers north of Klingle Mansion (6 km from Levy's apartment) discovers bones, a jogging bra, tennis shoes, and other items that turn out to be the remains of Chandra Levy.
1999 Marcus Omofuma, 25, Nigerian suffocated while being forcibly deported from Austria, where he had sought asylum, by three Austrian police officers on a flight to Sofia. Police officers had bound his arms and legs on the way to the airport and covered his mouth with adhesive tape when he continued his verbal protest on the plane. When they removed the adhesive tape after landing, the officers realised that Marcus Omofuma had lost consciousness. By the time a doctor arrived to treat him.
1998 Eldridge Cleaver, 62, in Pomona, California, fiery Black Panther leader who later renounced his past and became a Republican.
1973 Asger Oluf Jörgensen Jorn, Danish painter, printmaker, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, and writer, also active in France, born on 03 April 1914. — more
1932 Paul Doumer, President of France, assassinated by Russian Paul Gargalov.
1929 Edouard Eugène François Vallet, Swiss painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 12 January 1876. — more
1928 6 children, by hailstones in Klausenburg, Romania. 10 are injured.
1919 Some 5000 people in 104 small villages, as Mount Kelud (Indonesia) erupts, boiling crater lake which breaks through crater wall.
1915 Neutral US ship Gulflight, sunk by WW I German submarine.
1900 Mihály Munkácsy von Lieb, Hungarian Realist painter born on 20 February 1844. MORE ON MUNKÁCSY AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1886 (or 02 May?) Jerome Thompson, US painter born on 30 January 1814.
1875 Alfred George Stevens, English sculptor, designer, and painter, born on 31 December 1817. MORE ON STEVENS AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1870 Gabriel Lamé, French engineer and mathematician born on 22 July 1795. He worked on a wide variety of different topics. His work on differential geometry and contributions to Fermat's Last Theorem are important. In 1839 he proved the theorem for n=7, ie. that x^7 + y^7 = z^7 has no non-zero integer solutions for x, y and z
1869 A colt, by a meteorite, near New Concord, Ohio.
(12 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire ou militaire de Paris:
BERNARD Claude Antoine, âgé de 32 ans, marchand de bois, né et domicilié à Besançon (Doubs), comme convaincu de conspiration contre l'unité et l'indivisibilité de la République et la sûreté du Peuple français.
MOUTHON François Joseph, âgé de 34 ans, natif de Turin, garde du tyran Sarde, et lieutenant de gendarmerie au service de la République à Carrouge, domicilié à Chambéry (Mont-Blanc), comme contre-révolutionnaire agent des fédéralistes, ayant provoqué une force départementale pour marcher sur Paris.
POULET Jean Antoine, agent de l'émigré Beaufremont commissaire de section à Besançon, âgé de 60 ans, né et domicilié à Besençon (Doubs), comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des intelligences avec les fédéralistes de Strasbourg.
RABAULT Jacques, négociant armateur, âgé de 56 ans, natif de Jason, département du Tarn, domicilié à Marseille (Bouches du Rhône), comme convaincu de s’être montré un des plus zélés partisans du fédéralisme.
CHALMETON Joseph Ignace, procureur syndic, du district d’Uzès, domicilié à Nismes (Gard).
NOGARET Guillaume, commis marchand épicier, et commissaire de section à Besançon, âgé de 46 ans, natif de Dijon (Côte-d’Or), domicilié à Besançon, (Doubs), comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GLUTRON Jean, âgé de 39 ans, né à Braville, aubergiste et entrepreneur des convois militaires, domicilié à Evreux (Eure), comme fournisseur infidèle.
LAUDOIS Pierre, huissier, âgé de 30 ans, né à St Nicolas (Eure), commis de Glutron, entrepreneur des convois, domicilié à Evreux, même département, comme fonctionnaire public infidèle.
DELIGNY Claude Louis, âgé de 59 ans natif de Boutigny (Seine et Marne), cultivateur fermier, domicilié à Pommeuse, même département, comme convaincu d’avoir enfoui quantité de bijoux et assignats.
CHUPIN (ou CAUPIN ou CHUPPIN) Adélaïde Jos., ex noble, âgée de 43 ans, femme de Langlois de Pommeuse, conseiller de grand-chambre au parlement de Paris, domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire convaincue d'avoir enfoui quantité d'assignats et bijoux.
LANGLOIS-DE-POMMEUSE Auguste Henri, ex noble, ex conseiller au ci-devant parlement, âgé de 59 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LANGLOIS Auguste Louis (dit Rezy), ancien officier aux gardes, âgé de 46 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme contre révolutionnaire.
SEURRE Gervais (dit Joinville), âgé de 44 ans, natif de Nigueville, domestique de Langlois-Pommeuse, domicilié à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant enterré et enfoui une grande partie d'argenterie et de numéraire de Langlois et sa femme.
VILLECOT Guillaume, jardinier, âgé de 39 ans, natif de Maupertuis, domicilié à Guerard, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir caché de l'argenterie dans le jardin de Langlois-Guerard, et porté chez Deligny du numéraire et des bijoux pour les enfouir.
VIGNIE Etienne, ex chapelain de Langlois de Pommeuse, âgé de 40 ans, né à Rigeaux (Seine et Marne), comme convaincu d'avoir facilité les correspondances et intelligences entretenues par les frères et femme Langlois, avec les ennemis extérieurs de la République.
Domiciliés à Ste Lumine-du-Coutay, département de la Loire Inférieure, par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, comme brigands de la Vendée:
GRELE Pierre. GUILBOT Claude PILOT Hubert RENAUD Pierre VERGER Pierre.
CATAËRT Auguste, âgé de 45 ans, né à Lille, y demeurant, orfèvre joaillier, guillotiné.
DE LAMBESSART Lamoral François Joseph Humbert, âgé de 30 ans, rentier, né et demeurant à Lille.
DELATTRE Joseph, âgé de 50 ans, né à Lagnicourt, demeurant à Etrun, receveur, célibataire.
DELORNE D'ALINCOURT Louis, âgé de 38 ans, né à Paris, cultivateur à Allouagne.
LESUR Barnabé François Henri, âgé de 42 ans, né à Béthune, médecin, demeurant à Lille.
VITRY Elisabeth Caroline, âgée de 80 ans, née à Aire, y demeurant, veuve de Lamette N.
BOUTTIER Mathieu Louis, prêtre, domicilié à Mézière, canton de Rennes (Ille et Vilaine), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
BRUGIERE Jean, prêtre domicilié à Sauve-Libre, canton de Besse (Puy-de-Dôme), comme réfractaire à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DEFUGE Louis, domicilié à Montpellier (Hérault), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
DUDOT Médard, et DUDOT Jean Sébastien, fils de Jean François Xavier, domiciliés à Gorze (Moselle), par le tribunal criminel militaire près de Moselle, comme émigrés.
LIMOGES Leger, ex curé de Bouchaud, domicilié à Bouchaud (Dordogne), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
PORTEFAIX-BORIE André, ex supérieur du séminaire d'Alby, domicilié à Paulhiac (Lozère), par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
| 1793 JUZEAU Antoine, âgé de 23 ans, négociant, né et
domicilié à Angoulême (Charente), est condamné à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire
séant à Paris, comme émigré.
1730 François de Troy, French portrait painter born in February 1645. MORE ON DE TROY AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1171 Dermot MacMurrough, last Irish king of Leinster
which occurred on a May 01:
1896 Mark Clark, US army general during World War II and the Korean War. He died on 17 April 1984.
1865 Frans Mortelmans, Belgian artist who (mortal man's fate) died in 1936.
1858 Charles Vetter, German artist who died in 1936.
1855 Cecilia Beaux, US portrait painter who died on 17 September 1942. — a bit more with links to images.
1848 Adelsteen Eilert Normann (or Normand), Norwegian artist who died in 1918.
1828 George Clarkson Stanfield, British artist who died on 22 March 1878.
1827 Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton, French Realist painter who died on 05 July 1906. MORE ON BRETON AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1825 George Innes I, US Hudson River School painter who died on 03 August 1894. MORE ON INNES AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1825 Johann Jakob Balmer, Swiss mathematician who died on 12 March 1898. He is best remembered not fon mathematics which occupied most of his life, but for his work on spectral series and his 1885 formula for the wavelengths of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom l = hm² / (m² - n²), which for m - 3, 4, 5, 6, fitted the data he had; and which correctly predicted the lines for m= 7, and the next few values.
1813 Abraham Hulk I, Dutch British artist who died on 14 November 1884.
1785 Guillaume-François Colson, French artist who died on 03 February 1850.
1769 Arthur Wellesley Duke of Wellington, English general who defeated Napoléon at the Battle of Waterloo; British PM (C) (1828-30). He died on 14 September 1852.
1697 David Mathieu, German artist who died on 08 June 1755.
1682 Paris Observatory inaugurated by Louis XIV and his court.
1672 Joseph Addison, English essayist, poet, and dramatist, who died on 17 June 1719.
1567 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt, Dutch painter who died on 27 June 1641.
1493 Phillippus Paracelsus Switzerland, physician/alchemist (or 11/10)