• Leonardo da Vinci dies... • Louisiana Purchase signed... • FBI's Hoover dies... • Madrid revolts against French... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Hudson Bay Company... • Soviet flag over Berlin... • Nazi surrender... • Catherine the Great is born... • Attack on Cambodia continues... • Loch Ness Monster... • MacCarthy of MacCarthyism dies... • GM buys Chevrolet... • Conversations at Midnight burns... • Suicide Prevention Report... • 100'000'000 Harry Potter books... • German plans to invade US...
a May 02:
2003 Before the New York stock markets open, Stemcells Inc (STEM) report that, at the 10th Annual Conference of the American Society of Neural Transplantation and Repair today, Dr. Aileen J. Anderson and Dr. Brian J. Cummings, of the Reeve-Irvine Center at the University of California, Irvine, will present promising results of a pre-clinical study that examined the STEM's human neural stem cell (hCNS-SC) technology as a potential means of regenerating damaged nerve and nerve fibers in patients with spinal cord injuries. On the NASDAQ, 20 million of the 27 million STEM sharesare traded, surging from their previous $0.74 close to an intraday high of $2.25 and closing at $2.75. They had traded as low as $0.49 recently.
2002 Catholic priest Father Paul R. Shanley, 71, is arrested in the morning in San Diego on three counts of rape of a child. Gregory Ford, now 24, says that he was raped between 1983 and 1990 by Shanley, then pastor of St. John the Evangelist in Newton, Middlesex [no kidding] county, Massachusetts, in the Boston archdiocese, which Gregory, and his parents Paula and Rodney, are suing as well as Cardinal Bernard Law for negligence. The archdiocese released in April 2002 more than 800 pages of documents showing that it knew of Shanley's attendance at a 1979 meeting in Boston at which the North American Man Boy Love Association was apparently created. The records include Shanley's own writings on his life as a street priest (from ordination in 1960 to 1979), who frequently visited clinics for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Despite receiving dozens of allegations of abuse, the Boston archdiocese did not warn the San Bernardino Diocese when Shanley moved there in 1990. There, while serving as a pastor part-time, he also owned a hotel that catered to homosexuals in Palm Springs, California. [photo: Shanley as San Diego police volunteer (he was dismissed when his past became known) >]
German plans to invade the US. ^top^
The weekly newspaper Die Zeit publishes details from documents which it uncovered in Germany's official military archives in Freiburg. They show that Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm had drawn up detailed plans in 1900 for an invasion of the United States centered on attacks on New York City and Boston.
One plan foresaw a force of 100'000 soldiers transported across the Atlantic on 60 ships. Beginning in 1897, a German navy lieutenant named Eberhard von Mantey was assigned the task of preparing an invasion of the United States after German and US interests had collided in the Pacific. Wilhelm II wanted colonies and military bases around the world. The United States was increasingly getting in the Kaiser's way.Von Mantey's aim was to find a way to force the United States to sign a treaty giving Germany free reign in the Pacific and Atlantic.
He rejected ideas of a naval blockade or a naval battle and made plans for an invasion of the northeast instead, which he considered to be the core of America and where the United States could be most effectively hit and most easily forced to sign a peace treaty. He had a low opinion of the morale and discipline of US soldiers. The plans were reworked and revised over the next decade. Chief of staff Alfred von Schlieffen, who planned Germany's invasion of France in World War One, was skeptical about the idea of attacking the United States, 3000 sea miles away. But his loyalty to the Kaiser prevented him from rejecting the war planning outright. At one point the German chief of staff had a plan to bombard New York City, thinking that the greatest panic would break out in New York over fears of a bombardment.
One hundred million Harry Potter books sold.
100'000'000 copies of J. K. Rowling's four Harry Potter children's books have been sold since the first one in 1995, including translations into 42 languages, her agent announces. The best-selling books of all time are The Bible with an estimated [how?] 6 billion copies sold, followed by Quotations from the Works of Mao Tse-Tung (the "Little Red Book") with approximate sales of 900 million.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone tells about Harry, whose parents die when he is little. He is sent to live with his aunt, uncle, and spoiled cousin Dudley, who treat him very badly. Dudley has 2 rooms, every toy you could imagine, and has the most posh clothes, while Harry sleeps in the broom closet, has no toys but Dudley's broken ones (if he's lucky), and gets Dudley's hand me down clothes. But strange things are always happening to him and his uncle and aunt get very mad when they do.
Then one day a letter arrives for Harry, before he can open it, his uncle takes it away. More letters keep arriving, but they're always taken away before he gets to read them. Suddenly his uncle and aunt announce a surprise holiday (to get away from all the letters). While they're out on a boat, a giant, Hagrid, appears on board. He then tells Harry that, unlike what his uncle and aunt have been telling him, his parents were wizards, who, when Harry was a baby, were killed by the evil wizard Voldermort. Voldermort tried to kill Harry too but Harry survived and Voldermort lost all his powers and ran away. Hagrid adds that Harry is also a wizard and would be attending Hogwart's a wizardry school.
Harry' adventures at the school are narrated in the sequels Harry Potter and the ... ...Chamber of Secrets, ...Prisoner of Azkaban, ...Goblet of Fire. Rawlings also wrote two short paperback textbooks used by Harry Potter: Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them by Newt Scamander and Quidditch Through the Ages by Kennilworthy Whisp. (Quidditch is a competitive sport played at wizardry schools, central to Goblet of Fire)
Cheapskate Suicide Prevention Report.
A National Strategy for Suicide Prevention Goals and Objectives for Action report is published as a joint effort of the US Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, and Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration. The report is full of facts and recommendations for others to follow, but shines by the absence of proposals for federally funded programs. This is a cheap way for the Surgeon General, who presents the report, to take political credit if suicides decrease, and to blame others if they don't
Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States, killing 30'000 people each year. But that is less than 5% of the over 650'000 attempts. The document suggests creating a uniform way that hospitals and police can report suicide deaths and injuries.
But health insurance plans do not adequately cover mental illnesses.
The report has 68 goals for 2005, voluntary on the part of states, local agencies and anyone else. Among the recommendations are:
- Adding more suicide-prevention programs in schools, college, jails, and in the workplace.
- Increasing the number of states that require health insurance plans to cover mental health and substance abuse on the level that physical illnesses are covered.
- Encouraging doctors and nurses to ask at-risk patients about the presence of firearms, drugs and other lethal weapons in their homes.
- Using public service announcements like those concerning car seats, smoking, and the dangers of drinking while pregnant.
| 2001 Hermenergildo Rojas, 100, is arrested in Miami
for pouring gasoline on his lover, Janet Ali, 38, and threatening to set
her on fire, in a jealous rage.
2000 An investigating panel concludes that Texas A&M University students cut corners in construction and school officials failed to adequately supervise them before a bonfire collapse in November 1999 that killed 12 people.
1997 Tony Blair, 44, becomes Great Britain's youngest prime minister in 185 years.
1997 As the result of an antitrust suit, IBM and the Justice Department agree to phase out a 1956 agreement that had limited the ways IBM could sell and service mainframe and minicomputers. A federal judge ended the decree because IBM's enormous power in the computer market had "substantially diminished." In 1996, restrictions on IBM's personal computer, workstation, and computer services business had also been removed.
1997 A proposal to create seven new top-level WWW domain names is signed in Geneva. The proposal recommended the appointment of twenty-eight different registrars to dole out names, replacing Network Solutions as the single assigning agency.
1996 The US Senate passes, 97-3, an immigration bill to tighten border controls, make it tougher for illegal aliens to get US jobs and curtail legal immigrants' access to social services.
1994, Nelson Mandela claims victory in the wake of South Africa's first democratic elections; President F.W. de Klerk acknowledges defeat.
1991: US, British, French and Dutch forces penetrate 80 km deeper into northern Iraq.
1991 In his ninth encyclical, Pope John Paul II acknowledged the success of capitalism, but denounced the system for sometimes achieving results at the expense of the poor and of morality.
1981 Radio Shack re-releases Model III TRS-DOS 1.3, now with 2 fixes
1979 Vivekananda begins nonstop ride, cycling 187 hrs, 28 min., around Vihara Maha Devi Park, Columbia, Sri Lanka.
1974 Former US Vice President Spiro T. Agnew is disbarred by the Maryland Court of Appeals.
| 1968 Israeli television begins transmitting [making
obsolete the joke: Israeli customs official examines belongings of American
immigrant, spots a TV receiver, exclaims: But we don't have television
in Israel! I know, replies the American, that's
why I'm bringing my own.].
1968 Gold reaches then-record high ($39.35 per ounce) in London
1965, the Early Bird satellite was used to transmit television pictures across the Atlantic.
1964 An explosion of a charge assumed to have been placed by Viet Cong terrorists sinks the USNS Card at its dock in Saigon. No one was injured and the ship was eventually raised and repaired. The Card, an escort carrier being used as an aircraft and helicopter ferry, had arrived in Saigon on 30 April.
1956 The General Conference of the Methodist Church, held in Minneapolis, demanded abolishment of racial segregation in all Methodist churches.
1952 first commercial jet plane, BOAC Comet.
1946 Prisoners revolted at California's Alcatraz prison.
1941 Fighting breaks out between British forces in Iraq and that country’s pro-German faction.
1968 Pompidou part pour l'Iran, alors que des étudiants révolutionnaires menés par Cohn-Bendit provoquent de nouveaux incidents à l'université de Nanterre. A son retour le 11 May, Pompidou aura a faire face à une situation très aggravée par les confrontations violentes entre étudiants et police, qui se seront étendues au Quartier Latin.
1933 Germany forbids trade unions.
Loch Ness Monster allegedly seen. ^top^
Although accounts of an aquatic beast living in Scotland's Loch Ness date back 1500 years, the modern legend of the Loch Ness Monster is born when a sighting makes local news on 02 May 1933. The newspaper Inverness Courier related an account of a local couple who claimed to have seen "an enormous animal rolling and plunging on the surface." The story of the "monster" (the word chosen by the Courier editor) became a media phenomenon, with London newspapers sending correspondents to Scotland and a circus offering a £20'000 reward for capture of the beast. Loch Ness, located in the Scottish Highlands, has the largest volume of fresh water in Great Britain; the body of water reaches a depth of more than 200 meters and a length of about 37 km. Scholars of the Loch Ness Monster find a dozen references to "Nessie" in Scottish history, dating back to around A.D. 500, when local Picts carved a strange aquatic creature into standing stones near Loch Ness. The earliest written reference to a monster in Loch Ness is a 7th-century biography of Saint Columba, the Irish missionary who introduced Christianity to Scotland. In 565, according to the biographer, Columba was on his way to visit the king of the northern Picts near Inverness when he stopped at Loch Ness to confront a beast that had been killing people in the lake. Seeing a large beast about to attack another man, Columba intervened, invoking the name of God and commanding the creature to "go back with all speed." The monster retreated and never killed another man.
In 1933, a new road was completed along Loch Ness' shore, affording drivers a clear view of the loch. After an April 1933 sighting was reported in the local paper on 02 May, interest steadily grew, especially after another couple claimed to have seen the beast on land, crossing the shore road. Several British newspapers sent reporters to Scotland, including London's Daily Mail, which hired big-game hunter Marmaduke Wetherell to capture the beast. After a few days searching the loch, Wetherell reported finding footprints of a large four-legged animal. In response, the Daily Mail carried the dramatic headline: "MONSTER OF LOCH NESS IS NOT LEGEND BUT A FACT." Scores of tourists descended on Loch Ness and sat in boats or decks chairs waiting for an appearance by the beast. Plaster casts of the footprints were sent to the British Natural History Museum, which reported that the tracks were that of a hippopotamus, specifically one hippopotamus foot, probably stuffed. The hoax temporarily deflated Loch Ness Monster mania, but stories of sightings continued.
A famous 1934 photograph seemed to show a dinosaur-like creature with a long neck emerging out of the murky waters, leading some to speculate that "Nessie" was a solitary survivor of the long-extinct plesiosaurs. The aquatic plesiosaurs were thought to have died off with the rest of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Loch Ness was frozen solid during the recent ice ages, however, so this creature would have had to have made its way up the River Ness from the sea in the past 10'000 years. And the plesiosaurs, believed to be cold-blooded, would not long survive in the frigid waters of Loch Ness. More likely, others suggested, it was an archeocyte, a primitive whale with a serpentine neck that is thought to have been extinct for 18 million years. Skeptics argued that what people were seeing in Loch Ness were "seiches" oscillations in the water surface caused by the inflow of cold river water into the slightly warmer loch. Amateur investigators kept an almost constant vigil, and in the 1960s several British universities launched expeditions to Loch Ness, using sonar to search the deep. Nothing conclusive was found, but in each expedition the sonar operators detected large, moving underwater objects they could not explain. In 1975, Boston's Academy of Applied Science combined sonar and underwater photography in an expedition to Loch Ness. A photo resulted that, after enhancement, appeared to show the giant flipper of a plesiosaur-like creature. Further sonar expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in more tantalizing, if inconclusive, readings. Revelations in 1994 that the famous 1934 photo was a hoax hardly dampened the enthusiasm of tourists and professional and amateur investigators to the legend of the Loch Ness Monster.
| 1926 The first drawing to be faxed successfully across
the Atlantic Ocean is transmitted. The fax, a sketch of Ambassador Alanson
Bigelow Houghton by Augustus John, was sent from London to The New York
Times offices in New York. The transmission took about an hour.
1926 US Marines land in Nicaragua to put down a revolt and to protect US interests. They would not depart until 1933.
1919 First US air passenger service starts.
1890 Territory of Oklahoma is created.
1885 Congo Free State established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
1878 US stops minting 20-cent coin
1865 US President Andrew Johnson offered $100'000 reward for the capture of fugitive Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
1863 South defeats North in Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia. Confederate General Thomas Stonewall Jackson is accidentally wounded by his own men; he would die eight days later.
1863 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1813 Napoléon defeats a Russian and Prussian army at Grossgorschen
Madrid revolts against French rule.
During the Peninsular War, a popular uprising against the French occupation of Spain begins in Madrid, culminating in a fierce battle fought out in the Puerta del Sol, the Madrid’s central square.
A las dos la tarde del mismo 2 de Mayo, todo foco insurreccional había sido aniquilado y la rebelión podía considerarse totalmente sofocada. Fue entonces cuando Murat se lanzó a una represalia de terror desproporcionado cuyo fin era aterrorizar a la población para que aceptara el nuevo statu quo. Desde ese momento se comenzó a fusilar a todo el que se le encontró con armas, considerando como tales cualquier elemento cortante o punzante (a Manuela Melasaña, por ejemplo, se la ejecutó por habérsele encontrado en el bolsillo unas tijeras. La infeliz era costurera.) También y además, se ordenó incendiar o volar con pólvora numerosos edificios, so pretexto de que desde ellos se había hecho fuego en algún momento contra los franceses. Por uno u otro motivo, pues, numerosos madrileños fueron sacrificados entre el 02 y el 05 Mayo de 1808.
The Spanish rebels were defeated, and during the night the French army under Joachim Murat shot hundreds of citizens along the Prado promenade in reprisal. The gruesome events of the day were depicted by Spanish artist Francisco de Goya in two well-known pictures: [El Tercero de Mayo de 1808] and [El Dos de Mayo de 1808 en Madrid o La lucha de los mamelucos en la Puerta del Sol >]
On 16 February 1808, under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal, French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte had invaded Spain. Over the next few weeks, the invading French forces captured Pamplona and Barcelona, and on 23 March, four days after a palace coup deposed King Charles IV of Spain, they entered Madrid under Joachim Murat.
Charles and the new Spanish king, Ferdinand VII, were subsequently called to Bayonne, France, by Napoléon , and, in early May, were forced to abdicate in favor of Napoléon 's brother, Joseph. On 15 June Joseph Napoléon was proclaimed king of Spain, leading to a general anti-French revolt that spread from Madrid across the Iberian Peninsula.
In August, a British expeditionary force under Arthur Wellesley, later the Duke of Wellington, landed on the Portuguese coast and by mid 1809 it had driven the French out of the country. Thus began a long series of seesaw campaigns between the French and British in Spain, where the British were aided by small bands of Spanish irregulars known as guerillas.
Finally, in June of 1813, allied forces under Wellesley routed the French forces of Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan at Vitoria, Spain. By October, the Iberian Peninsula was liberated, and Wellesley launched an invasion of France. The allies had penetrated France as far as Toulouse when news of Napoléon’s abdication reached them in April of 1814, ending the Peninsular War.
Les habitants de Madrid se soulèvent contre l'occupant français. Deux semaines plus tôt, un coup d'Etat avait chassé le Premier ministre Godoy, amant de la reine d'Espagne. Cet intrigant avait entraîné son pays dans une alliance avec la France révolutionnaire, contre l'Angleterre. Il s'en était suivi la ruine du pays, la perte de la flotte et des colonies d'Amérique, enfin l'occupation par l'armée de Napoléon 1er. Sitôt Godoy évincé, le roi Charles IV de Bourbon abdique en faveur de son fils Ferdinand. C'est compter sans Napoléon 1er, qui a l'idée d'offrir le trône d'Espagne à son frère Joseph.
Le maréchal Murat, qui représente à Madrid l'empereur des Français, convoque l'ancien et le nouveau roi à Bayonne pour leur signifier leur déchéance. La foule madrilène, alertée, s'en prend aux troupes de Murat. Ce dernier réagit avec une extrême brutalité. La répression est impitoyable ainsi qu'en témoigne le peintre Goya dans un tableau d'un stupéfiant réalisme («Dos de Mayo»).
Mais les exécutions sommaires, les pillages et les viols par l'armée française n'empêchent pas la révolte de s'étendre à tout le pays à l'appel du clergé, de la noblesse et des libéraux. Plusieurs armées françaises sont anéanties du fait de cette «guerre de l'indépendance» d'un genre inconnu jusqu'alors. On invente l'expression «guerilla» (en espagnol, petite guerre) pour qualifier les attaques surprises des combattants de l'ombre qui ne laissent aucune chance aux groupes de soldats isolés. Les Anglais en profitent pour débarquer en Espagne un corps expéditionnaire sous la conduite du général Arthur Wellesley, futur duc de Wellington (celui-là même qui vaincra Napoléon à Waterloo). Par leur détermination, les Espagnols sont à l'origine du premier revers grave infligé à Napoléon 1er et aux héritiers de la Révolution française.
1789 En France, les milles députés aux Etats Généraux (qui vont s'ouvrir le 5 mai), des trois ordres, sont reçus à Versailles par le Roi Louis XV
1780 William Herschel discovers first binary star, Xi Ursae Majoris
1776 France and Spain agree to donate arms to the American rebels fighting the British.
1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends War of Devolution
1507 Two years after entering the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt, future German reformer Martin Luther, 23, is ordained a priest. (Luther remained in the order until 1521, when he was excommunicated from the Catholic Church.)
which occurred on a May 02:
2003 James Miller, 43, British freelance cameramen, after being shot in the neck by Israeli troops late in the night, as he was filming Israeli armored bulldozers razing Palestinian houses near the Egyptian border in the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip. The Israelis claim that they were firing back at the source of an anti-tank missile that had been fired at them, and that “a cameraman who knowingly enters a combat zone, especially at night, endangers himself.” But Abdel-Rahman Abdullah, a freelance Palestinian journalist who was with Miller, tells Reuters that there had been no firing at the Israelis and: “We got close to the area and filmed, but we couldn't leave because a tank was around 100 meters from where we stood. ... We even called out to the Israeli troops in their armored vehicles and could hear them talking inside” and that, in the camera lights, “we were very visible to the troops, with a white flag and ‘TV’ markings on our vests, but still the troops opened fire, hitting James Miller.” Miller was making a documentary on how Palestinian children are affected by violence.
2003 Daniel Bondeson, 53, after shooting himself in his home in New Sweden, Maine. He was a member of the Gustaf Adolph Lutheran Church, in which, on 27 April 2003, arsenic-laced coffee poisoned 16 members, one of which, Walter Reid Morrill, 78, died of it on 28 April 2003.
2003 Mohammed Dib, Algerian novelist and poet born on 21 July 1920. He wrote in French and is best known for his novel trilogy about rural Algeria in the late 1930s: La Grande Maison (1952), L'Incendie (1954), Le Métier à Tisser (1957).
2003 The Old Man of the Mountain, approximately 6000 years old, as his 12-meter-high face crumbles on Mount Cannon, in Franconia State Park, New Hampshire, shrouded by clouds throughout this day, so that his demise is only discovered the next morning [below, right]. Created by glaciers, the profile [below, left] became a symbol of New Hampshire. It appears on the state quarter [below, center], license plates, state road signs, the logo of an internet company, and countless souvenirs and tourist brochures. Millions of tourists have traveled through Franconia Notch to view the profile, 400 meters above Interstate 93 about 100 km north of Concord. The state had used cables and epoxy to try for years to delay the inevitable collapse of the rock profile due to erosion and the natural freeze-and-thaw cycle.
2002:: 26 Maoist guerrillas killed in a gunbattle with the Nepalese army in Lisne, Rolpa district, 300 km west of Katmandu.
2002:: 32 Maoist guerillas killed by Nepalese security forces in the village Bhagal, 500 km west of Katmandu.
2002 Fifteen farmers killed by lightning while working in rice fields in pouring rain near the towns of Brahmmanbaria, Sylhet and Sunamganj, 180 km northeast of Dhaka, Bangladesh capital. Tropical storms since 27 March 2002, have killed at least 44 others and left more than 5000 homeless in Bangladesh.
2000 Christina Marie Riggs, former nurse, executed by injection in Arkansas for smothering her two young children.
1990 David Rappaport, 38, 129-cm actor (wizard), shoots himself
1982 Solomon Bochner, Jewish Polish US mathematician, born on 20 August 1899.
1894 Stanislaw Polian Wolski, Polish artist born on 08 April 1859.
1887 Anton Doll, German artist born on 03 Mar 1826.
1886 Jérome Thompson, US artist born on 30 January 1814.
1714 Gennaro Mascacotta Greco, Napolitan painter born in 1663. — more
1519 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian sculptor / scientist / visionary / mathematician / painter, born on 15 April 1452. Writings by LEONARDO DA VINCI ONLINE: Aforismi, novelle e profezie (zipped) MORE ON DA VINCI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.
1430 (buried) Giovanni Francesco Toscani (or Tossicani), Italian painter born in 1372. — more with links to images.
which occurred on a May 02:
1660 Alessandro Scarlatti, Palermo, Italy, composer (Tigrane). He died on 24 October 1725.
1601 Athanasius Kircher, in Thuringia, German Jesuit who died on 27 November 1680 in Rome, the last Renaissance man and/or the first Postmodernist. Amazing. MORE ON KIRCHER.
1588 Étienne Pascal, French lawyer, government official, mathematician, who died on 24 September 1651. He discovered the curve Limaçon de Pascal, which can be used to trisect an angle; its Cartesian equation is (x² + y² - 2ax)² = b²(x² + y²), and its polar equation is r = b + 2a cos(q) [diagram >]. He was the father of Blaise Pascal [19 Jun 1623 – 19 Aug 1662].