• Confederate president captured... • Mandela becomes South Africa's president... • Bloody Hamburger Hill... • Tom Jones's final volume... • 1000th Rickenbacker car... • Digital's minicomputer... • Hess parachutes in Scotland... • Really Siamese twins... • Microsoft Network... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Stonewall Jackson dies... • 211 Tiananmen prisoners released... • Hoover promoted to head FBI... • Transcontinental railroad... • Revulsion at mining North Vietnam's harbors... • Panic of 1837... • Hitler invades Holland and Belgium ... • Churchill becomes UK prime minister... • Election day deaths in India... • Banzer is born... • Lonely Crowd author dies...
a May 10:
2002 On the NASDQ, the A shares of the communications services corporation Western Wireless (WWCA) fall from the previous close of $5.68 to an intraday low of $2.91 and close at $3.35. This follows the previous evenings announcement of disappointing first-quarter results: loss of some domestic subscribers, lower-than-expected ebidta (earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.). The stock had traded as high as $72.31 on 17 January 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2000 High wind drove what began as a deliberately set fire into a New Mexico canyon, forcing the evacuation of the entire town of Los Alamos and its 11'000 residents. (The fire had been set to contain an earlier blaze intended to clear brush.)
1999 China breaks off talks on human rights with the US in response to NATO's accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia.
1999 The Cézanne painting Still Life With Curtain, Pitcher and Bowl of Fruit is sold for 60.5 million. MORE AT ART 4 MAY
1995 Content providers line up for MSN ^top^
Microsoft says it has struck deals with forty-three content providers for its new online service, the Microsoft Network. The network, a proprietary online service akin to AOL, is slated to launch in August 1995 along with the long-awaited Windows 95 operating software.
Although MSN debuted with much fanfare, the company all but dropped support for the proprietary service shortly after its launch. Instead, Microsoft turned its attention to the Internet and moved most of MSN's content over to the Web.
1995 Se produce una reunión entre el gobierno de Estados Unidos y Rusia en la que se establece un acuerdo sobre el desarme de ambas naciones.
1994 Annular solar eclipse visible on a path from Maine to Baja California, which I observe from its center in San Elizario, near El Paso TX.
Mandela inaugurated as South African President
In South Africa, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela is sworn in a president, becoming the country's first black head of state. Two weeks earlier, more than twenty-two million South Africans had turned out to cast ballots in the country's first-ever multiracial parliamentary elections. An overwhelming majority chose anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela to lead a new coalition government that included his African National Congress (ANC) party, former President F. W. de Klerk's National party, and Zulu leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi's Inkatha Freedom party.
In 1944, Mandela, a lawyer, joined the ANC, the oldest black political organization in South Africa, where he became a leader of Johannesburg's youth wing of the party. In 1952, he became deputy national president of the ANC, advocating nonviolent resistance to apartheid South Africa's institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation.
However, after the massacre of peaceful black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in guerrilla warfare against the white minority government. In 1961, he was arrested for treason, and, although acquitted, he was arrested again in 1964 for sabotage and was convicted along with several other ANC leaders at the Rivonia Trial.
Sentenced to life in prison, he became a symbol of the South African and international movement to end apartheid. In 1989, F. W. de Klerk became South African president, and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and on 11 February 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela after twenty-seven years at Robben Island prison.
Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and in April of 1994, Mandela was elected South African president in the country's first free elections.
In his inaugural address, Mandela, who spent 27 years of his life as a political prisoner of the South African government, declared that "the time for the healing of the wounds has come." Two weeks earlier, more than 22 million South Africans had turned out to cast ballots in the country's first-ever multiracial parliamentary elections. An overwhelming majority chose Mandela and his African National Congress (ANC) party to lead the country. Mandela, born in 1918, was the son of the chief of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu people. Instead of succeeding his father as chief, Mandela went to university and became a lawyer. In 1944, he joined the African National Congress (ANC), a black political organization dedicated to winning rights for the black majority in white-ruled South Africa. In 1948, the racist National Party came to power, and apartheid South Africa's institutionalized system of white supremacy and racial segregation became official government policy.
With the loss of black rights under apartheid, black enrollment in the ANC rapidly grew. Mandela became one of the ANC's leaders and in 1952 was made deputy national president of the ANC. He organized nonviolent strikes, boycotts, marches, and other acts of civil disobedience. After the massacre of peaceful black demonstrators at Sharpeville in 1960, Nelson helped organize a paramilitary branch of the ANC to engage in acts of sabotage against the white minority government. He was tried for and acquitted of treason in 1961 but in 1962 was arrested again for illegally leaving the country. Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1963 with seven others on charges of sabotage, treason, and conspiracy. In the celebrated Rivonia Trial, named after the suburb of Johannesburg where ANC weapons were found, Mandela eloquently defended his actions. On 12 June 1964, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Mandela spent the first 18 of his 27 years in jail at the brutal Robben Island Prison. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labor in a quarry. He could write and receive a letter once every six months, and once a year he was allowed to meet with a visitor for 30 minutes. However, Mandela's resolve remained unbroken, and while remaining the symbolic leader of the anti-apartheid movement, he led a movement of civil disobedience at the prison that coerced South African officials into drastically improving conditions on Robben Island. In 1982 he was moved to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland, and in 1988 to a cottage, where he lived under house arrest. In 1989, F.W. de Klerk became South African president and set about dismantling apartheid. De Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, suspended executions, and on 11 February 1990, ordered the release of Nelson Mandela.
Mandela subsequently led the ANC in its negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On 26 April 1994, the country's first free elections were won by Mandela and the ANC, and a "national unity" coalition was formed with de Klerk's National Party and the Zulus' Inkatha Freedom Party. On 10 May Mandela was inaugurated in a ceremony attended by numerous international dignitaries. As president, Mandela established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights violations under apartheid and introduced numerous initiatives designed to improve the living standards of South Africa's black population. In 1996, he presided over the enactment of a new South African constitution. Mandela retired from politics in June 1999 at the age of 80. He was succeeded as president by Thabo Mbeki of the ANC.
1988 El presidente François Mitterrand nombra al también socialista Michel Rocard nuevo primer ministro del Gobierno francés, tras la derrota y dimisión del conservador Chirac.
1979 Federated States of Micronesia becomes self-governing
1979 Salvador Dalí ingresa en la Academia de Bellas Artes de Francia, como miembro asociado. Links to reproductions of ART BY DALI ONLINE
1979 Vivekananda completes nonstop cycle ride of 187 hrs, 28 min, around Vihara Maha Devi Park, Colombo, Sri Lanka
| 1971 US special delivery rates go from 45 to 60 cents.
1960 USS Nautilus completes first circumnavigation of globe under water
1957 first meeting of legislature of Cameroon
1949 Se designa la ciudad de Bonn como capital de la República Federal Alemana.
1948 Se celebran elecciones en Corea del Sur, controladas por la ONU.
1943 La aviación aliada bombardea Sicilia.
1941 England's House of Commons detroyed in a blitz.
| 1939 The Declaration of Union reunites the Methodist
Episcopal Church in the US after 109 years of division. (The Methodist Protestant
Church had separated from the parent denomination in 1830, as had the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South, later, in 1844.)
1936 Manuel Azaña Díaz es designado por las propias Cortes Presidente de la II República española.
1933 The Nazis stage massive public book burnings in Germany.1941, Adolf Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, parachuted into Scotland on what he claimed was a peace mission. In 1968, preliminary Vietnam peace talks began in Paris. In 1981, Socialist Francois Mitterrand defeated incumbent Valery Giscard d'Estaing in the second round of France's presidential election.
1933 El régimen nazi quema, en Berlín, 20'000 libros de autores que figuraban en su lista negra.
1932 Albert Lebrun, elegido presidente de la República Francesa.
1931 Golf ball size hail falls in Burlington NJ
1930 first US planetarium opens (Adler-Chicago)
1921 Dinamarca declara a Groenlandia territorio de su soberanía.
1917 Atlantic ships get destroyer escorts to stop German attacks
1910 Comet Halley's closest approach to Earth in 1910 pass
1908 first Mother's Day held (Phila)
1906 Russia's Duma (Parliament) meets for first time
1886 Apertura de las primeras Cortes de la Regencia de María Cristina de Austria, reina de España, viuda de Alfonso XII.
1877 Proclamación de la independencia de Rumania tras declarar la guerra a Turquía, de la que hasta entonces había sido tributaria.
1873 El padre Damián parte hacia Molokai, donde estaban deportados todos los enfermos de lepra.
1872 Victoria Woodhull becomes first woman nominated for US president.
Transcontinental railroad completed
In a remote corner of Utah, the presidents of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads met and drove a ceremonial last spike into a rail that connected their railroads and made transcontinental railroad service possible for the first time in American history.
Although travelers would have to take a roundabout journey to cross the country on this railroad system, the driving of the golden spike at Promontory Point forever closed a chapter of Western history. No longer would Western-bound travelers need to take the long and dangerous journey by wagon train, and the West would surely lose some its wildness with this new connection to the civilized East.
As early as 1852, Congress considered the construction of a transcontinental railroad, although the question became enmeshed in the sectional politics of the time. In 1866, starting in Omaha and Sacramento, the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads began working towards each other across the northern route, with land grants as the great incentive. In their eagerness for land, the two lines built right past each other and the final meeting place had to be renegotiated. On May 10, 1869, they finally met at Promontory Point, Utah.
At Promontory Point, Utah, California Governor Leland Stanford pounds in a ceremonial golden spike that completes the nation's first transcontinental railway. After failing to hit the spike on his first attempt, Stanford raised the heavy sledgehammer again and struck a solid square blow. For the first time in American history, railways linked together east and west, the realization of a dream that began two decades earlier. Americans had been enthusiastic railroaders long before the transcontinental line was built. In 1850, some 15'000 kilometers of track covered the United States. By 1860, the number had risen to some 50'000 kilometers, more kilometers of rail than the rest of the world altogether. Initially, most of the construction had been in the nation's growing industrial centers in the Northeast, but by 1860, railways were rapidly expanding into the upper Midwest. Congress began considering how best to support the building of a transcontinental line in the late 1840s. The discovery of gold in California in 1848 made the issue all the more urgent: only a transcontinental railway could effectively tie that far-off region to the rest of the nation. Northern and southern politicians, however, disagreed over where the line should be constructed, and the project stalled for more than a decade. The outbreak of the Civil War finally broke the stalemate. Unencumbered by southern objections, northern legislatures approved a central route from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento, California. More importantly, in 1862 and 1864 Congress passed acts that gave huge cash subsidies and land grants to private companies that agreed to build the tracks across the continent. Recognizing a moneymaking opportunity, two companies took up the challenge. The California-based Central Pacific began laying tracks eastward from Sacramento. The eastern-based Union Pacific began in Omaha and built west. The laborers working for the Central Pacific faced the greater challenge-building across the rugged Sierra Nevada Mountains. As a result, their progress was naturally slower than that of the work force of the Union Pacific, who managed to average a mile a day over mostly flat terrain. The Central Pacific crew was primarily Chinese immigrants, while Irish immigrants dominated the Union Pacific. Toward the end of the project, the two sides engaged in a bitter rivalry that at times took on unpleasant racist overtones. Both groups, however, labored heroically in difficult and frequently dangerous conditions, often working as long as 15 hours each day.
When the two lines connected at Promontory Point in northern Utah, it was the beginning of a dramatic transformation of the West. A 4800-kilometer journey that had previously taken months to complete could now take only days by rail. More importantly, the abundant resources of the West could be shipped quickly and profitably to insatiable eastern markets, greatly spurring the development of the western economy. In years to come, thousands of emigrants rode the rails westward to homestead land, encroaching on Native American territories and hastening the demise of their way of life. Perhaps more than any other single event, the completion of the transcontinental railroad enabled the US conquest and settlement of the West.
| 1865 US President Johnson declares armed resistance
against the US ended
| 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania, Virginia continues.
1862 Naval engagement at Plum Run Bend, Arkansas-Tennessee
1861 Union troops and civilians riot in St. Louis, Missouri
1857 Los cipayos, tropas hindúes al mando de oficiales británicos, se amotinan en Mirut. Este levantamiento, conocido por Rebelión de los Cipayos, trajo consigo la proclamación de la India como virreinato de la corona británica.
1841 Las Cortes nombran a Baldemero Espartero regente de España.
1794 (21 floréal an II) THOMAS Anne Marie Louise, femme Megret Serilly, âgée de 31ans, native de Paris, domiciliée à Passy (Yonne), est c.ondamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice; elle s'est déclarée enceinte, et a été transférée à l'évêché, d'où elle a été mise en liberté après le 9 thermidor.
1793 LAURENS Jean Antoine, domicilié à Rhodés (Aveyron), est condamné à la déportation, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1775 2nd Cont Congress convened in Pa issues paper currency for first time
1775 Colonel Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen with his Green Mountain Boys capture the British-held fortress at Ticonderoga NY, during the US War of Independence.
1774 Louis XVI ascends the throne of France.
1773 The English Parliament passes the Tea Act, which taxes all tea in the American colonies (and will lead to a costumed party in Boston).
1706 Guerra de Sucesión Española: Las tropas franco-españolas de Felipe V levantan el sitio de Barcelona.
1676 Bacon's Rebellion, frontiersmen vs. Virginia government begins.
1652 John Johnson, a free black granted 550 acres in Northampton. Va
1508 Miguel Angel Buonarroti comienza la pintura de los frescos de la Capilla Sixtina, en el Vaticano. Links to reproductions of ART BY MICHELANGELO ONLINE
1503 Columbus discovers the Cayman Islands.
1427 Jews are expelled from Berne Switzerland.
which occurred on a May 10:
2003 Joshua Keith Laney, 8, and Luke Allen Laney, 6, hit with rocks by their Mother Deannna LaJune Laney, 38 [photo >], who hits similarly her other son, Aaron James Laney, 14 months, who survives in critical condition. She then calls 911 and says that God ordered her to kill her sons.
2003 Christopher Ibarra, born in September 2001, after life support is withdrawn from him, at the request of his mother, Tamara Sepulveda, 23, and against the objections (rejected by the California Supreme Court on 23 April 2003) of his father, Moises Vasquez Ibarra, 24, who, since his 20 December 2001 arrest, is in jail awaiting trial because, on 17 December 2001 he beat, shook, and threw the infant against the crib, putting him into an irreversible coma.
2003 Israel E. Levine, 79, after vascular surgery, public-relations director. From the 1950's to the 1970's, he wrote children's nonfiction and magazine articles as well as a dozen biographies for teenage readers. Some of his books: Young man in the White House: John Fitzgerald Kennedy — Lenin: The Man Who Made a Revolution — Conqueror of Smallpox: Dr. Edward Jenner — Discoverer of Insulin: Dr. Frederick G. Banting — The Many Faces of Slavery — Spokesman for the Free World: Adlai E. Stevenson — Champion of World Peace: Dag Hammarskjold — Francis Bacon: 1561-1626 — Faithful rebels; a study in Jewish speculative thought — Inventive Wizard: George Westinghouse — Electronics Pioneer: Lee De Forest.
2003 Thirteen persons, including an Abu Sayyaf Muslim terrorist who had just placed a bomb in one of the motorcycle taxicabs lined up outside the main market in Koronadal, Mindanao island, the Philippines. Some 40 persons are injured.
1997 Nick Paolone, 18, shot, in Youngstown.
1996 Fourteen persons as two Marine helicopters crash after colliding in the dark. They crashed into a swamp at Camp Lejeune, N.C., during a US-British training exercise.
1994 John Wayne Gacy, executed by the state of Illinois for the murders of 33 young men and boys.
1993 At least 187 persons, in fire in doll factory near Bangkok, Thailand. 500 others are. It is the world's deadliest factory fire.
1991 Four other persons and Julio Cortés Alfonso, Catholic pastor of Tununguí (Boyacá) Colombia, murdered by FARC guerrillas.
1989 Hassler Whitney, of a stroke, US mathematician and mountain-climber, born on 23 March 1907. He is known among rock climbers for having been the first, together with his cousin Bradley Gilman to have climbed (on 03 August 1929)o and without pitons too, a 200-meter high knife-edge ridge on Cannon cliff, New Hampshire. The ridge was subsequently named in their honor, the Whitney-Gilman ridge.
1941 Diederik Johannes Korteweg, Dutch applied mathematician born on 31 March 1848.
1930 Edward Stratemeyer, 67, American writer of popular juvenile fiction, whose Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate (1906-84) produced such books as the Rover Boys series, the Hardy Boys series, the Tom Swift series, the Bobbsey Twins series, and the Nancy Drew series. He was born on 04 October 1862. Afterwards his company was largely directed by his daughter, Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (1893-1982).
1923 Vaslav Vorovsky Russian delegate, assassinated
1919 Two Blacks in race riot in Charleston, SC
1904 Henry Morton Stanley, periodista y explorador inglés.
1819 Mariano Salvador de Maella, pintor español.
1798 George Vancouver, British explorer. (birth date unknown)
1774 Louis XV, rey de Francia.
1670 Claude Vignon, French painter and engraver born on 19 May 1593. MORE ON VIGNON AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Esther before Ahasuerus Croesus Receiving Tribute from a Lydian Peasant The Young Singer
| Births which
occurred on a May 10:
1973 El Frente Polisario es fundado por jóvenes nacionalistas saharauis, dirigidos por Mustafá El Uali y Mohamed Abdelaziz.
1955 Mark David Chapman assassin of John Lennon
1944 Juan José Lucas Jiménez, político español.
1908 Carl Albert (D) speaker of the US House of Representatives.
1907 Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg, primogénito de los Reyes de España, Príncipe de Asturias.
1898 Ada Kaufman, future Ariel Durant, Russian-born US writer; with her husband Will(iam James) Durant [05 Nov 1885 07 Nov 1981] co-author of the 11-volume The Story of Civilization (1935-1975) and of A Dual Autobiography (1977). She died on 25 October 1981.
1897 Einar Gerhardsen, Norwegian politician; prime minister four times between 1945 and 1965. He died on 19 September 1987.
1886 Karl Barth, Swiss theologian who died on 09 December 1968.
1886 (? or on 08 Feb = 27 Jan Julian) Léon Nicolaevitch Bakst (Lev Samoylovich Rosenberg), Byelorussian Jewish theater costume and scenery designer who died on 28 (27?) December 1924. MORE ON BAKST AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Bacchante Minister of State Nymph in red Nymph in blue The Faun [Nijinsky] 17 theatrical designs at FAMSF
1880 Domenico Minervino, who would die on 21 May 1991.
1878 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923) (Nobel 1926)
1861 Fannie Moody, British artist.
1859 Wilhelm Wrede, German Bible scholar who contended that the gospels reflected the theology of the primitive Church rather than the true history of Jesus. Wrede thus contributed his name to the title of Albert Schweitzer's 1906 theological classic: "The Quest of the Historical Jesus: From Reimarus to Wrede."
1850 Sir Thomas Lipton, Scottish-born English merchant who built the Lipton tea empire. He died on 02 October 1931.
1847 Wilhelm Karl Joseph Killing, German mathematician who died on 11 February 1923. He introduced Lie algebras independently of Lie [17 Dec 1842 – 18 Feb 1899] in his study of non-euclidean geometry. The classification of the simple Lie algebras by Killing was one of the finest achievements in the whole of mathematical research.
1843 Benito Pérez Galdós, novelista español.
1838 John Wilkes Booth, US actor who assassinated Abraham Lincoln on 14 Apr 1865. Cornered by pursuers, Booth was killed or killed himself on 26 April 1865.
1828 James McDougal Hart, Scottish US painter who died on 24 October 1901. MORE ON HART AT ART 4 MAY LINKS An afternoon concert Returning from harvest — Presidential Range and Starr King Mountain from Lunenburg VT — The Adirondacks
1827 David Johnson, US Hudson River School painter who died on 30 January 1908. MORE ON JOHNSON AT ART 4 MAY LINKS View of Dresden, Lake George
1826 Henry Clifton Sorby, geólogo, naturalista y metalúrgico británico.
1822 (baptized soon after birth) August Xaver Karl Pettenkofen, Viennese painter who died on 21 March 1889. MORE ON PETTENKOFEN AT ART 4 MAY Robbers in a Cornfield — Frau mit Topfpflanzen vor Bauernhaus — Platz vor einem ungarischen Bauernhaus
1735 Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro, gran figura del enciclopedismo español, precursor de la Filología Comparada.
1699 Bartolomeo Nazari, Italian artist who died on 24 August 1758.