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• 7~years war begins... • Coup attempt in Tokyo... • Alabama's Wallace shot... • UK 3rd thermonuclear power... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Soviets start leaving Afghanistan... • First Allied jet flies... • Battle of New Market... • San Francisco vigilantes... • US forces under heavy fire in Vietnam... • 20 million VWs ... • Protectionism or not?... • Cars on Nantucket... • Ship of Fools author is born... • Women's Army Corps... • New Cray supercomputer... • Amazon IPO... • Justice Department meets with Microsoft...
|On a 15 May:
2208:: 4m19s annular eclipse of the sun, centered at 17:46 UT, best visible at 18º40'N 87º05'W, off the east coast of Yucatan.
2189:: 7m31s annular eclipse of the sun, centered at 10:02 UT, best visible at 22º35'S 43º10'E, near the west coast of Madagascar.
2003 Lunar eclipse visible in Europe, Africa, Antarctica, and in North America with umbra from 20:02 to 23:17 MDT (16 May 02:02 to 05:17 UT) and totality from at 21:13 to 22:06 MDT (16 May 03:13 to 04:06 UT)
2002 In Nederlandia comitia parlamentaria facta sunt, quorum victores exstiterunt democratae Christiani et populistae extremae dextrae. Omnibus apparet, nisi Pim Fortuyn, dux huius factionis, per insidias occisus esset, extremistas tantam gratiam apud cives inituros non fuisse. Partes autem administratrices cladem acerbam acceperunt, quo fit, ut coalitio socialistarum et fautorum factionis centralis post regimen octo annorum potestate absistere cogatur. Dubium enim non est, quin Jan Peter Balkenende, praeses democratarum Christianorum, novus primus minister Nederlandiae futurus sit.
2001 Qwest's 96'000 pay phones in 14 states of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains begin a 4-month period of conversion from 35 to 50 cents. U S West, Qwest's predecessor, last raised the rate from 25 to 35 cents over the period 1987 to 1998. The two biggest US pay phone operators, Verizon and SBC, as well as AT&T with its fewer pay phones, are not increasing their rates.
2000 By a 5-4 vote, the US Supreme Court throws out a key provision of the 1994 Violence Against Women Act, saying that rape victims could not sue their attackers in federal court.
2000 United Press International was sold to the parent company of The Washington Times.
| 1991 French President Francois Mitterrand appointed
Edith Cresson to be France's first female premier.
1991 US Defense Department releases documents claiming that Noriega was "CIA's man in Panama"
1990 Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches a record 2822.45
1989 Soviet President Gorbachev in Beijing for first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years.
| 1972 Ryukyu Is and Daito Is returned to Japan after
27 yrs of US control
1948 Day commemorated every year by Palestinians as Al-Naqba (The Catastrophe) following the creation of the state of Israel., their expulsion from their homes in Israel proper, and oppression in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
1942 Gasoline rationing went into effect in 17 US states, limiting sales to three gallons a week for non-essential vehicles.
First Allied jet plane flies.
The first test of an Allied aircraft using jet propulsion is made in England. The turbo jet engine, which produced a powerful thrust of hot air, was devised by Frank Whittle, a Royal Air Force engineer who also flew the initial tests.
The jet-propelled Gloster-Whittle E 28/39 aircraft flies successfully over Cranwell, England, in the first test of an Allied aircraft using jet propulsion. The aircraft's turbojet engine, which produced a powerful thrust of hot air, was devised by Frank Whittle, an English aviation engineer and pilot generally regarded as the father of the jet engine. Whittle, born in Coventry in 1907, was the son of a mechanic. At the age of 16, he joined the Royal Air Force (RAF) as an aircraft apprentice at Cranwell and in 1926 passed a medical exam to become a pilot and joined the RAF College. He won a reputation as a daredevil flier and in 1928 wrote a senior thesis entitled Future Developments in Aircraft Design, which discussed the possibilities of rocket propulsion. From the first Wright brothers flight in 1903 to the first jet flight in 1939, airplanes were propeller driven.
Early on, engineers realized that propeller technology would never overcome certain inherent limitations, especially in regard to speed. However, before Whittle came along, no one had theorized a practical alternative. After graduating from the RAF college, he was posted to a fighter squadron, and in his spare time he worked out the essentials of the modern turbojet engine. A flying instructor, impressed with his propulsion ideas, introduced him to the Air Ministry and a private turbine engineering firm, but both ridiculed Whittle's ideas as impractical. In 1930, he patented his jet engine concept and in 1936 formed the company Power Jets Ltd. to build and test his invention. In 1937, he tested his first jet engine on the ground. He still received only limited funding and support, and on 27 August 1939, the German Heinkel He 178, designed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain, made the first jet flight in history. The German prototype jet was developed independently of Whittle's efforts. One week after the flight of the He 178, World War II broke out in Europe, and Whittle's project got a further lease of life. The Air Ministry commissioned a new jet engine from Power Jets and asked the Gloster Aircraft Company to build an experimental aircraft to accommodate it, specified as E 28/39.
On 15 May 1941, at dusk on a remarkably bitter day, the jet-propelled Gloster-Whittle E 28/39 flew, beating out a jet prototype being developed by the same British turbine company that earlier balked at his ideas. In its initial tests, Whittle's aircraft flown by the test pilot Gerry Sayer achieved a top speed of 600 km/h at 7500 m altitude, faster than the Spitfire or any other conventional propeller-driven planes. Its specs were: Wing Span: 8.84 m, Length: 7.72 m, Weight: Gross 1678 kg.
As the Gloster Aircraft Company worked on an operational turbojet aircraft for combat, Whittle aided the Americans in their successful development of a jet prototype. With Whittle's blessing, the British government took over Power Jets Ltd. in 1944. By this time, Britain's Gloster Meteor jet aircraft were in service with the RAF, going up against Germany's jet-powered Messerschmitt Me 262s in the skies over Europe. Whittle retired from the RAF in 1948 with the rank of air commodore. That year, he was awarded £100'000 by the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors and was knighted. His book Jet: The Story of a Pioneer was published in 1953. In 1977, he became a research professor at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. He died in Columbia, Maryland, in 1996.
| 1940 Nylon stockings went on general sale for the first
time in the United States.
1940 Capitulation hollandaise à 9h15.
1934 Dept of Justice offers $25'000 reward for Dillinger, dead or alive
1915 A.T.&T. becomes first corporation to have 1 million stockholders
1911 The Supreme Court orders the dissolution of Standard Oil Co., ruling it was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.
1891 British Central African Protectorate (now Malawi) established
1885 Canadian M‚ti insurgent Louis Reil captured, Saskatchewan
1862 Battle of Drewry's Bluff, Virginia.
1829 Joseph Smith ordained by John the Baptist according to Joseph Smith
1800 Pope Pius VII calls on French bishops to return to Gospel principles
1793 DULAURENS Jean Jacques, domicilié à Quimper, département du Finistère, est condamné à la déportation par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1686 Rev. Robert Ratcliffe arrived in Boston from England, with orders from King Charles II to establish the Anglican Church in Massachusetts.
1618 Johannes Kepler discovers his harmonics law
1602 Cape Cod discovered by English navigator Bartholomew Gosnold
1455 A crusade against the Turks and for the capture of Constantinople is proclaimed by Pope Calixtus III.
which occurred on a May 15: ^top^
2003 Dr. Sister Alfansa; Mrs. Betty Vinayak (wife of M. K. Shaji?), 35; boy Johnie Vinayak (Shaji?), 12; girl Tonny Vinayak (Shaji?), 7; Ganpati Vinayak; and at least 33 others, at 04:00, in fire starting at 03:45 (14 May 22:15 UT), which spreads to four coaches [shown after being separated from the train >] of the Golden Temple Express train, 10 km north of Ludhiana, Punjab, India, as it was headed to Amritsar. 13 persons are injured seriously enough to be hospitalized. India has the world's largest railway network after the United States, with almost 14'000 trains carrying over 13 million passengers a day. It has about 300 accidents a year.
2003 Four terrorists, killed in the evening by ambushing Indian soldiers, just past the border from Pakistan into Indian-occupied Kashmir, in the Krishnagati area of Poonch district.
2003 Mohammed Zaaneen, 12, Palestinian, after been shot in the head, in the early hours, by Israeli troops invading Beit Hanoun, Gaza Strip, and being left unattended for four hours while the Israelis prevented ambulances from reaching the wounded. Four other Palestinians (two gunmen and two boys of 15) are also killed by the Israeli incursion.
2001 Idit Mizrahi, 22, [< photo] shot from ambush by Palestinian gunmen, shortly after 19:00, near the settlement of Ma'aleh Mikhmas, east of Ramallah. She was from the secular West Bank enclave settlement of Rimonim, driving to Jerusalem for a family wedding with her father and brother.
2001 Abdel Karim Maname, shot by Israeli tank in the Gaza strip. Maname was a bodyguard for Sheik Ahmed Yassin, founder of.Hamas.Three other Palestinians are killed by Israelis this same day.
2001 Father Raphael Paliakara and two other Catholic priests, shot by gunmen who had just exacted money from them, at the seminary in Ngarian, 26 km east of Imphal, capital of Manipur state, India. Father Paliakara was the rector. The killers are suspected to be rebels of the People's Liberation Army.
1970 Phillip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green, two black students at Jackson State University in Mississippi, by police opened gunfire during student protests.
1935 Kazimir Severinovich Malevich, Ukrainian Cubist painter born on 26 February 1878. MORE ON MALEVICH AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Self Portrait An Englishman in Moscow The Aviator Complex Presentiment: Half-Figure in a Yellow Shirt — Morning in the Village after Snowstorm — Untitled [RFD mailbox?]
1932 Tsuyoshi Inukai, 77, Japanese Prime Minister, and a policeman, murdered in coup attempt. ^top^
In 1932, Japanese military conspirators aimed at nothing less than instant revolution. On Friday 13 May 1932, five plotters had met in a restaurant in the naval base town of Tsuchiura, a two-hour train ride from Tokyo. Two naval officers, an army cadet, a student and a teacher from the agricultural Native Land-Loving School put the finishing touches on plans to terrorize the civilian government and force the country under martial law; thereupon, the army could take over in the name of the emperor. At 17:00 on Sunday 15 May, nine young naval and army officers visited Tokyo's sacred Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the country's war dead, then piled into two taxis and drove to the prime minister's official residence. One group easily entered the front door and located the prime minister's suite, while the other went around to the rear.
Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai, 77 years old, small, goateed and wearing a kimono, addled the revolver-wielding intruders by calmly asking them to sit down and talk. Suddenly, the second group of officers burst in. Their leader, a lieutenant, snapped, "No use talking. Fire!" The others obeyed. The fatally wounded Inukai slumped to the matted floor. On their way out, the killers shot a truncheon-armed policeman who challenged them. Abandoned by the taxi-drivers who had brought them, the nine found two more cabs. Their next target was central civilian police headquarters, but they found the building empty. One carload then drove on to military police headquarters and surrendered, and the second followed suit after detouring to toss a grenade at the Bank of Japan building. There were other explosives-throwing incidents in Tokyo that night.
Twenty-one naval officers and army cadets and 20 civilians would be tried for the 15 May violence. They would receive light sentences, none of which they would fully serve. It was felt that, while the extremists' actions had been objectionable, their motives had been "pure and patriotic."
Initially, the rebelling officers had planned to murder not only the prime minister but also Charlie Chaplin, who was visiting Japan. Lieutenant Seishi Koga, the plot leader, later explained: "Chaplin is a popular figure in the United States and a darling of the capitalist class. We believed that killing him would cause a war with America." The plan to assassinate Chaplin was discarded because "it was disputed...that it could bring about war with the United States and increase the power of the military."
Although senior officers refused the rebels' request to order the army to move against the government, the 15 May incident would have far-reaching effects. Civilian leaders were cowed into silence. Party government was replaced by a "cabinet of national unity" consisting of eight military officers and three civilians and headed by Admiral Makoto Saito as prime minister.
1908 Charles Frederic Ulrich, German artist born on 18 October 1858.
1904 Mosè di Giosuè Bianchi, Italian painter and etcher born on 13 October 1840. — more
1891 Edwin Long, English painter born on 12 July 1829.
1886 Emily Dickinson US poet, in Amherst, Massachusetts.
1859 Lancelot~Théodore Turpin comte de Crissé, Paris painter, lithographer, and collector, born on 06 (09?) July 1782. MORE ON TURPIN AT ART 4 MAY LINKS — Craggy Landscrape With Bacchanal — Piazzetta et Palais Ducal à Venise — Etude de hêtres aux derniers jours d'Automne — Etude de hêtres au printemps — View of a Villa, Pizzofalcone, Naples _ detail 1 _ detail 2 _ detail 3 _ detail 4 _ detail 5 _ detail 6 _ detail 7 _ detail 8
1854 Hendrik Reekers, Dutch artist born on 21 September 1815.
1789 Jean~Baptiste~Marie Pierre, French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and administrator, born on 06 March 1714. MORE ON PIERRE AT ART 4 MAY LINKS — The Rape of Europa — A Hero Welcomed into Olympus — Junon Demandant à Vénus sa Ceinture — Junon Trompant Jupiter avec la Ceinture de Vénus — Un Pont
1782 Richard Wilson, Welsh Romantic painter, active in Italy and England, specialized in Landscapes, born on 01 August 1714. MORE ON WILSON AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Lake Albano and Castel Gandolfo The Mawddach Valley and Cader Idris Solitude Francesco Zuccarelli
1734 Sebastiano Ricci (or Rizzi), Italian Rococo era painter, born in 1659. MORE ON RICCI AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Prayer in the Garden Madonna and Child with Saints The Liberation of Saint Peter Altar of Saint Gregory the Great Susanna and the Elders Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro — Bathsheba at the Bath — a different Bathsheba in her Bath Dream of Aesculapius Fall of Phaeton The Punishment of Cupid Venus and Adonis The Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne Bacchus and Ariadne Sacrifice to Silenus
1665 Claes Wou, Dutch artist born in 1592.
0884 Marinus I, Pope
| Births which
occurred on a May 15:
1936 Paul Zindel, Playwright.
1931 Pierre Lagaillarde, fondera l'Organisation de l'Armée Secrète en février 1961. Se réfugiera en Espagne.
1926 Anthony Shaffer, playwright ("Sleuth")
1926 Peter Shaffer, Playwright ("Amadeus")
1923 Richard Avedon, US, photographer (1957 ASMP award)
1922 Adil Carcani, en Fushe-Bardha, Albania, será primer ministro de Albania (1982).
1915 Paul A Samuelson economist (1970 Nobel, 1947 John Bates Clark Medal)
1910 Robert F Wagner (Mayor-D-NYC, 1949-65)
1902 Richard Daley (Mayor-D-Chic)
1862 US Department of Agriculture created
1859 Pierre Curie France, physicist (Nobel 1903)
1835 Émile Léonard Mathieu, French mathematician who died on 19 October 1890. He is remembered especially for his discovery (in 1860 and 1873) of five sporadic simple groups named after him.
1628 conte Carlo Cignani, Italian painter and draftsman who died on 06 September1719. — more
1625 Carlo Maratti (or Maratta), Italian painter who died on 15 December 1713. MORE ON MARATTI AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Self-portrait Adoration of the Magi (in Garland) Adoration of the Shepherds Assumption and the Doctors of the Church Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels and Saints Pope Clement IX Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well Apollo Chasing Daphne
1567 Claudio Monteverdi Cremona Italy, composer (L'Orfeo)