• Khayyam is born... • Mount St. Helens erupts... • Monte Cassino falls to Allies... • India has nuclear weapons... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • 1000 soldats français assassinés... • Labor back in power in Israel... • Lincoln nominated for President... • Segregation ruled legal... • TK/Solver... • Siege of Vicksburg... • In God We Trust... • AT&T and Yahoo!... • Warrant for Marlowe's arrest...• Heaviside is born... • Nazis occupy Italy... • Evangelist disappears...
|On a May 18:
2003 On this his 83rd birthday, Pope John Paul II canonizes as saints: Józef Sebastian Pelczar [17 Jan 1842 – 28 March 1924], Bishop of Przemysl, Poland, and founder of the Zgromadzenie Sluzebnic Najswietszego Serca Jezusowego. Sister Maria Urszula od Jezusa (Julia Ledóchowska) [1865 – 29 May 1939], a Polish Ursuline religious who founded the offshoot congregation of the Urszulanki od N. Serca Jezusa Konajacego. Her sister Maria Teresa (beatified in 1975) founded the future Sodalicje sw.Piotra Klawera and was beatified in 1975. Her younger brother Wlodzimierz became the Prefect General of the Jesuits.
Maria De Mattias [04 Feb 1805 – 20 Aug 1866] who founded the Congregazione delle Suore Adoratrici del Sangue di Cristo on 04 March 1834, which, during her lifetime, expanded to some 70 communities, mostly in central Italy. Virginia Centurione Bracelli [02 April 1587 – 15 Dec 1651], of Genoa, who, on 10 Dec 1602, was made to marry Gaspare Grimaldi Bracelli, a dissolute gambler who died on 13 January 1607, after which she dedicated the rest of her life to God and to the service of the poor.
This brings the number of saints which John Paul II has canonized during his nearly 25-year pontificate, to 473, more than any other Pope.
2003 In the village Sit Tbow, Cambodia, a reporter takes the photo shown below, of the boy Oeun Sambat, 3, and his inseparable companion Chamreun (“Lucky”), a 4-meter-long female python. A fortune teller has said that the boy must have been the son of a dragon in a previous life [disregarding the possibility that he and the snake might have been Romeo and Juliet]. The boy will probably become a traditional healer at the age of 7, but already villagers from the region come to visit him, believing that he has supernatural powers which can help them.
|2000 In Kuala Lumpur, Chong Lih Ying, 27 days old, receives
the transplant of the left arm and hand of her identical twin, who had died
at birth. This is the world's first arm and hand transplant to a baby.
1993 El Papa Juan Pablo II proclama a San Juan de la Cruz patrono de los poetas de lengua española.
1991 El rey Hassan II de Marruecos acepta la celebración de un referéndum por la autodeterminación en el Sáhara occidental.
1989 El Parlamento de Lituania modifica su Constitución y proclama la soberanía del pueblo lituano.
1967 Silver hits record $1.60 an ounce in London.
1959 En Laos comienzan los combates entre el Ejército real y el Pathet Lao, en la llanura de los Jarros.
1951 The United Nations moves out of its temporary headquarters in Lake Success, N.Y., for its permanent home in Manhattan.
1950 La Asamblea Plenaria de Naciones Unidas decide embargar las mercancías de valor importante para la China comunista.
1940 A Moncornet et Crépy-sur-Serre, le colonel de Gaulle et la 4ème DC arrêtent depuis la veille la progression allemande; ils tiendront jusqu'au 20 mai. Les Allemands traversent la Sambre, atteignent Amiens Nouveau cabinet Reynaud, avec Pétain, Daladier, et Mandel Le général Giraud est fait prisonnier
1930 El dirigible Graf Zeppelin inicia un vuelo en el que cruzará dos veces el Atlántico, con un recorrido de unos 27'000 kilómetros.
| 1919 Se proclama la república del Palatinado, separada
del Reich y apoyada por Francia.
1917 US passes Selective Service act
1910 Passage of Earth through tail of Halley's Comet causes near-panic In 1682, astronomer Edmund Halley observed a comet that he predicted would return every seventy-six years, which indeed it did. When it was due in 1986, a series of satellites was launched to probe it. Since Halley's comet had last passed over the sun on May 18, 1910, this was the first time it could be studied by space technology. The comet's 5-km nucleus was found to consist of ice and its tail was composed of gases emitted by solar energy.
1903 Apertura de las Cortes de España con un discurso del Rey Alfonso XIII.
1900 Britain proclaims protectorate over kingdom of Tonga
1899 World Goodwill Day-26 nations meet in first Hague Peace Conference
1897 A public reading of Bram Stoker's new novel, Dracula, or, The Un-dead, is staged in London.
1864 Engagement at Yellow Bayou (Bayou de Glaize), Louisiana (Red River Expedition)
1830 Edwin Budding of England signs an agreement for manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower. Saturdays are destroyed forever
1828 Battle of Las Piedras, ends conflict between Uruguay and Brazil
1822 Agustín Iturbide es proclamado emperador de México por el sargento Pío Marcha y el pueblo.
1804 The French Senate proclaims Napoléon Bonaparte emperor.
1794 (29 floréal an II) DENIS Jean, tisserand, domicilié à Juste-le-Pendue (Loire), est par contumace par le tribunal criminel du département de la Loire, comme fabricant de faux assignats.
1793 Campaña del Rosellón. Acción militar de Thuir, ganada a las tropas revolucionarias francesas por el general Ricardos.
1766 The Church of the United Brethren in Christ was organized in Lancaster, PA, under the leadership of Martin Boehm, 41, and Philip William Otterbein, 39. (It became a branch of the Evangelical United Brethren in 1946.)
1756 England declares war on France Francia declara la guerra a Inglaterra. Los franceses desembarcan en Menorca.
1643 Queen Anne, widow of Louis XIII, is granted sole and absolute power as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king's will.
1631 The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decreed that 'no man shall be admitted to the body politic but such as are members of some of the churches within the limits' of the colony. (Separation of church and state was an unthinkable concept in early American colonialism.)
which occurred on a May 18: ^top^
2003:: 6 Israelis: Shimon Ostinsky, 68; Nellie Perov, 55; Olga Brenner, 52; Marina Tzachivirshvili, 44; Yitzhak Moyial, 64; Roni Yisraeli, 35; one Palestinian victim: Tawil Ralab, 42; and a suicide bomber, at 05:55 (02:55 UT) on Egged bus #6 in northern Jerusalem, between a Palestinian refugee camp and the Jewish neighborhood French Hill. 20 persons are injured. Following this attack, the Israeli Border Police sets up road blocks; at one of them, upon ordering a man to stop, whereupon he turns out to be another suicide bomber who blows himself up, hurting no one else.
2003 Ali Abu Namouss, 18, Palestinian, while walking near his home in the Khan Younis refugee camp, shot by Israeli troops who say that they were firing at Palestinians who were “trying to place an object” near their army post.
2002 Samya Zaidan [< photo], 47, Israeli Arab from Yama village, shot in the back by Israeli soldiers in an armored vehicle. She was in a car, with her mother and sister, in Shuweikieh village north of Tul Karm, West Bank, where they were going to have the car repaired. The Israelis claim that they felt threatened by her car passing others and they fired warning shots at the ground, one of which ricocheted and killed her.
2002 Mahmoud Musa Z'khaika [photo >], 38, Israeli Arab resident of Jabal Mukkaber in East Jerusalem, nurse at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, shot by Israeli soldiers as he traveled in his car near Beit Omar, north of Hebron. According to the Israelis, soldiers at a nearby observation post spotted his car trying to cross over a trench that cuts off the village. The soldiers summoned a jeep patrol squad. When the jeep approached, Z'khaika's car did a quick U-turn, and headed back toward Beit Omar. The soldiers fired warning shots in the air, and then toward the car. One of the passengers got out, and fled by foot toward the village. The driver, Z'khaika, continued until the car flipped over. Palestinian eyewitnesses say that Z'khaika got caught in the middle of a clash between Israeli soldiers and Palestinian youths, in which he was not a participant.
Yair Nebenzahl [photo >], 22, shot from ambush
as he drove past his settlement of Neveh Tzouf, near Ramallah, in the West
Bank. Yair Nebenzahl was an Israeli army officer graduated two months earlier.
His father Menachem and mother Adina, were among the founding families of
Neveh Tzouf, arriving at the outpost in 1981. The Aqsa Intifada Martyrs
Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. This brings the body count
of the al-Aqsa intifada to 462 Palestinians and 84 Israelis.
2001 A Palestinian, as Israeli F-16 planes attack a building in Ramallah housing Force 17, a security service.
2001 Eleven Palestinians, as Israeli F-16 planes attack the security headquarters in Nablus, West Bank. More than 30 are injured, including the probable target, Mahmoud Abu Hanoud, a mastermind of several Hamas bombings, who was held in prison there.
2001 Five Israelis and Palestinian suicide bomber Mahmoud Ahmed Marmash , 20, a carpenter from the West Bank, member of Hamas, at the Sharon shopping mall in Netanya, at about 11:30. Four Israelis die instantly, the fifth somewhat later, of his injuries. 72 are injured, including security guard Lior Kamissa who was about to challenge the bomber, who was wearing a bulging sports jacket on a hot day.
(Palestinian Authority web site http://www.minfo.gov.ps/press/eps_1905.htm) Sharon today sent his F16 airforce jets to hit Palestinian police positions, a prison, and homes. 13 Palestinian young men were murdered by Sharon and more than 100 injured, many are women and children. Homes in residential areas surrounding the attacked Palestinian police positions were heavily damaged. The Martyrs are: Nasri Naser Yacub Hasan 22 years from Dir Al- hatab village in the West Bank Refai Rabayah, 28 from Maythaloon - West bank Ayman Marouf - From Naqura West Bank Fadi Hamed Beit Djan West Bank Muataz Najeh Al Khateeb 27 years from Bourin Fares Hamdan Khalid Sbieh 21 from Tayaseer village - West bank Ahmad Sadeq Al- Khader from Qusin, the West bank -Wael Khader Mali Biet Iba, West Bank -Nabil Isam Ismael 22 from Dier Al-Ghsoon, West Bank Rami Ezzat Yasin 25 from Assira Shamleyyeh West Bank Wael Awad Abdulkarim 29 from Jdaydeh West Bank Ismael Abu raffeh 27 from Gaza and was killed in Ramallah. In addition to Israeli airforce jets, Sharon used his tanks, Navy gunboats, ground to ground missiles and heavy machine guns against the Palestinian people in Gaza. Other cities hit are Nablus where 12 Palestinians were killed (one of them Khalid Subieh, 22) and around 50 injured.
61 volcano victims ^top^
At 08:32 Pacific Daylight Time, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake shook Mount St. Helens. The bulge and surrounding area slid away in a gigantic rockslide and debris avalanche, releasing pressure, and triggering a major pumice and ash eruption of the volcano. 400 meters of the peak collapsed or blew outwards. As a result, 62 square km of valley was filled by a debris avalanche, 650 square km of recreation, timber, and private lands were damaged by a lateral blast, and an estimated 150 million cubic meters of material was deposited directly by lahars into the river channels. Fifty-seven people are killed or missing.
For more than nine hours a vigorous plume of ash erupted, eventually reaching 20 to 25 km above sea level. The plume moved eastward at an average speed of 95 km/hr, with ash reaching Idaho by noon. By early May 19, the devastating eruption was over.
At 08:32, Mount St. Helens, a volcano in southwestern Washington State, erupts massively, killing or fatally wounding sixty-one people and leveling some 400 square kilometers of wilderness.
Called Louwala-Clough, or "the Smoking Mountain" by Native Americans, Mount St. Helens had been dormant for 123 years. In late-March 1980, the volcano, which stood some 2700 m above sea level before its eruption, began emitting steam and ash through its crater and vents. Although authorities succeeded in evacuating several hundred people from the immediate area, they failed to predict the enormous scale of the eruption that occurred on May 18.
The blast blew the volcano's top into the stratosphere while a northward-directed lateral blast of rock, ash, and hot gas stripped trees from most hill slopes within six miles of the volcano and leveled nearly all vegetation for as far as 20 km away. In addition, the eruption caused a magnitude 5.1 earthquake that shook the northwest face of Mt. Helens into the Toutle River valley, damming Spirit Lake with debris. It was the largest recorded landslide in history and caused floods on the Cowlitz River that destroyed roads, bridges, parks, and 600 square kilometers of forest.
Ash from the eruption fell on Northwest cities and towns like snow and had drifted around the globe within two weeks. The eruption subsided by late in the afternoon of May 18, and by early the next day had essentially ceased. However, moderate volcanic activity continued at Mt. St. Helens for over four years.
Mount Saint Helens heads the volcano watch list in North America. It is the most active volcano in the Northwest, and one of the most closely monitored volcanoes in the world. "It's the volcano most likely to explode," says Bill Steele, director of the Seismic Monitoring Program at the University of Washington in Seattle.
Steele keeps tabs on the volcano through 11 seismographs, which are planted around the mountain's base and at the rim of the crater. These extremely sensitive instruments are connected to radio transmitters that send back a record of every "pop and gurgle" inside the volcano. Typically, they record a few small tremors each month.
Generally, scientists believe these tremors are produced by magma cooling several kilometers beneath the surface of the volcano.
Magma is molten rock, and when it reaches the surface, it is called lava. At the volcano's core is a conduit, or a system of channels, through which magma can rise to the surface from a reservoir deep in the Earth's crust. When the volcano erupts, lava is added to its slopes.
As magma cools, it settles and releases various gases, which escape upwards through the rock. These tremors, however, might also be a warning that magma is rising towards the surface. "We might have only a few months of warnings when the magma starts moving back into the mountain," says Steele. "I would not be surprised if we had another eruption in the next ten years."
Geologists had little warning before Mount Saint Helens's last major eruption. A small earthquake was recorded on March 20, 1980, followed a week later by a minor eruption. But the ground continued to tremble, and six weeks later, on Sunday, May 18, 1980, the mountain exploded in one of the most spectacular eruptions in recent memory.
The 320 km/h blast flattened trees 30 km away, killed 57 people, and sheared 400 m off the peak of the mountain, leaving a crater nearly 2 km wide. The north side of the volcano burst, letting lose a side-long flare of magma and burning gas that incinerated the surrounding region. Four hundred square kilometers of prime old-growth forests were reduced to a wasteland of scorched timber buried under a thick layer of volcanic ash, where fires burned for weeks afterwards.
The blast also triggered the largest landslide in recorded history, sending ash and rocks, some the size of large buildings, tumbling across a 22 km swatch of land. The landslide also spilled into Spirit Lake, sending thousands of cubic meters of water surging down the mountain. This water picked up debris and created a mudflow, known as a lahar, which rushed down the mountain, wiping away bridges and roads. The lahar poured down Toutle Valley, jamming rivers, destroying homes, and blocking navigation as far away as the Columbia River.
Lahar is an Indonesian term used to describe a flowing stream of volcanic debris and water that resembles wet concrete. They usually form during a volcanic eruption or originate on the slopes of a volcano, and are capable of destroying buildings, bridges, and other man-made structures.
The eruption also sent more than 540 million tons of volcanic ash raining down over 60'000 square kilometers, covering Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska, and sending ash drifting as far away as Virginia. From space, the eruption initially took the shape of a giant mushroom cloud, signifying a blast 400 times more powerful than the atomic bomb that leveled Hiroshima.
Rebirth is the legacy of natural destruction, and life quickly returned to the scorched earth near Mount Saint Helens. The rapid regeneration surprised most scientists, who believed that the rebirth would occur in steady, regular stages. Instead, nature ran riot, led by dozens of organisms that had amazingly survived the devastation. Moles, tiny pocket gophers, and ants survived because they were buried when the explosion occured. And saplings and shurbs buried in the snow survived, while the taller trees were devastated.
The tiny pocket gophers turned into a major force for renewal. Their habitual digging into the soil mixed the sterile volcanic ash with the rich earth buried below. Deer mice, ants, and beetles also assisted in turning over the soil, allowing new plants, shrubs, and trees to take root quickly. Algae, plankton, and various freshwater crustaceans quickly appeared to recolonize the ash poisoned lakes in the area, followed soon after by frogs and salamanders.
Even large animals quickly returned. Elk were seen on the mountain's west slopes within weeks of the eruption, and by the following summer, the hills near the volcano were covered with fireweed, a pink flowering plant whose seeds are carried like little parachutes on the wind. Grasses, plants, and trees quickly took root in the sterile ash, and after three years, the plant composition in the blast zone was similar to adjacent lands that had been recently logged.
The federal government moves more slowly than mother nature, but some 45'000 hectares around the volcano were set aside in 1992 and turned into a park called the Mount Saint Helens National Volcanic Monument. A law was also passed that allowed nature to follow its own course in the park, permitting scientists to continue studying the cycles of natural regeneration.
The eruption has also generated an unexpected economic rebirth in the region. Mountain climbing to the summit of the volcano has been allowed since 1986. By the end of 1989, the park had hosted more than 1.5 million visitors. Today, the volcano continues to draw more than 600'000 visitors a year, and tourism has become a major economic engine for the region.
The last two decades have also witnessed 30 more small eruptions on the mountain, and molten rock continued to surface as late as 1986. Between 1980 and 1986, Mount Saint Helens built a lava dome about 300 m high and one kilometer in diameter. The last significant eruption was in 1994.
MOUNT ST. HELENS ERUPTS: At 08:32 PDT, Mount St. Helens, a volcanic peak in southwestern Washington, suffers a massive eruption, killing 57 people and devastating some 540 square kilometers of wilderness. Called Louwala-Clough, or "the Smoking Mountain," by Native Americans, Mount St. Helens is located in the Cascade Range and stood 9,680 feet before its eruption. The volcano has erupted periodically during the last 4500 years, and the last active period was between 1831 and 1857. On March 20, 1980, noticeable volcanic activity began again with a series of earth tremors centered on the ground just beneath the north flank of the mountain. These earthquakes escalated, and on March 27 a minor eruption occurred, and Mount St. Helens began emitting steam and ash through its crater and vents. Small eruptions continued daily, and in April people familiar with the mountain noticed changes to the structure of its north face. A scientific study confirmed that a bulge more than a mile in diameter was moving upward and outward over the high north slope by as much as six feet per day. The bulge was caused by an intrusion of magma below the surface, and authorities began evacuating hundreds of people from the sparsely settled area near the mountain. A few people refused to leave.
On the morning of May 18, Mount St. Helens was shaken by an earthquake of about 5.0 Richter magnitude, and the entire north side of the summit began to slide down the mountain. The giant landslide of rock and ice, one of the largest recorded in history, was followed and overtaken by an enormous explosion of steam and volcanic gases, which surged northward along the ground at high speed. The lateral blast stripped trees from most hill slopes within 10 km of the volcano and leveled nearly all vegetation for as far as 20 km away. Approximately 10 million trees were felled by the blast. The landslide debris, liquefied by the violent explosion, surged down the mountain at speeds in excess of 160 km/h. The avalanche flooded Spirit Lake and roared down the valley of the Toutle River for a distance of 21 km, burying the river to an average depth of 50 meters. Mudflows, pyroclastic flows, and floods added to the destruction, destroying roads, bridges, parks, and thousands more acres of forest. Simultaneous with the avalanche, a vertical eruption of gas and ash formed a mushrooming column over the volcano more than 20 km high. Ash from the eruption fell on Northwest cities and towns like snow and drifted around the globe within two weeks. Fifty-seven people, thousands of animals, and millions of fish were killed by the eruption of Mount St. Helens. By late in the afternoon of 18 May, the eruption subsided, and by early the next day it had essentially ceased. Mount St. Helens' volcanic cone was completely blasted away and replaced by a horseshoe-shaped crater-the mountain lost 500 meters from the eruption. The volcano produced five smaller explosive eruptions during the summer and fall of 1980 and remains active today. In 1982, Congress made Mount St. Helens a protected research area.
Gennadievich Kurosh, Russian mathematician born on 19 January
1908. He proved important results in Group Theory and is best-known as the
author of one of the standard text-books in the subject, The Theory
of Groups (1944), it includes the Kurosh subgroup theorem, which describes
subgroups of a free product of groups. Almost as famous is his Lectures
on General Algebra (1960).
1954 Selig Brodetsky, Jewish Ukrainian-born (10 February 1888) English mathematician.
1927:: 43 persons and a farmer angry about his tax bill who sets off dynamite at a school in Bath, Michigan, and then kills himself.
1924 Corrado Segre, Italian mathematician born on 20 Aug 1863.
1914 Charles Sprague Pearce, US artist born in 1851. LINKS — Lamentations over the Death of the First-Born of Egypt (1877 — The Shawl
1911 Gustav Mahler, in Vienna, Austria, grandiose composer.
1909 Isaac Albéniz, compositor y pianista español.
1867 (or 08 May?) William Clarkson Frederick Stanfield, English painter born on 03 December 1793. LINKS An Italian Lake Town — The Castle of Ischia — Eu, looking towards Tréport — Sketch for The Battle of Trafalgar, and the Victory of Lord Nelson over the Combined French and Spanish Fleets, October 21, 1805 — Lake Como
1837 Marguerite Gérard, French Romantic portrait and genre-scene painter born on 28 January 1761. MORE ON GÉRARD AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Bad News L’Enfant Chéri — First Steps — Artist Painting a Portrait of a Musician
1827 Antoine-Pierre Mongin, French artist born in 1761 or 1762.
1822 Gérard van Spaendonck, French painter and printmaker born on 23 March 1746. — more
1740 André Bouys, French artist born in 1656.
1551 Domenico di Pace Beccafumi il Mecherino, Sienese Mannerist painter and sculptor born in 1486. MORE ON BECCAFUMI AT ART 4 MAY LINKS — Trinity _ detail — St Paul — Birth of the Virgin — Stigmatization of St Catherine of Siena — a different Saint Catherine of Siena Receiving the Stigmata — The Miraculous Communion of Saint Catherine of Siena — Tanaquil — Marcia — The Holy Family with Young Saint John — Moses and the Golden Calf — The Annunciation — Fall of the Rebellious Angels — Madonna with the Infant Christ and St John the Baptist — Saint Lucy
| Births which
occurred on a May 18: ^top^
1933 The Tennessee Valley Authority is created
1920 Karol Joseph Vojtyla, in Wadowice, Poland. He grew up to be a Catholic priest, ordained in 1946, archbishop of Krakow from 1964, and elected the 264th pope on 781016, who took the name of John Paul II.
1914 Stefan Schwarz, Slovak mathematician who died in 1996.
1912 Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu, South African anti-Apartheid leader, who died on 05 May 2003. (his 1912 birth date being unknown, he chose 18 May for birthday purposes).
1904 Jacob K Javits (Sen-R-NY)
1893 Augusto César Sandino, guerrillero nicaragüense.
1891 Rudolf Carnap philosopher (Logical Positivist) He was born in Germany and, on 14 September 1970, died in California. Besides articles in journals, he wrote: — 1922 Der Raum: Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, dissertation, in Kant-Studien, Ergänzungshefte, n. 56 — 1926 Physikalische Begriffsbildung — 1928 Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie, — 1928 Der Logische Aufbau der Welt — 1929 Abriss der Logistik, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Relationstheorie und ihrer Anwendungen — 1934 Logische Syntax der Sprache — 1935 Philosophy and Logical Syntax — 1942 Introduction to Semantics — 1943 Formalization of Logic — 1947 Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic — 1950 Logical Foundations of Probability — 1952 The Continuum of Inductive Methods — 1954 Einführung in die Symbolische Logik — 1966 Philosophical Foundations of Physics — 1977 Two Essays on Entropy
1885 Eurico Gaspar Dutra president of Brazil (1945-50)
1883 Walter Gropius architect (founded Bauhaus school of design)
1872 Bertrand Russell, English mathematician, philosopher (Literature Nobel 1950), pacifist, who died on 02 February 1970. He published a vast number of books on logic, theory of knowledge, and many other topics. His best known work was Principia Mathematica .— RUSSELL ONLINE: The Analysis of Mind A Free Man's Worship Icarus: or, The Future of Science The Problems of Philosophy Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism
1868 Nicholas II Romanov, last Russian tzar (1894-1917)
1852 Julius Adam II (or Katzen-Adam), German artist who died in 1913.
1830 Karl Goldmark Keszthely Hungary, composer (Sakuhtala)
1810 Johann Peter Hasenclever, German artist born on 16 September 1853.
1746 Félix Azara y Perera, científico español.
1711 Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich, Dalmatian Jesuit mathematician and astronomer, who died on 13 February 1787. His main work was in mathematical physics. He was the first to give a procedure to compute a planet's orbit from three observations of its position.
1680 Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias se publica. Consta de nueve libros y más de seis mil leyes.
1642 Montréal, Québec, is founded.