• War of the Roses begins... • Victor Hugo dies... • Sherlock Holmes' creator is born... • Muore Manzoni... • Berlin~Rome Axis... • Senator assaults senator... • Great Emigration to Oregon... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Windows 3.0... • Nixon arrives in Moscow... • Protectionist victory... • Rusk warns North Vietnam... • Proposals conflict at Vietnam peace talks...
|On a May 22:
2001 Afghanistan's ruling Taliban announces that it will require Hindus to wear identity labels on their clothing to distinguish them from Muslims, purportedly to exempt them from the religious police's enforcement of the Taliban's fanatically medieval interpretation of Islam, which has led them to prohibit music, education of women, statues (they destroyed archeological treasure Buddhas), the trimming of beards, and to require women to be totally covered by a burqa. There is indeed an active religious police, headed by Mohammed Wali, busy enforcing the above and many other so-called Islamic rules that violate human rights. The Taliban has also become an internationally pariah regime for harboring Saudi exile terrorist boss billionaire Osama bin Laden.
2001 In Tuscany, Lina Maiale, 73, decides to change her name to Lina Meri. "Maiale" means pig in Italian.
2000 The US Supreme Court strikes down, 5-4, a federal law that shielded children from sex-oriented cable TV channels.
2000 A committee of the Arkansas Supreme Court recommends that US President Clinton be disbarred for giving false testimony about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case. (Clinton later would agree to give up his Arkansas law license for five years.)
| 1996 The General Accounting Office tells a US Senate
committee that Defense Department computers had sustained an estimated 250'000
attacks by hackers in 1995, and that the rate of attacks is doubling yearly.
1995 Microsoft calls off an attempt to buy Intuit, maker of the popular Quicken financial software. At the time, Microsoft Money has 22% of the personal-finance software market, while Quicken has 70%. The Justice Department had filed an antitrust suit in April to block the acquisition, arguing that financial software was one of the few remaining software sectors not dominated by Microsoft.
1995 A US district court judge dismisses a lawsuit alleging that a woman had contracted brain cancer from using a cell phone. The judge said the case lacked sufficient medical evidence about the health effects of cell phones.
1993 Cult science-fiction director David Blaire uploads the first digital film to the Internet: Wax: Or the Discovery of Television Among the Bees.
1991 Sonia Gandhi, the Italian-born wife of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, was designated to lead his Congress Party through national elections, one day after his assassination. However, Mrs. Gandhi turned down the position.
1990 After years of conflict, pro-Western North Yemen and pro-Soviet South Yemen merged to form a single nation, the Republic of Yemen. Los líderes de Yemen del Norte, Alí Abdalla Salej, y de Yemen del Sur, Jaida Abu Baker, proclaman en Adén el nacimiento de la República del Yemen.
1990 Dow Jones avg hits a record 2852.23
1988 Karoly Grosz, partidario de la perestroika, primer ministro de Hungría.
1981 François Mitterrand forma un Gobierno de izquierda en Francia.
1979 Canadians vote in parliamentary elections that put the Progressive Conservatives in power, ending the 11-year tenure of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
1977 Final European scheduled run of the Orient Express (94 years)
| 1972 Ceylon becomes Republic of Sri Lanka as its constitution
1967 Egyptian president Nassar closes Straits of Tiran to Israel
| 1960 Virtually all coastal towns between 37th and 44th
parallels severely damaged by tsunami that strikes Hilo, Hawaii at 01:04.
1955 the oldest man to drive in the Grand Prix (aged 55) finished 6th
1947 The Truman Doctrine is enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
1947 first US ballistic missile fired
1945 El presidente de la Agencia Judía, David Ben Gurión, presenta ante el gobierno de Londres la petición del establecimiento de un estado hebreo en Palestina.
1911 Portugal adopta como tipo oro el escudo de cien centavos.
1906 The US grants Patent Number 821'393 to O. & W. Wright of Dayton, Ohio, for a Flying Machine.
1875 Noruega introduce el sistema métrico decimal.
1872 Amnesty Act restores civil rights to Southerners (except for 500)
1868 The "Great Train Robbery" takes place near Marshfield, Indiana, as seven members of the Reno gang steal $96'000.
1863 War Dept establishes Bureau of Colored Troops
1863 Second assault on Vicksburg, Mississippi
1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi ocupa las alturas que rodean Palermo.
1858 Confederación Granadina (now Colombia) forms
The Great Emigration departs for Oregon
A massive wagon train, made up of a thousand settlers and a thousand head of cattle, set off down the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri. Known as the "Great Emigration," the expedition came two years after the first modest party of settlers made the long, overland journey to Oregon.
After leaving Independence, the wagon train followed the Sante Fe Trail for some forty miles and then turned northwest to the Platte River, which they followed along its northern route to Fort Laramie, Wyoming. From there, they traveled on to the Rocky Mountains, which they passed through by way of the broad, level South Pass that led to the basin of the Colorado River.
The travelers then went southwest to Fort Bridger, northwest across a divide to Fort Hall on the Snake River, and on to Fort Boise, where they gained supplies for the difficult journey over the Blue Mountains and into Oregon. The massive wagon train finally arrived in October, completing the 3000-km journey from Independence in five months. In the next year, four more wagon trains made the journey, and by 1845, the number of emigrants exceeded three thousand. Travel along the Oregon Trail gradually declined with the coming of the railroads, and the route was finally abandoned in the 1870s.
A thousand pioneers head West on the Oregon Trail The first major wagon train to the northwest departs from Elm Grove, Missouri, on the Oregon Trail. Although US sovereignty over the Oregon Territory was not clearly established until 1846, American fur trappers and missionary groups had been living in the region for decades. Dozens of books and lectures proclaimed Oregon's agricultural potential, tweaking the interest of American farmers. The first overland immigrants to Oregon, intending primarily to farm, came in 1841 when a small band of 70 pioneers left Independence, Missouri. They followed a route blazed by fur traders, which took them west along the Platte River through the Rocky Mountains via the easy South Pass in Wyoming and then northwest to the Columbia River. In the years to come, pioneers came to call the route the Oregon Trail.
In 1842, a slightly larger group of 100 pioneers made the 3000 km journey to Oregon. The next year, however, the number of emigrants rose to 1000. The sudden increase was a product of a severe depression in the Midwest combined with a flood of propaganda from fur traders, missionaries, and government officials extolling the virtues of the land. Farmers dissatisfied with their prospects in Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, hoped to find better lives in the supposed paradise of Oregon. On this day in 1843, some 1000 men, women, and children climbed aboard their wagons and steered their horses west out of the small town of Elm Grove, Missouri. The train comprised more than 100 wagons with a herd of 5000 oxen and cattle trailing behind. Dr. Elijah White, a Presbyterian missionary who had made the trip the year before, served as guide. The first section of the Oregon Trail ran through the relatively flat country of the Great Plains. Obstacles were few, though the river crossings could be dangerous for wagons. The danger of Indian attacks was a small but genuine risk. To be on the safe side, the pioneers drew their wagons into a circle at night to create a makeshift stockade. If they feared Indians might raid their livestock-the Plains tribes valued the horses, though generally ignored the oxen-they would drive the animals into the enclosure. Although many neophyte pioneers believed Indians were their greatest threat, they quickly learned that they were more likely to be injured or killed by a host of more mundane causes. Obstacles included accidental discharge of firearms, falling off mules or horses, drowning in river crossings, and disease. After entering the mountains, the trail also became much more difficult, with steep ascents and descents over rocky terrain. The pioneers risked injury from overturned and runaway wagons. Yet, as with the 1000-person party that made the journey in 1843, the vast majority of pioneers on the trail survived to reach their destination in the fertile, well-watered land of western Oregon. The migration of 1844 was smaller than that of the previous season, but in 1845 it jumped to nearly 3000. Thereafter, migration on the Oregon Trail was an annual event, although the practice of traveling in giant convoys of wagons gave way to many smaller bands of one or two-dozen wagons. The trail was heavily traveled until 1884, when the Union Pacific constructed a railway along the route.
| 1848 Se celebra la Asamblea Nacional de Berlín, convocada
por Federico Guillermo III, rey de Prusia, para elaborar una constitución.
1795 (3 prairial an III) BEUGNET Albert, gendarme, domicilié à Paris, abandonne le poste de l'Arsenal, les 1, 3 et 4 prairial an 3.ce pourquoi il sera condamné à mort par la commission militaire établie à Paris le 3 prairial.
1795 (3 prairial an III) CHAUVEL Jean Louis, serrurier, domicilié à Paris, porte au bout de sa bayonnette la tête du représentant Ferraud, ce pourquoi il sera condamné à mort par le conseil militaire le 11 prairial an III (30 mai 1795)..
1794 (3 prairial an II) PORTEFAIX Marie, domicilié à Paulhiac (Lozère), est condamnée à la déportation à vie, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme receleuse de prêtres réfractaires.
1792 MANNEVILLE G. F. veuve Colbert-Maulévier, âgée de 61 ans, née à Rouen, département de la Seine Inférieure, ex noble, ex marquise, domiciliée à Paris, rentre en France, ayant émigré plusieures fois pour rejoindre son fils aussi émigré elle sera pour cela condamnée à mort le 8 thermidor an II (26 juillet 1794), par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspiratrice.
1790 En France, l'assemblée nationale décide que "la guerre ne pourra être déclarée que par un décret du corps législatif rendu sur la proposition formelle du roi". C'est Mirabeau qui est à l'origine de ce décret pour satisfaire les deux parties qui s'affrontaient : les conservateurs voulaient laisser cette prérogative au roi contrairement aux démocrates qui voulaient la donner au parlement.
1761 first life insurance policy in US is issued, in Philadelphia.
1541 In Germany, the Ratisbon (Regensburg) Conference ended, its mission to reunify the Catholic Church having failed. From this time on, the Protestant movement became permanent.
1526 Se firma una alianza entre Francisco I de Francia, el papa Clemente VII, las ciudades italianas de Milán, Florencia y Venecia, y Enrique VIII de Inglaterra para combatir a Carlos I de España y V de Alemania.
1370 Jews are expelled from Brussels, Belgium
0760 14th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
| Deaths which
occurred on a May 22:
2002 Mahmoud Titi, Iyad Abu Hamdan, 22, and Imad Al-Khatib, 25, by rockets fired from Israeli tanks, in the evening, near Nablus, West Bank. The Israelis say that they targeted Titi because he was a regional commander in the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, responsible for the deaths of 11 Israelis, among them five people killed in a shooting attack at the Seafood Market restaurant in Tel Aviv in March 2002.
1974 Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, German US mathematician born on 16 July 1903. She worked on numerical methods for solving differential equations especially in fluid dynamics.
1967 James Langston Hughes, writer of novels, stories, poems, and plays about the life of US Blacks. He was born on 01 February 1902. Author of The Weary Blues (1925) — Shakespeare in Harlem — The Dream Keeper — Not Without Laughter — The Ways of White Folks — The Big Sea — Popo and Fifina.
1933 José María Vargas Vila, escritor colombiano.
1918 Carlos Octavio Bunge, polígrafo argentino.
1902 Lilly Martin Spencer, English US painter born in 1822. MORE ON SPENCER AT ART 4 MAY LINKS The Artist and Her Family at a Fourth of July Picnic We Both Must Fade (Mrs Fithian) — Young Husband, First Marketing War Spirit at Home
1895 Isaac Peral y Caballero, marino e inventor español.
Victor Hugo, in Paris, France
[Hugo's photograph by Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) >]
Victor Hugo was born in Besançon on 26 February 1802, the son of one of Napoléon's officers. While still a teenager, Victor decided to become a writer. Although he studied law, he also founded a literary review to which he and other emerging writers published their work. In 1822, Hugo married his childhood sweetheart, Adèle Foucher, and published his first volume of poetry, which won him a pension from Louis XVIII.
In 1823, Hugo published his first novel, Han d'Islande. About this time, he began meeting regularly with a group of Romantics. His 1827 play, Cromwell, embraced the tenets of Romanticism, which he laid out in the play's preface. The following year, despite a contract to begin work on a novel called Notre Dame de Paris, he set to work on two plays. The first, Marion de Lorme (1829), was censored for its candid portrayal of a courtesan purified by love. The second, Hernani ou L'honneur castillan, became the touchstone for a bitter and protracted debate between French Classicists and Romantics.
[< etching by Rodin]
On 15 January 1831, Hugo finally completed Notre-Dame de Paris, which pleaded for an aesthetic that would tolerate the imperfect, the grotesque. The book also had a simpler agenda: to increase appreciation of old Gothic structures, which had become the object of vandalism and neglect
In the 1830s, Hugo wrote numerous plays, many of which were written as vehicles for the actress Juliette Drouet, with whom Hugo was romantically connected starting in 1833. In 1841, Hugo was elected to the prestigious Académie Française, but two years later he lost his beloved daughter and her husband when they were drowned in an accident. His expressed his profound grief in a poetry collection called Les Contemplations (1856). Hugo was forced to flee France when Napoléon III came to power; he did not return for 20 years. While still in exile, he completed Les Misérables (1862), which became a hit in France and abroad. He returned to Paris during the Franco-Prussian War and was hailed a national hero. Hugo's writing spanned more than six decades, and he was given a national funeral and buried in the Pantheon after his death.
Victor Hugo was also an artist who produced some 4000 drawings. MORE ON HUGO THE ARTIST AT ART 4 MAY HUGO ART LINKS Octopus with the initials V. H. Planète Tache d'encre légèrement retouchée sur papier plié Landscape with Castle L'Éclair
AUTHOR HUGO ONLINE:
||IN ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS:
1815 William Spence, Scottish mathematician born in 1777.
1813 Johann-Jakob Dorner I, German painter born on 18 July 1741. The Hard Landlady
1802 Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, 71. of a severe fever.
Condamnés à mort
par la Révolution: ^top^
1795 (3 prairial an III):
MICHEL Pierre (dit Ethenot), tailleur, sergent au ci-devant régiment d'Austrasie, domicilié à Toul (Meurthe), comme émigré, par la commission militaire de Bruxelles.
1794 (3 prairial an II):
AUDIER Marguerite (femme Bauzac), domiciliée à Solignac, canton du Puy (Haute Loire), comme receleuse de prêtre réfractaire, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Haute Loire.
BAUZAC Jean, domicilié à Solignac, canton du Puy (Haute-Loire), comme receleur de prêtres réfractaires , par le tribunal criminel du département de la Haute Loire
BRUGNIERE Jean Baptiste, ex curé, domicilié à Gabriac, canton de Florac (Lozère), comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
ROUVIERRE Jean Baptiste (dit Collet), domicilié à Sallelles (Lozère), comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
BEHAGUE Isabelle Florence, 62 ans, née et demeurant à St Omer, épouse de Fournier Félix, à Arras
MICHAUX Charles Thomas Joseph, 42 ans, né à Brully près de Liège, à Arras
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BOURGEOIS Louis Philippe, natif d'Uzès, perruquier, sergent de la garde nationale, domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir de complicité, favorisé l'émigration d'un grand nombre de contre-révolutionnaires, ébranlé la fidélité des soldats de la liberté, et provoqué la dissolution de la représentation de la représentation nationale.
CARRE Louis, 31 ans, né à Brienne (Aube), épicier, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur, en faisant des achats de numéraire beaucoup au-dessous de la valeur réelle, en discréditant les assignats.
COURSIN Jean, brocanteur, 41 ans, natif de Carnay (Manche), domicilié à Paris, pour avoir cherché à discréditer les assignats, en faisant des achats en numéraire, au-dessous de leur valeur réelle.
JUERY Jean, 30 ans, né à Perret (Cantal), domestique, ensuite brocanteur, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur soit en favorisant les ennemis extérieurs, soit en discréditant les assignats.
ROYER Felix, jardinier, 28 ans, natif de Boulogne (Gard), chasseur dans la légion des Alpes, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir entretenu des correspondances contenues des correspondances contenant des provocation à la royauté, et tendantes à soustraire le tyran Capet au supplice.
PAUL Pierre, marchand de cannes, 40 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme ayant eu des correspondances avec les ennemis extérieurs et intérieurs de la république.
VASSEUR (dit Cyre), caporal dans l’armée révolutionnaire, 42 ans, natif de Barly-Pont-Leu (Somme), domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir entretenu des correspondance avec les émigrés.
GAYDON Marie Nicolas, fruitier, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
JAROUFFLET Jean, notaire public à Moulins, 51 ans, né et domicilié à Moulins (Allier), comme conspirateur.
KEUTSCHEN Jean Baptiste, tailleur, 36 ans, né à Egnieux, dans la forêt-Noire, domicilié à Paris, comme conspirateur.
LEFLOT Claude Alexis, capitaine général des douanes de la République, 43 ans, né à Moère (Manche), domicilié à Treguiers (Côtes-du-Nord), comme conspirateur.
DEVAUX Philippe, 32 ans, adjudant général de l'armée du Nord, domicilié à Paris, complice de Dumourier.
The Duke of Somerset, and Thomas de Clifford, and 300 nobles as the War
of the Roses begins ^top^
In the opening battle of the England’s thirty-year War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at the Battle of St. Albans. Many Lancastrian nobles perish, including the duke of Somerset and Thomas de Clifford, and the king is forced to submit to the rule of Richard of York, the former protector of England.
In the 1450s, English failures in the Hundred Years War with France, coupled with periodic fits of insanity suffered by King Henry VI, led to a power struggle between the houses of York, whose badge was a red rose, and Lancaster, later associated with a white rose. Richard, the leader of the Yorkist opposition, was appointed protector in 1453, but in the next year the king regained his sanity and York was excluded from the Royal Council.
In 1455, Richard raised an army of 3000 men, and in May, the Yorkists marched to London. On 22 May, a smaller Lancastrian force met them at St. Albans, thirty kilometers northwest of London, and three hundred nobles perished before the Lancastrians fled the field. After the battle, Richard again was made English protector. Five years later, he was killed, but his son was crowned as King Edward IV in 1461.
The War of Roses left little mark on the common English people but severely thinned the ranks of the English nobility. Among the royalty who perished were Richard Neville, the earl of Warwick, and kings Henry VI and Richard III. In 1486, King Henry VII’s marriage to Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV, united the houses of Lancaster and York and effectively ended the bloody War of the Roses.
In the opening battle of England's War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI's Lancastrian forces at St. Albans, 30 km northwest of London. Many Lancastrian nobles perished, including Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset, and the king was forced to submit to the rule of his cousin, Richard of York. The dynastic struggle between the House of York, whose badge was a red rose, and the House of Lancaster, later associated with a white rose, would stretch on for 30 years. Both families, closely related, claimed the throne through descent from the sons of Edward III, the king of England from 1327 to 1377. The first Lancastrian king was Henry IV in 1399, and rebellion and lawlessness were rife during his reign. His son, Henry V, was more successful and won major victories in the Hundred Years War against France. His son and successor, Henry VI, had few kingly qualities and lost most of the French land his father had conquered. At home, chaos prevailed and lords with private armies challenged Henry VI's authority. At times, his ambitious queen, Margaret of Anjou, effectively controlled the crown. In 1453, Henry lapsed into insanity, and in 1454 Parliament appointed Richard, duke of York, as protector of the realm. Henry and York's grandfathers were the fourth and third sons of Edward III, respectively. When Henry recovered in late 1454, he dismissed York and restored the authority of Margaret, who saw York as a threat to the succession of their son, Prince Edward. York raised an army of 3000 men, and in May the Yorkists marched to London.
On 22 May 1455, York meets Henry's forces at St. Albans while on the northern road to the capital. The bloody encounter lasts less than an hour, and the Yorkists carried the day. The duke of Somerset, Margaret's great ally, was killed, and Henry was captured by the Yorkists. After the battle, Richard again was made English protector, but in 1456 Margaret regained the upper hand. An uneasy peace was broken in 1459, and in 1460 the Lancastrians were defeated, and York was granted the right to ascend to the throne upon Henry's death. The Lancastrians then gathered forces in northern England and in December 1460 surprised and killed York outside his castle near Wakefield. York's son Edward reached London before Margaret and was proclaimed King Edward IV. In March 1461, Edward won a decisive victory against the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, the bloodiest of the war. Henry, Margaret, and their son fled to Scotland, and the first phase of the war was over. Yorkist rivalry would later lead to the overthrow of Edward in 1470 and the restoration of Henry VI.
The next year, Edward returned from exile in the Netherlands, defeated Margaret's forces, killed her son, and imprisoned Henry in the Tower of London, where he was murdered. Edward IV then ruled uninterrupted until his death in 1483. His eldest son was proclaimed Edward V, but Edward IV's brother, Richard III, seized the crown and imprisoned Edward and his younger brother in the Tower of London, where they disappeared, probably murdered. In 1485, Richard III was defeated and killed by Lancastrians led by Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Henry Tudor was proclaimed King Henry VII, the first Tudor king. Henry was the grandson of Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V, and Owen Tudor. In 1486, he married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York, thereby uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian claims. This event is seen as marking the end of the War of Roses; although some Yorkists supported in 1487 an unsuccessful rebellion against Henry, led by Lambert Simnel. The War of Roses left little mark on the common English people but severely thinned the ranks of the English nobility.
| Births which
occurred on a May 22:
1925 Jean Tinguely, artista suizo.
1922 Concha Alós Domingo, escritora española.
1912 Herbert Brovarnik Herbert Charles Brown US chemist whose pioneering work with inorganic and organic boron compounds won him (along with Georg Wittig) the 1979 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
1903 Yves-André Rocard, French mathematician who died on 16 March 1992.
1900 Associated Press is founded.
1881 (Julian date) Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov: go to Art “4” June 03 Gregorian
1880 Bessie Ellen Edna Davidson, British artist who died in 1965.
1865 Alfred Cardew Dixon, English mathematician who died on 04 May 1936. He worked both on ordinary and partial differential equations studying abelian integrals, automorphic functions and functional equations.
1848 Friedrich Hermann Karl “Fritz” von Uhde, German painter who died on 25 February 1911. The Picture Book
1844 Mary Stevenson Cassatt, expatriate US Impressionist painter who died on 14 June 1926, specialized in Children.
MORE ON CASSATT AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Self-Portrait another Self-Portrait Mrs. Cassatt, the Artist's Mother Sara Holding a Cat Portrait of a Lady — Portrait of a Little Girl — Woman Standing, Holding a Fan — Lydia in a Loge, Wearing a Pearl Necklace — Le thé — Autumn— Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly — Self-portrait — Lydia Seated at an Embroidery Frame — Driving — Woman in Black — Lady at the Tea Table — Young Girl at a Window — Children on the Beach — Girl Arranging Her Hair — Mother and Child — The Bath — The Lamp — The Letter — Young Woman Trying on a Dress — La Toilette — Young Women Picking Fruit — Child Picking a Fruit — The Boating Party — The Banjo Lesson — Summertime — another Mother and Child — Young Mother Spanish Dancer Wearing a Lace Mantilla Toreador The Cup of Tea Lydia Working at a Tapestry Loom Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly Woman and Child Driving Portrait of an Elderly Lady Mary Ellison Embroidering Reading Le Figaro The Child's Caress The Bath The Letter In the Omnibus
1820 Thomas Worthington Whittredge, US Hudson River School painter who died on 25 February 1910. [same birthday and same deathday as von Uhde, but 27 more years of life.]
1813 Richard Wagner Leipsig Germany, composer (Ring, Flying Dutchman)
1808 Gérard de Nerval, French writer. NERVAL ONLINE: Oeuvres
1733 Hubert Marius Robert, French Rococo era painter who died on 15 April 1808, called Robert des Ruines because of his paintings of ruined Roman monuments based on his Italian drawings. He was one of the first curators of the Louvre. MORE ON ROBERT AT ART 4 MAY LINKS Musicians in an Archway L'Embarcadère
1700 Michel-François Dandré-Bardon, French painter and teacher who died on 04 July 1783. LINKS Diana and Endymion — The Adoration of the Skulls _ left-central detail _ lower-right detail _ lower-left detail — La prédication de Saint François — La Naissance
1671 La ciudad de Versailles, su carta de fundación es otorgada por Louis XIV de Francia.
1650 Richard Brakenburg, Dutch artist who died on 28 December 1702.