| On a November 21:
2002 Meeting in Prague, the representatives of the 19 NATO countries invite to the alliance Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. They will become members of NATO in May 2004 after their parliaments and those of the present NATO countries ratify the expansion. Three other candidates Macedonia, Albania and Croatia are told to wait. NATO also decides to set up a 20'000-strong rapid response force against terrorists and rogue states.
2002 One year after the following notice, there is no more ENE: Enron shares have been delisted and trade for pennies over-the-counter. Today they close at 12 cents. In 2000 Enron was No. 7 on the Fortune 500, claiming $100 billion in revenues which the company attributed largely to energy trading. Enron went bankrupt in December 2001 when investors fled and its access to capital markets dried up after revelations of accounting schemes that hid debt and inflated profits. In the months since, Enron's former auditor, Arthur Andersen LLP, was convicted of obstruction of justice for destroying Enron-related documents. The company's former chief financial officer, Andrew Fastow, has been indicted on 78 counts of wire and securities fraud, money laundering and obstruction.
| 2000 The Florida Supreme Court grants Al Gore's request
to keep the presidential recounts going.
1999 US President Clinton, speaking at a conference in Florence, Italy, calls on prosperous nations to help poor countries with Internet hookups, cell phones, debt relief, and small loans.
1995 Balkan leaders meeting in Dayton, Ohio, agree on a peace plan to end 3 1/2 years of ethnic fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1995 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 5000 for the first time.
1995 China jails well-known dissident Wei Jing-sheng and charges him with trying to overthrow the government.
1991 The UN Security Council chooses Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt to be the new Secretary-General.
1990 Signing of Declaration of "End of Cold war" in Paris.
1990 Junk-bond financier Michael R. Milken, having pled guilty to six felony counts, is sentenced by a federal judge in New York to 10 years in prison (of which he would serve two).
| 1985 US President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
end a summit meeting in Switzerland. They promise acceleration of arms-reduction
| 1970 US planes conduct widespread bombing raids in North
1964 World's longest suspension bridge "Verrazano Narrows" opens (NYC)
| 1953 "Pitdown Man," allegedly discovered in 1912, is
proved to be a hoax
1949 The United Nations grants Libya its independence by 1952.
1948 Mindszenty¹s secretary, Monsignor Zahar is arrested by the Communist government in Hungary.
1942 US Army engineers, working closely with their Canadian counterparts, completed an emergency war measure with the opening of the Alcan Highway, an overland military supply route to the Territory of Alaska. Passing through the Yukon, the more than 1,500-mile roadway connected Dawson Creek, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska and provided Americans and Canadians with an increased sense of security at a time of hostile Japanese activities during World War II.
1938 Nazi forces occupy western Czechoslovakia and declare its people German citizens.
1935 1st commercial crossing of Pacific by plane (China Clipper)
1933 1st US ambassador to USSR, W.C. Bullitt, begins service
1918 The last German troops leave Alsace-Lorraine, now again part of France.
1913 La justicia de San Petersburgo ordena la destrucción de manuscritos de Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoi.
1913 El congreso mexicano acuerda prestar apoyo al presidente usurpador Victoriano Huerta Ortega en el conflicto planteado entre el gobierno de México y Estados Unidos.
1930 Inauguración de la exposición de pinturas de Benjamín Palencia.
1941 Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial es destituido el general Weygand, gobernador general del África francesa (dependiente del Gobierno de Vichy), por preparar un levantamiento de las colonias norteafricanas a favor del general Charles André de Gaulle.
1946 Georgi Dimitrov es nombrado primer jefe de Gobierno de la República de Bulgaria.
1949 La ONU acuerda que se otorgue plena independencia a todas las antiguas colonias italianas.
1959 La ONU prohíbe los ensayos nucleares, pese a la oposición francesa.
1962 China anuncia el alto al fuego y la retirada de sus fuerzas a 20 km de la línea de control india de 1959.
1974 La ONU remite la cuestión del Sáhara al Tribunal Internacional de Justicia de La Haya.
1978 El Consejo de la Revolución Argelina asume el poder, ante el estado de coma del presidente Huari Bumedián.
1985 Primera manifestación autorizada por el régimen de Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte en dos años: 500'000 chilenos piden el fin de la dictadura.
1988 El Partido Progresista Conservador del primer ministro canadiense, Martin Brian Mulroney, gana las elecciones legislativas.
1988 Se producen redadas policiales en Madrid contra la secta llamada Iglesia de la Cienciología, que funciona en España bajo los nombres de Dianética y Narconóm.
1991 Butros Butros-Ghali, viceprimer ministro de Egipto, es elegido nuevo secretario general de la ONU.
1994 39 aviones de la OTAN bombardean el aeropuerto bosnio de Udbina en la operación más importante desde la creación de la Alianza.
1884 Carmen Martín Gaite obtiene el Premio Nacional de las Letras Españolas.
1995 Los presidentes de Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic, Croacia, Franjo Tudjman, y Bosnia, Alija Izetbegovic, firman el acuerdo de paz por el que concluye una guerra de cuatro años que ha causado 250'000 muertos y cuatro millones de desplazados.
1997 Todos los inspectores de la ONU que abandonaron Bagdad, tras la expulsión decretada por Saddam Hussein contra los técnicos de nacionalidad estadounidense, regresan a la capital iraquí.
2000 Ernest Lluch, ministro de Sanidad durante el primer gobierno español socialista (1982-1986), es asesinado en Barcelona por un comando terrorista de la banda ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) .
1911 Suffragettes storm Parliament in London. All are arrested and all choose prison terms.
1907 Cunard liner Mauritania sets a new speed record for steamship travel, 624 nautical miles in a one day run.
1906 In San Juan, President Theodore Roosevelt pledges US citizenship for Puerto Rican people.
1904 Motorized omnibuses replace horse-drawn cars in Paris.
1895 Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of Bruce Partington Plans
1863 Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee continues
1862 James A. Seddon replaces George W. Randolph as Confederate Secretary of War
| 1837 Thomas Morris of Australia skips rope 22'806 times
[Did he practice since childhood, skipping classes at the same time?]
0695 Willibrord is consecrated bishop by Sergius II. An Englishman he took the gospel to the Friesians of Northern Europe.
0235 St Anterus begins his reign as Pope
which occurred on a November 21:|
2002 Bonnie Penner Witherall, 31, US Baptist, shot three times in the head at close range with a 7-millimeter pistol, right inside the door of the Sidon, Lebanon, two-story building that houses both a missionary evangelical church and its Unity Center prenatal clinic of the Christian and Missionary Alliance where she was a volunteer nurse's assistant and which, alone, she had just opened at 07:45 (04:45 UT). Bonnie Witherall was in the habit of gathering Muslim children and preaching Christianity to them while giving them food and toys, which angered the local Muslim leaders. Bonnie and her British-born husband, Gary Witherall, 36 (who forgives the unknown killer[s]), were partner missionaries with the Christian and Missionary Alliance, based in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
2000: [>>>] Marina Bazarski, 46; Dikla Zino, 22; Sima Novak, 56; Yafit Ravivo, 13, all four from the Jerusalem neighborhood Ein Ganim; Hodaya Asraf, 13, from Kiryat Menachem; Varga Mirsa, 25, a man tourist from Romania; Ella Sharshevsky, 44, and her son, Michael Sharshevsky, 16; Kira Friedman, 67, and her grandson Ilan Friedman, 8; Hadassah Helena Ben-David; 32; and suicide bomber Na'al Azmi Abu Hilayal, 23, at 07:10 on an Egged bus #20 crowded with soldiers, school kids, and old people, on Mexico Street in Jerusalem's residential Kiryat Menachem neighborhood. 36 persons are injured. Abu Hilail, from the village of Dura south of Mount Hebron, belonged to Hamas' Izzedine al-Qassam Brigades. The Israelis arrest his brother and his father, Azmi, who says: Our religion says we are proud of him until the day of resurrection. This is a challenge to the Zionist enemies.". [The Israeli authorities are frustrated, no doubt, that they cannot apply the death penalty to a suicide bomber. They will probably follow up by bulldozing his family's home. They might have considered turning the bomber's remains into dog food, if there had been any remains.]
2002 More than 50 persons stabbed, bludgeoned, or burned by fanatic Muslim mobs rioting in Kaduna, Nigeria, where they had the previous day burned an office of This Day newspaper, which, commenting on Muslim protests against the Miss World pageant to be held on 07 December 2002 in Abuja, had printed on 16 November 2002 an article of Isioma Daniel which included: What would Muhammad think? In all honesty, he would probably have chosen a wife from among the contestants. Apparently intent on demonstrating that the Prophet would not have taken one wife (or several) from among the indecently burka-less beauties, but would have called for the final solution to religious diversity the immediate extermination of the infidels mobs of Muslim hooligans, armed with machetes, axes, guns, rocks, and gasoline, burn four churches and rampage through the streets, attacking anyone they believe to be a Christian. Hundreds of soldiers are deployed, but are unable to restore calm or to enforce a curfew first of 18:00 to 06:00 then round-the-clock. Some 200 persons are seriously injured on this first day. Hordes of young men, shouting "Allahu Akhbar," ignite makeshift street barricades made of tires and garbage, sending plumes of black smoke rising above the city. Some chant, "Down with beauty" and "Miss World is sin." Christian hooligans then try to fight back, burn mosques, and smash windows. Some 200 more persons would be killed and 300 more injured as the riots continue unabated for two more days, spreading briefly to Abuja also, until, on 23 November, the Miss World organizers announce that the pageant will be moved to London. In all at least 22 churches, 8 mosques, and the homes of 4500 persons would be destroyed. Previous riots in Kaduna, a largely Muslim city with a sizable Christian minority, have escalated into religious battles that killed hundreds since civilian government replaced military rule in 1999. Islamic fundamentalist groups have for several months warned of protests against the Miss World pageant, prompting organizers to postpone the finale until after the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The pageant has also drawn protests from other parts of the world. Contestants from five countries - Costa Rica, Denmark, Switzerland, South Africa and Panama - are boycotting the event because Islamic courts in Nigeria have sentenced several unmarried women to death by stoning for conceiving babies outside wedlock. Nigeria's government insists none of the judgments will be carried out, although it has refused to intervene directly.
2001 Ottilie Lundgren, 94, of pulmonary anthrax, at 10:32 in Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut, where she had been admitted on 16 November 2001. The source of her infection is a mystery. [< photo]
2000 Itamar Yefet, 18, Israeli of the Netzer Hazani settlement in Gaza, from a gunshot wound to the head received a few hours earlier from a Palestinian sniper.
1999 Quentin Crisp, 90, in Manchester, England, eccentric writer, performer and raconteur best-known for his autobiography The Naked Civil Servant.
1996 Thirty-three persons, by an explosion of leaking gas in a six-story building in San Juan, Puerto Rico.More than 100 are injured.
1980: 87 persons, by fire at the MGM Grand Hotel-Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada.
1979 Two US citizens, by a mob attacking the US Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan.
1937 Howard E. Coffin, 64, Hudson Motor founder, in gun accident
Coffin, who founded the Hudson Motor Company along with Joseph L. Hudson in 1909, died from an accidental gunshot wound at Sea Island Beach in Georgia. Coffin served as vice-president and chief engineer of Hudson from 1909 to 1930, and was responsible for a number of Hudson's important automotive innovations, including the placement of the steering wheel on the left side, the self-starter, and dual brakes. Under Coffin's influence the Hudson Essex was introduced in 1919, a sturdy automobile built on an all-steel body that sold for pennies more than Ford's Model T. Coffin's last production year with Hudson was also the company's most prosperous Hudson production peaked in 1929 with over 300'000 units.
1927 Five striking Colorado mine workers, machine gunned by police. 20 miners are wounded.
1927 Laurits Regner Tuxen, Danish artist born on 09 December 1853. MORE ON TUXEN AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1917 Rudolf von Eschwege, German ace , killed over Macedonia when he attacks a booby-trapped observation balloon packed with explosives.
Franz Josef of Austria
1916 François-Joseph 1er, le vieil empereur d'Autriche, en pleine guerre mondiale.
Monté sur le trône après les révolutions libérales de 1848, il a rénové le vieil empire et l'a transformé en une double monarchie austro-hongroise. Le long règne de cet empereur aux célèbres bacchantes a été jalonné par d'immenses tragédies personnelles. D'abord le suicide de son fils Rodolphe dans le pavillon de Mayerling puis l'assassinat à Genève de son épouse Elisabeth (Sissi). Apprenant l'assassinat à Sarajevo, le 28 Jun 1914, de l'archiduc François-Ferdinand et de sa femme Sophie, "rien ne m'aura donc été épargné", murmure d'un ton las le vieil empereur. Il ne sait pas à ce moment-là que le pire est à venir avec l'entrée de l'Europe dans la Grande Guerre.
Son successeur, Charles 1er, se montre très vite désireux de sortir son pays du conflit qui l'entraîne vers sa perte. Par son mariage avec la duchesse Zita de Bourbon-Parme, il est très proche des milieux français. Les deux frères de sa femme, Sixte et Xavier, se sont eux-mêmes engagés dans l'armée belge dès le début de la guerre après avoir été rejetés par les Français en raison de leurs liens familiaux avec l'ancienne dynastie des Bourbons.
Pendant l'année 1917, Charles 1er va donc entamer des pourparlers secrets avec l'Entente franco-anglaise en vue de conclure une paix séparée. Il va utiliser pour cela les services de son beau-frère Sixte. Ces pourparlers vont échouer en raison de la haine que vouent nombre de dirigeants occidentaux à la dynastie des Habsbourg, de l'impossibilité d'un compromis franco-allemand sur l'avenir de l'Alsace-Lorraine, du désir des Italiens et des Roumains de s'approprier quelques lambeaux de l'Autriche-Hongrie, des manigances enfin des Tchèques de l'émigration en faveur de la création d'une "Tchécoslovaquie" indépendante qui reviendrait à démembrer l'empire. Il est permis de rêver à ce qui serait advenu si ces généreuses tentatives avaient abouti; aux morts épargnées et au coup d’Etat communiste évité en Russie.
1909 Feder Severin (or Søren) Krøyer, Danish painter, sculptor and draftsman, born on 23 July 1851. MORE ON KRØYER AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1899 Garret Augustus Hobart, 55, in Paterson, N.J., 24th US Vice President, serving under President McKinley.
1895 Silvestro Lega, Italian artist born in 1826.. LINKS The Folk Song (1867) The Pergola (1868) The Betrothed (1869)
1894 Johann Till, Austrian artist born on 19 July 1827.
1874 Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (or: y Carbo?), Spanish painter born on 11 June 1838. MORE ON FORTUNY AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1855 Charles Dow, a Free Stater from Ohio, gunned down by Franklin Colman, a pro-slavery Missourian, near Lawrence, Kansas.
1849 François-Marius Granet, French artist born on 17 September 1775.
1830 Károly Kisfaludy, 42, Romantic dramatist, the first Hungarian playwright to achieve considerable popular success.
1733 Louis de Boulogne II (or Boullogne), French artist born in 1654.
1717 Jean-Baptiste Santerre, French painter born on 23 March 1651. MORE ON SANTERRE AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1558 Carlos I, rey de España, en Yuste..
1695 Henry Purcell, compositor inglés del Barroco.
1853 Rufino Cuervo y Barreto, político, estadista y periodista colombiano.
1874 Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, pintor español.
1916 Francisco José I, emperador de Austria-Hungría.
1920 Doce oficiales británicos del servicio de inteligencia, degollados en el llamado "Domingo Sangriento", primera gran ofensiva del IRA.
1936 Emiliano Barral, escultor español.
1946 Eduardo Marquina, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1974: 19 muertos al estallar siete bombas en Birmingham, Inglaterra, atentado, reivindicado por el IRA, que también causa más de 200 heridos.
2000 Ernest Lluch, político español.
1555 Georgius Agricola, 61, mineralogist, in Germany
1624 Jakob Bohme German philosophical mystic
0496 St Gelasius I, Pope who established the Roman Catholic canon of scripture and regulated the mass.
which occurred on a November 21:
1908 Elizabeth G. Speare, writer of historical novels for children.
1907 Jim Bishop, American journalist. He gave new life to great historical moments through his "day" books, including his The Day Christ Died (1957), The Day Lincoln was Shot.
1902 Mijail Andreievich Suslov, ideólogo soviético.
1921 Horacio Sáenz Guerrero, periodista español.
1928 Pepa doncel, obra teatral de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez se estrena en Madrid.
1931 Carlos Murciano González, escritor español.
1941 Julio Anguita González, político y dirigente comunista español.
1964 Se inaugura en Nueva York el "Verrazano Bridge", el mayor puente colgante del mundo, que une Brooklyn y Staten Island.
1898 René François Ghislain Magritte, Belgian Surrealist painter who died on 15 August 1967. MORE ON MAGRITTE AT ART 4 NOVEMBER with links to images.
1888 Adolph Arthur Harpo Marx [click on image for full picture >] (comedian, actor: pretend-mute Marx brother; accomplished harpist). The child who had the good sense to never grow up (though he got to be 165 cm tall). With the big, poofy, curly red hair, a top hat, and a horn, the lovable mute was the favorite of the Marx Brothers. Though chasing woman was a favorite routine of his in the movies, Harpo was a devoted father and husband. He adopted the mute routine in vaudeville and carried it over to the films. Harpo was an accomplished self-taught harpist who's musical numbers would many times bring tears to the eyes of the audience of an otherwise hilarious movie. He died on 28 September 1964 after heart surgery.
1863 Arthur Quiller-Couch, writer. QUILLER-COUCH ONLINE: On the Art of Reading: Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, 1916-1917 On the Art of Writing: Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, 1913-1914 The Sleeping Beauty and Other Fairy Tales From the Old French (1910) editor of The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250-1900 (1919) The Project Gutenberg Book of English Verse
1854 Benedict XV 258th pope (1914-22)
1821 Jean-Baptiste Robie, Belgian artist who died on 08 December 1910.
1787 Sir Samuel Cunard founder (1st regular Atlantic steamship line)
1785 William Beaumont, pioneer American army surgeon (studied digestion)
1724 Jan Ekels I, Dutch artist who died on 22 November 1781.
1495 John Bale England, bishop / anti-Catholic playwright (Kynge Johan)