an October 01:
2002 Late the previous day Aeropostale Inc. (ARO) lowered its fiscal third-quarter (ending 02 November) profit per share estimate to 31 to 33 cents (from its June estimate of 49 to 51 cents) and its fourth-quarter (ending 01 February) estimate to 30 cents to 34 cents (from 52 cents to 55 cents). ARO is downgraded from Buy to Neutral by Merrill Lynch and to Market Perform by Banc of America Securities; from Strong Buy to Outperform by USB Piper Jaffray, and to Hold by Wachovia Securities. On the New York Stock Exchange, ARO plunges from the previous day close of $15.40 to an intraday low of $6.17 and closes at $6.50, 9.6 million share-transactions having been made out of its 35 million shares. Its 16 May 2002 Initial Public Offering had been at $18.00, but it started trading at $24.91 and reached a peak of $29.50 on 12 June 2002. [5~month price chart >] Aeropostale, Inc. is a mall-based specialty retailer of casual apparel and accessories that targets women and men aged 11 to 20.
2002 Elections for the 87-seat Jammu-Kashmir state assembly, in one sector consisting of 16 constituencies in the Pulwama and Anantnag districts of Indian-occupied Kashmir (Kashmir valley), and 11 segments of the border districts of Kathua and Udhampur in Jammu region. The dates of the elections in the other three sectors are 16 September, 24 September, 08 October. Muslims abstain in droves, except where the Indian troops force them to vote. The al-Arifeen Islamic separatist terrorrists conduct multiple attacks on polling booths and security forces. Nine persons are killed in an attack on a bus. The body count of killed political activists, candidates, and private persons, since the election were announced by the Indian government in August 2002, now exceeds 130.
2001 Woman-led parties contend in Bangladesh election.
Elections in Bangladesh.for the 300-member Jatiya Sangsad (parliament), which will elect the next prime minister, certain to be either the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina [photo, right >], 54, daughter of the country's slain independence leader and first president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, or the Bangladesh Nationalist Party's Khaleda Zia [< photo, left], 56, widow of general-turned-president Ziaur Rahman (no relation), assassinated in a 1981 military coup. The two women's bitter rivalry has further impoverished the nation. Hasina launched strikes and quit parliament when Zia was prime minister in 1991-1996. Zia used the same tactics against Hasina, her successor, who left office on 15 July 2001 to a caretaker administration.
2000 Pope John Paul II declared sainthood for 120 Chinese and foreign missionaries killed in the church's five-century struggle in China. John Paul named three other new saints as well, including former American socialite Katharine Drexel.
2002 In Shu'fat in East Jerusalem, a group of young men and boys is throwing stones. One of them is Iyad Qaymeri, 17. At 21:30 five Israeli soldiers push him to the ground shouting insults, kicking and hitting him his body and his face. They take him and three other young Palestinians to a military camp where they are hooded and forced to lie on the ground for about two hours. From time to time someone comen and kicks or hits them. The four are then taken to the Moscobiyyeh detention centre in Jerusalem. The night before Iyad Qaymeri's release on 05 October, police officers would enter the cell and randomly beat the 30 Palestinians under 18 held there, while yelling insults at them.
1999 Russian ground troops attack the little Chechen Republic of Ichkeriya, which had won its independence three years earlier by defeating Russia. The Russian aggression, prepared months in advance, is made on the pretext of retaliating for apartment bombings in Moscow (which may have been the work of Russian secret services, and which no evidence ties to Chechens) and for a Chechen pre-emptive strike on Dagestan. (CNN 991001 01:43 UT)
1998 ICANN in charge of top-level Web domain names ^top^
On this day in 1998, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names, or ICANN, officially assumed responsibility for selling top-level domain names. Formerly, the names were assigned exclusively by Network Solutions, a government contractor, but as the Internet grew in size, the government felt that Network Solutions' monopoly on name registration was unfair. In April 1999, ICANN named five new competitors to register domain names, including America Online and companies in France and Australia.
1997 Some 20'000 Kosovar students demonstrate to demand Albanian language instruction at Pristina University. Ibrahim Rugova, president of Kosovo's shadow government--Serbia had dissolved Kosovo's government in 1990--calls for a suspension of the protests after Serbian police attack and beat the protesters with clubs, injuring 150 people. The European Union denounces Serbia's use of force against the protesters.
1996 The UN Security Council formally ends sanctions against Yugoslavia, but does not reverse Yugoslavia's suspension from the General Assembly.
1995 El Partido Socialista, liderado por Antonio Guterres, gana las elecciones legislativas de Portugal, al obtener 112 de los 230 escaños. Concluye así la "década Cavaco", cuyo partido obtiene 88 diputados.
1996 A US federal grand jury indicts Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski for the 1994 mail bomb slaying of an ad executive.
1996 The US minimum wage rises 50 cents to $4.75 an hour.
1994 La República de Palau (Micronesia) proclama su independencia.
1992 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
F. Kanda, E. Yagi, M. Fukuda, K. Nakajima, T. Ohta and O. Nakata of the Shisedo Research Center in Yokohama, for their pioneering research study "Elucidation of Chemical Compounds Responsible for Foot Malodor," especially for their conclusion that people who think they have foot odor do, and those who don't, don't. [in British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 122, no. 6, June 1990, pp. 771-6.]
Eclaireurs de France, the Protestant youth group whose name means "those who show the way," fresh-scrubbed removers of grafitti, for erasing the ancient paintings from the walls of the Meyrieres Cave near the French village of Bruniquel.
The investors of Lloyds of London, heirs to 300 years of dull prudent management, for their bold attempt to insure disaster by refusing to pay for their company's losses.
Dr. Cecil Jacobson, relentlessly generous sperm donor, and prolific patriarch of sperm banking, for devising a simple, single-handed method of quality control. [REFERENCE: "The Babymaker : Fertility Fraud and the Fall of Dr. Cecil Jacobson"]
Ivette Bassa, constructor of colorful colloids, for her role in the crowning achievement of twentieth century chemistry, the synthesis of bright blue Jell-O.
David Chorley and Doug Bower, lions of low-energy physics, for their circular contributions to field theory based on the geometrical destruction of English crops.
Daryl Gates, former Police Chief of the City of Los Angeles, for his uniquely compelling methods of bringing people together.
The utilizers of Spam, courageous consumers of canned comestibles, for 54 years of undiscriminating digestion.
Yuri Struchkov, unstoppable author from the Institute of Organoelemental Compounds in Moscow, for the 948 scientific papers he published between the years 1981 and 1990, averaging more than one every 3.9 days.
Presented jointly to Jim Knowlton, modern Renaissance man, for his classic anatomy poster "Penises of the Animal Kingdom," and to the US National Endowment for the Arts for encouraging Mr. Knowlton to extend his work in the form of a pop-up book.
1991 US President Bush Sr. strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending US economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1990 Andy Wilkinson arrives at John o'Groats, having bicycled the 1363 km from Lands End, from where he left on 29 September, in the record time of 45 hours 2 minutes 19 seconds (average speed 30.26 km/h).
1989 Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany
1982 West Germany's Parliament ousts chancellor Helmut Schmidt
1982 España ingresa en la OTAN.
1979 US returns Canal Zone to Panama after 75 years (but not the canal)
1978 Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) gains independence from Britain
1977 El Príncipe Felipe de Borbón y Grecia recibe los atributos que le acreditan como Príncipe de Asturias.
1975 Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles
1975 Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"
1974 Five Nixon aides--Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon's Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and US Attorney General John Mitchell--go on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
1962 James Meredith became 1st black at U of Mississippi
1961 A believed extinct volcanco erupts in Tristan da Cunha
1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
1954 Comienza la guerra de liberación de Argelia frente a la ocupación francesa.
1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last US all-black military unit, deactivated
| 1949 Republic of China re~establishes itself on the
island of Formosa (Taiwan)
1948 The Communist government of Rumania announces that 1.5 million persons loyal to the Catholic church are turned over to Orthodoxy.
1947 US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
1943 Se decreta oficialmente la neutralidad española en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1942 The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad. Winter tempest in Stalingrad.
1939 Winston Chruchill refers to Soviet policy as "a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"
| 1937 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters
1931 El Gobierno republicano español reconoce el derecho de voto a las mujeres.
1928 Léon Vanderstuyft of Belgium bicycles 122.771 km in 1 hour on a track at Montlhéry, behind a moto de stayer powered by a 3-liter V-twin Anzani engine designed for use in a light aircraft. [Was Léon related to Arthur Vanderstuyft, Belgian cyclist prominent some 25 years earlier?]
1928 Start of Stalin's first five-year Plan, which set targets for every industry, factory and workshop.
1907 Comienza en Nueva York el servicio de taxímetros.
| 1898 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia
1896 Case Book of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Veiled Lodger takes place.
1896 Nhe US Post Office establishes Rural Free Delivery.
1869 1st postcards are issued (Vienna)
1868 La Junta revolucionaria de Madrid restablece en sus cátedras a los profesores separados.
1864 Battle of Peebles' Farm, Virginia continues.
1862 Skirmish near Sharpsburg, Maryland
1837 US treaty with Winnebago Amerindians.
1833 Don Carlos lanza el Manifiesto de Abrantes, en el que se titula y reconoce como rey de España, con el nombre de Carlos V.
1823 El rey de España Fernando VII anula todas las leyes del trienio liberal y el decreto de perdón que había firmado el día anterior.
1814 Las tropas españolas abortan el primer intento de emancipación de Chile.
1616 Hidetada promulgates an anti-Christian decree in Japan.
1588 The feeble Sultan Mohammed Shah of Persia, hands over power to his son Abbas, 17.
1555 Giovanni Peirlugi da Palestrina is appointed choir master to St. John Lateran. His will be some of the finest music before Bach.
1061 Alexander II becomes Pope, the first to be elected by the college of cardinals.
0366 St Damasus I begins his reign as Pope.
--110 -BC- Origin of Sidonian Era
--331 -BC- Battle of Gaugamela: Alexander the Great decisively shatters King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that leaves him master of the Persian Empire. Alexander's First Great Victory.
--2016 -BC- Origin of Era of Abraham.
which occurred on an October 01:
2003 Jane K. Hand, 76, Marita Landa, 66, Cecilia M. “Ce” Ellis, 54, Sonia Aladjem, 74, Jeanette Notardonato, 53, and Olga L. “Ogi” Buenz, 66, all of Chicago; Irma L. Oppenheimer, 64, of Antioch; and Peg Albert (Peggy Elbert?), 76, of Glenview; after their tour bus is struck at 15:00 (20:00 UT) by a tractor trailer as traffic on I-90 was slowing approaching the toll plaza at Marengo IL, some 80 km west of Chicago. the tour bus is rammed through another tractor-trailer, a pickup truck then hits that tractor-trailer, which hits another truck. 24 persons are iujured. Peggy Elbert survives for a few hours and dies in the hospital in the evening. The Leisure Pursuit Charters bus was bringing 20 members of International Women Associates back from a trip to Anderson Gardens, a 5-hectare Japanese garden in Rockford. — Soft-spoken and deeply philosophical Landa, originally from Finland, was a former Peace Corps volunteer in Burkina Faso. — Tetraglot sociologist Aladjem, originally from Uruguay, was a former president of IWA Chicago, and former director general of the Alliance Française de Chicago. — Theater-loving Oppenheimer, originally from Ecuador, was an expert on Gertrude Stein. — Notardonato was originally from Japan. — Buenz was a former school teacher.
2002 Charlie Young Jr., 36 [photo >], in Milwaukee, of injuries suffered on 29 September. Young pursued a small group of youngsters one of which, aged 10, had thrown an egg at him hitting him on the shoulder, at about 23:00, on the 2100 block of W. Brown Street. He caught a 14-year-old and punched him in the mouth, knocking out a tooth. The kids get friends to join them, and now numbering some 20, the youngest being the egg-thrower and the oldest, Lavelle Mays, 18, they pursue Young to the porch of a duplex at 2021 N. 21st Lane, hurling objects at him and beat him with bats, shovels, folding chairs, and a rake, splattering his blood on the floor, walls, and even the 3-meter-high ceiling of the porch.
2002 Eight persons on a passenger bus, and one of three attackers. The bus, from New Delhi, is attacked at 06:45 by hand grenades and gunfire from three terrorists dressed in police uniform, at Harinagar, on the Pakistan border, on the Jammu-Delhi National Highway in Kashmir's Kathua district, shortly before the polls open at 07:00. 12 persons are injured. One of the terrorrist is later killed by security forces.
2002: Lt. Commanders R. Saini, K. S. Rathore, S. K. Dutta, and S K Yadav; navigators Lt. Cdr. A. C. Karadi, N. V. Nirmal and J. D. Dutta; and corporals Vijay Kumar, Inder Prakash, George Mcaai, Anil Kumar, and J. P. Singh; and 3 civilians as, at 09:45, the wings of two Indian Navy Ilyushin IL-38 transport/reconnaissance planes of Squadron 315 Winged Stallions touch and they crash, a couple of kilometers east of Goa's Dabolim naval airbase, one of them into the first floor of a two-story house under construction killing 1 construction worker and 2 other civilians in addition to the 6 crewmembers on each plane, which were flying in formation, practicing for the 25th anniversary celebration of the Goa naval air squadron. 8 construction workers and 11 others are injured.
2002 James Rexford Powell, by lethal injection in Texas, having been, in a possibly flawed trial, convicted of having in 1990 abducted Falyssa Van Winkle, 10, from an antique mall in Jefferson County, then that same day strangled her in the course of sexually assaulting her.
2002 Fin whale hit by an oil tanker, noticed only the next day lodged on the bulbous bow of the ship after it arrives at a Cherry Point refinery on the US Northwest coast..
2001:: 38 persons, in an attack by 3 Islamic militants at the parliament building in Srinagar, summer capital of Jammu-Kashmir. Some 60 others are injured. The rebels had seized a sport utility vehicle of the federal telecommunications department, and released its driver. They load the vehicle with explosives, drive it to the assembly building and blow it up at about 14:00. The militant driving is among those killed by the explosion. The other two, in police uniforms enter the assembly building, firing their guns and throwing hand grenades at security forces. The ensuing gun battle continues for seven hours until the two assailants are killed. The legislators were leaving from another building when the attack started and none was hurt. But 7 of their employees are killed, as are 9 security officers. Responsibility for the attack is claimed by Pakistan-based militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed, which was started by Massood Azhar, a Pakistani who was one of three men freed from Indian jails in 1999 in exchange for the return of an Indian plane and its passengers, which had been hijacked to Afghanistan. .
1997 A 16-year-old student in Pearl, Mississipi kills his mother, then goes to school and shoots nine students. Two of the students die.
1994 André Lwoff, francés, Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1965.
1992 Petra Kelly, política y ecologista alemana.
1990 Curtis E LeMay, 83, USAF General
1972 Louis Leakey, 68, anthropologist
1965 Six of Indonesia's top generals, kidnapped and killed shortly after midnight by the Indonesian Communist Party in an abortive coup under the name of 30th September movement.
1947 Gregorio Martínez Sierra, escritor español.
1944 Alejandro Córdova, newspaper editor assassinated in Guatemala
1924 John Edward Campbell, British mathematician born on 27 May 1862. He is remembered for the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff theorem which gives a formula for multiplication of exponentials in Lie algebras.
1921 Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain, English mathematician born on 16 October 1879 who died on 01 October 1921. He worked in mathematical logic. In 1913 Jourdain proposed the card paradox: on one side is printed: The sentence on the other side of this card is TRUE. On the other side the sentence is: The sentence on the other side of this card is FALSE.
1914 Christine (Lange) Kielland, Norwegian painter born on 08 October 1843. — more
1906 Christian Friedrich Mali, German painter born on 02 October 1832. — links to four images.
1902 Johannes Hilverding, Dutch artist born on 28 January 1813.
1893 Some 1800 persons in 3rd worst hurricane in US history (Mississippi)
1885 Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, who used his wealth to improve the lot of the poor.
1873 Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, British painter specialized in animals, born on 07 March 1802. MORE ON LANDSEER AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
Juan José Flores, militar, fundador de la República del Ecuador.
1837 Jeanne-Marie-Joséphine Hellemans, Flemish artist born in 1796.
1809 Jacques Barraban (or Barraband), French artist born on 31 August 1768.
1793 Jacob More, in Rome, Scottish painter born in 1740, active in Italy. MORE ON MORE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to three More images, not more.
1791 Miguel Feijoó de Sosa, político peruano.
1768 Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician born on 14 October 1687. He worked mostly at restoring the work of the early Greek geometers, such as Euclid and Apollonius of Perga. The Simson line is erroneously named after him; it appears nowhere in his work, but is due to a theorem of William Wallace: If P is a point on the circle circumscribed to a triangle, the feet of the perpendiculars to the three side of the triangle lie on a straight line, the Simson line. [diagram >]
1711 Domenico Maria Viani, Italian painter born on 11 December 1668. — more
1704 Cornelis Dusart (or Dusaert, or du Sart), Dutch painter born on 24 April 1660. MORE ON DUSART AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1578 Juan de Austria, vencedor en la batalla de Lepanto.
1574 Marten Jacobszoon Heemskerk van Veen, Dutch artist born in 1498.
1350:: 200 fishermen, aged 18 to 35, stabbed through the collarbone into the heart after being made to lie prone, wearing just a loincloth, blindfolded with their turban, hand tied behind the back, facing the sea on Punta Lobos beach 275 km north of present-day Lima, Peru, by their Chimu conquerors, as a sacrifice to sea god Ni. The day and month are unknown, but on 01 October 2002, Reuters published the 1998 discovery made of the victims bodies, 107 of them intact, by archeologists conducting an impact study for a port project (which would destroy the beach) for copper-zinc mine Antamina which is owned by Anglo-Australian BHP Billiton, Canada's Noranda Inc. and Teck-Cominco Ltd., and Japan's Mitsubishi Corp.,
| Births which
occurred on an October 01:
1971 Walt Disney World is opened in Orlando, Florida.
1958 NASA's inauguration -- Vanguard Project transferred from military to NASA
1946 Tim O'Brien, novelist (The Things They Carried, In the Lake of the Woods).
1942 Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
1940 Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
1924 Jimmy Earl Carter, nuclear engineer, peanut farmer, (D) 39th US President (1977-1981), one of the greatest ex-Presidents.
1914 Daniel Boorstin author (1974 Pulitzer Prize) and former Librarian of Congress.
1910 El Debate, su primer número se pone a la venta. El Debate, que se publicó hasta 1936 y fue sustituido por el diario YA.
1909 Miquel Batllori i Munne, historiador español.
1893 Faith Baldwin New Rochelle NY, author/novelist (They Who Love)
1892 Emilio Pettoriti, Argentine artist who died in 1971.
1889 Mrs. Rosalia Hasenkampf [photo >], who became Germany's oldest living woman before her 10 July 2002 death.
1885 Louis Untermeyer NYC, poet/critic (Immortal Poems, Story Poems)
1881 William Edward Boeing founded aircraft co (Boeing)
1875 Eugeen van Mieghem, Belgian artist who died in 1930.
1865 Paul Dukas Paris France, composer (Velléda)
1858 Frédéric Soulacroix, French painter who died on 03 September. MORE ON SOULACROIX AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1855 José Benlliure y Gil, Spanish painter who died in 1937 MÁS SOBRE BENLLIURE EN ART 4 OCTOBER con enlaces a una docena de imágenes.
1842 Charles Cros, à Fabrazan (Aude), poète et physicien méconnu.
1826 Carl Theodor von Piloty, Munich German painter who died on 21 July 1886. — more with link to, and comment on one image.
1792 El Diario de Barcelona publica su primer número..
1791 Miguel Feijoó de Sosa, político peruano.
1781 James Lawrence naval hero (War of 1812-"Don't give up the ship!")
1760 William Beckford British, author. BECKFORD ONLINE: The History of the Caliph Vathek
1754 Paul I, Emperor of Russia (1796-1801), successor to Catherine the Great --- Il est le fils de la Grande Catherine et de Pierre III. Ennemi de la révolution française, il envoya contre elle une armée sous le commandement de Souvarov. Souvarov fut battu par Masséna. Par la suite, Paul Ier s'allia à Napoléon. L'alliance fut de courte durée: en 1801, le tsar était assassiné. Alexandre Ier devait lui succéder.
1685 Charles VI Holy Roman emperor (1711-1740)
1671 Luigi Guido Grandi, Italian Camaldolese philosopher, theologian, mathematician, astronomer, engineer, who died on 04 July 1742.
1624 Hieronymus Janssens Le Danseur, Flemish painter who died in 1693. — more
1620 Nicolaes Pieterzoon Berchem (or Berghem) van Haarlem, Dutch painter who died on 18 February 1683. MORE ON BERCHEM AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1541 (year certain, date not) Domenikos Theotokopoulos El Greco, in Candia (Iráklion), Crete, Mannerist painter who would die on 07 April 1614 in Toledo, Spain. MORE ON EL GRECO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1207 Henry III king of England (1216-1272)