| On an October 05:
2003 Pope John Paul II canonizes three missionaries:
_ Italian Bishop Daniele Comboni [15 Mar 1831 – 10 Oct 1881], missionary in Africa, fondatore della Congregazione dei Missionari Comboniani del Cuore di Gesù e delle Suore Missionarie Comboniane Pie Madri della Nigrizia;
_ German Father Arnold Janssen [05 Nov 1837 – 15 Jan 1909], founder, on 08 September 1875, of the Divine Word Missionaries, missionary sistrs “Servants of the Holy Spirit,” SSpS, on 08 December 1889, and, in 1896 of the Sisters' cloistered branch, the“Servants of the Holy Spirit of Perpetual Adoration”, SSpSAP;
_ Tyrolese Father Josef Freinademetz [15 Apr 1852 – 28 Jan 1908], who joined the Divine Word Missionaries when the congregation was only three years old and, on 02 March 1879, was sent as one of its first two missionaries to China, which was persecuting Christians. He died there of tuberculosis and typhus.
2003 Rigged election in Russian-occupied Chechnya returns puppet president Akhmad Khadyrov to another term in office, of course.
2002 Elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina, for offices of localities, of the two states (Republika Srpska and Muslim-Croat federation), and of the whole nation, including its three-member, tri-ethnic presidency (for 4-year terms), which is won by Serb Mirko Sarovic, Croat Dragan Covic, and Muslim Haris Silajdzic, a former Prime Minister. They are all subject to an international administrator, currently Britain's Paddy Ashdown, who has the power to impose laws and fire politicians. However these elections are the first, since the 1992-1995 civil war, not organized by the administrator. Besides its economic problems, the country continues to suffer from an acute shortage of vowels, particularly in the Serb areas.
2002 Ha'aretz reports that Nine Israeli Arabs have been killed by members of the security forces since the October 2000 massacre of 13 young Israeli Arab men. They were not participating in demonstrations and were not armed. Some of them were on their way to visit relatives; others were returning home from work. Some were engaged in shopping and preparations for a holiday. All of the victims were inhabitants of the Negev or locales along the "seam line." They were shot by soldiers, policemen, people from the Bedouin Administration in the Negev, and the Green Patrol. The article gives details on Manahal Yusuf Darajma, 23, who was shot on 12 February 2002; Sumaiya Zaidan, 47, shot on 17 May 2002, who bled to death while an ambulance was prevented from reaching her; Dr. Mahmoud Zahaika killed on 18 May 2002. Ha'aretz also details how justice is denied to the victims' families and the Israeli killers left unpunished, including a civilian who, on 15 August 2002, shot dead non-terrorist drug dealer Amad Hamdun who was fleeing from the police.
2002 AP puts out a news story about Leonardo Fuks a professor of music and acoustics at the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro who today led the first US performance of Cyclophonica, a nine-piece group that pedals as it plays. After the 4th paragraph we are informed that his name rhymes with kooks. [Do you still think that he should either change his name or stay away from English-speaking countries?]
2000 Belgrado se alza contra Slobodan Milosevic y Vojislav Kostunica se proclama nuevo presidente de Serbia.
2000 On the NASDAQ, shares of Priceline.com (PCLN), which had reached a high of $104.25 during the past 52 weeks, drop another $3.47 to $5.91, on news that privately owned Priceline licensee WebHouse Club is going out of business.
2000 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
David Dunning of Cornell University and Justin Kreuger of the University of Illinois, for their modest report, "Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments."
Jasmuheen (formerly known as Ellen Greve) of Australia, first lady of Breatharianism, for her book "Living on Light," which explains that although some people do eat food, they don't ever really need to.
Richard Wassersug of Dalhousie University, for his first-hand report, "On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica."
Andre Geim of the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University (UK), for using magnets to levitate a frog and a sumo wrestler.
Donatella Marazziti, Alessandra Rossi, and Giovanni B. Cassano of the University of Pisa, and Hagop S. Akiskal of the University of California (San Diego), for their discovery that, biochemically, romantic love may be indistinguishable from having severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The Reverend Sun Myung Moon, for bringing efficiency and steady growth to the mass-marriage industry, with, according to his reports, a 36-couple wedding in 1960, a 430-couple wedding in 1968, an 1800-couple wedding in 1975, a 6000-couple wedding in 1982, a 30'000-couple wedding in 1992, a 360'000-couple wedding in 1995, and a 36'000'000-couple wedding in 1997.
Willibrord Weijmar Schultz, Pek van Andel, and Eduard Mooyaart of Groningen, The Netherlands, and Ida Sabelis of Amsterdam, for their illuminating report, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Male and Female Genitals During Coitus and Female Sexual Arousal."
Chris Niswander of Tucson, Arizona, for inventing PawSense, software that detects when a cat is walking across your computer keyboard.
The British Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!"
Jonathan Wyatt, Gordon McNaughton, and William Tullet of Glasgow, for their alarming report, "The Collapse of Toilets in Glasgow."
1999 Russians lose two jets in Chechnya; Fighting moves toward Grozny (CNN)
1998 La Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), la Unión Europea (UE) y los EE.UU. lanzan un nuevo ultimátum a Slobodan Milosevic para que Yugoslavia retire sus tropas de Kosovo y ponga fin a las matanzas.
1996 Already under fire for his drug policies, US President Clinton revealed that a secret FBI memorandum said the government's anti-drug strategy "had never been properly organized." Clinton argued that the problems predated his administration.
1995 Intervención de Juan Pablo II ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en la que pide que ésta sea el "centro de moral" del mundo.
1995 El poeta irlandés Seamus Heaney es reconocido con el Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1993 Bill Clinton amenaza con represalias si los prisioneros estadounidenses en manos de los partidarios del general Aidid en Somalia sufren daño.
| 1989 Ten months after being indicted by a federal grand
jury, televangelist Jim Bakker, 50, was found guilty on 24 counts of mail
and wire fraud. Three weeks later, on October 24th, Bakker was fined $500'000
and sentenced to 45 years in prison.
1988 Israel bans Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism
1987 El partido mexicano PRI designa a Carlos Salinas de Gortari como candidato a la presidencia.
1982 Siles Suazo es proclamado nuevo presidente de Bolivia por mayoría absoluta.
1982 Unmanned rocket sled reaches 9851 km/h at White Sands, NM
1981 US President Ronald Reagan signed a resolution granting honorary US citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving about 100'000 Hungarians, most of them Jews, from the Nazis during World War II.
1974 Los trabajadores de SEAT se declaran en huelga, la empresa responde con el lock-out y la suspensión de empleo y sueldo, durante 10 días, a 19'000 trabajadores.
1970 Québec seperatists kidnap British trade commissioner James Cross
1965 US forces in Saigon receive permission to use tear gas.
1965 Chuck Linster performs 6006 consecutive push-ups
1965 Dick McInnes stays aloft almost 12 hours in a kite
1953 Earl Warren sworn in as 14th chief justice of the US, succeeding Fred M. Vinson.
| 1947 1st Presidential address televised from White
1945 El Papa Pío XII nombra a Joseph Mindszenty primado de Hungría.
1943 Las tropas alemanas abandonan Córcega, lo que confirma el declive alemán durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1938 Dimisión de Edvard Benes, presidente de Checoslovaquia
1931 Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon complete the first heavier than air nonstop flight over the Pacific. Their flight, begun October 3, lasted 41 hours, 31 minutes and covered 8000 km. They piloted their Bellanca CH-200 monoplane from Samushiro, 500 km north of Tokyo, Japan, to Wenatchee, Washington.
1930 Un dirigeable britannique, le R-101 s'écrase dans les environs de Beauvais (France). les dirigeables avaient été inventés par un allemand, le comte Zeppelin, en 1901. On pensait alors que les dirigeables auraient un bel avenir. L'Allemagne, l'Angleterre et les USA en construisirent un grand nombre. Hélas, ces aéronefs étaient facilement inflammables et il se produisit de fréquents accidents.
1923 Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star
1921 Present constitution of Liechtenstein comes into effect
1919 El desfiladero de Fondak queda en poder de tropas españolas en una de las más importantes operaciones de la Guerra de Marruecos.
1919 The first conversation between a submerged submarine and a ship takes place as the United States submarine H-2, submerged in the Hudson River near New York City, radioes the destroyer Blakey.
1915 Germany issues an apology and promises for payment for the 128 American passengers killed in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
1910 Portugal overthrows monarchy, proclaims republic Proclamación de la República Portuguesa, tras el triunfo de la revolución.
1908 Bulgaria declares independence from Turkey, Ferdinand I becomes Tsar Fernando de Bulgaria proclama la independencia del reino búlgaro.
1908 Austria-Hungría confirma la anexión de la Bosnia-Herzegovina aceptada por Rusia el 16 de septiembre.
1882 Outlaw Frank James surrenders in Missouri six months after brother Jesse's assassination.
1867 Last day of Julian calendar in Alaska
1821 Greek rebels capture Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnese area of Greece.
1814 This is George W. Campbell's last day as the 5th Secretary of the US Treasury. He was one of the seven foreign-born citizens to hold this post.
1796 España declara la guerra a Inglaterra como consecuencia del Tratado de San Ildefonso, que la obligaba a luchar al lado de Francia en caso de guerra entre los otros dos países.
1791 Se produce la represión del levantamiento del 13 de vendimiario, por la que se disuelve la Convención francesa.
1789 Se intensifica la Revolución Francesa, el pueblo de París asalta el palacio de Versalles y, al día siguiente, se lleva a la Familia Real a la capital.
1762 The British fleet bombards and captures Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines. Tras un prolongado y duro asedio, una flota inglesa logra la rendición de Manila (Filipinas).
1750 Se firma el Tratado de Compensación, que supuso el acercamiento diplomático entre España e Inglaterra.
1582 Date that does not exist in countries that adopt the Gregorian calendar from its beginning (neither do 06-14 October 1582): While the previous day was 04 October (Julian), 05 October (Julian) is replaced by 15 October (Gregorian), the first day that the Gregorian calendar comes into use. It is immediately accepted in Italy and some other Catholic countries; with other countries creating confusion by remaining with the Julian calendar for various number of years. On this site, events with Julian dates after 04 October 1582 are reported on the corresponding Gregorian date (except when, by mistake, I don't realize that it is a Julian date).
1511 Fernando el Católico proclama una Real cédula por la que se crea la Audiencia de Santo Domingo, primera del Nuevo Mundo.
0313 Donatus, a strict African bishop, is condemned by Miltiades, the Bishop of Rome, one of those events that substantiate the early supremacy of the pope.
which occurred on a 05 October:
2003 Elena Slough, born Elena Rodenbaugh on 08 July 1889 in a log cabin in Pennsylvania, the oldest living person in the US (since the death of Mary Dorothy Christian [12 Jun 1889 – 20 Apr 2003]) and briefly the third oldest in the world (since the death of Japanese man Yukichi Chuganji [23 Mar 1889 – 28 Sep 2003]). The two older survivors are Japanese women Kamato Hongo [16 Sep 1887~] and Mitoyo Kawate [15 May 1889~].
Mrs. Slough was living at the Victoria Manor Nursing Home in North Cape May NJ, together with her daughter,Wanda Allen, 90, who died on 02 October 2003.
[Wanda Allen, left, and her mother Elena Slough, on 30 Sep 2000 >]
German-born Charlotte Benkner [16 Nov 1889~] is now the oldest person in the US and the third oldest in the world.
2003 Dr. Annalena Tonelli, 60 [< photo], shot twice in the head at 20:00 outside the tubercolosis hospital she founded in Boroma, in northwestern Somalia. A lawyer by training, she became, at the age of 27, a teacher in north-eastern Kenya, and earned diplomas in tropical medicine, community medicine, control of TB and leprosy in order to better carry out what she saw as her true calling – treating TB patients. Moving to Somalia in 1986, she distributed food in Mogadishu during the civil war, treated TB patients in southern Somalia before setting up her TB hospital in Borama. She lived simply, owning no possessions, and eating the same food as her patients. During her many years in Somalia, she had been in danger many times – kidnapped once and several times subjected to beatings, banditry and death threats.
| 2002 Ammar Rajab, 15, shot by Israeli troops firing
at stone-throwing Palestinian kids protesting being prevented from attending
school, in the al-Ein refugee camp near the West Bank city Nablus, which
has been under almost continuous curfew since since mid-June when Israel
reoccupied most West Bank towns in response to two suicide bombings by Palestinian
militants. two other youths, aged 13 and 16, are wounded. The al-Aqsa intifada
body count is now at least 1578 Palestinians and 602 Israelis,
according to Reuters.|
2002 Mohammed Zeid, 15, in the village Nazlat, West Bank, by Israeli army gunfire.
2001 Bob Stevens, 63, from having unknowingly inhaled anthrax spores. His home is in Lantana, Florida, near which some of the suicide hijackers of 11 September had resided and had inquired about crop-duster airplanes.
2001 Hananya Ben Avrhaham, 48, Israeli, as the car he is driving crashes after he is hit by shots fired from a vehicle on the side of the road, east of Tul Karm next to the 1967 Green Line border that divides Israel and the West Bank between the Avnei Hafetz settlement and Kfar Faroun. Father of six, Ben Avrhaham was from Elad next to Modi'in.
2001 Mike Mansfield, 98, at 07:32 EDT at Washington DC's Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he was since 27 September 2001. He had undergone surgery on 07 September 2001 to have a pacemaker implanted . Born to Irish Catholic immigrant parents (his father a hotel porter) in 1903 in New York, Mansfield was sent to Montana to live with relatives after his mother died when he was three. He left Montana at 14, before finishing 8th grade, lying about his age in order to join the Navy and fight in World War I. He went on to serve in the Army and Marine Corps before returning to Montana in 1922, where he went to work in a copper mine in Butte. In 1927, at the urging of his future wife, schoolteacher Maureen Hayes (died 20 Sep 2000), he enrolled in the Montana School of Mines. He graduated from Montana State University at Missoula in 1933 at the age of 30, then went on to the University of California, obtained a master's degree and became a professor, teaching history of the Far East and Latin America. Democrat Mansfield was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1943. He served five terms there before he was elected to the Senate in 1952. He became assistant Democratic leader under majority leader Lyndon Johnson in 1957. Mansfield became Senate leader when Johnson became vice president under President John Kennedy in 1961. Mansfield became the longest-serving Senate majority leader before he retired from the Senate in 1976. While a close associate of Johnson, Mansfield was one of the most vocal critics of America's role in the Vietnam War. He was also instrumental in establishing a Senate committee that investigated the Watergate scandal that proved Richard Nixon's downfall. Mansfield's career in the Senate included membership on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a strong advocate for national health insurance, played a leading role in lowering the voting age to 18 and in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. President Carter appointed him ambassador to Japan in 1977, in 1981 President Reagan reappointed him. Mansfield retired as ambassador in 1988, and went on to work in Washington as a Far East consultant for the New York investment banking firm of Goldman Sachs and Co. [Photo shows Mansfield announcing his resignation as US Ambassador to Japan at the American Embassy in Tokoyo on 14 November 1988].
1995:: 11 campesinos masacrados por una patrulla de 26 militares al mando de teniente Camilo Antonio Lacán Chaclán, en la comunidad de retornados Aurora 8 de Octubre, finca Xamán, departamento de Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
1990 Meir Kahane, 58, founder of Jewish defense league
1986 James Hardy “Jim” Wilkinson, English mathematician born on 27 September 1919. He worked on numerical analysis and on computer software.
1986 Diego Angulo Iñiguez, historiador y profesor universitario.
1985 Karl Menger, Austrian US mathematician born on 13 January 1902.
1985 Carl Harald Cramér, Stockholm mathematician specialized in statistics, born on 25 September 1893. Author of Mathematical Methods of Statistics (1945), Collected Works (1994).
1972 Solomon Lefschetz, Jewish Russian-born (03 September 1884) US topologist brought up in France and became an engineer. He immigrated to the US in November 1905. In November 1907 he lost both his hands and both his forearms in an accident, after which he switched to mathematics and became the main source of the algebraic aspects of topology.
1965 Georges Vantongerloo, artista belga, uno de los creadores del Neoplasticismo. Georges Vantongerloo was born in 1886 in Antwerp, Belgium, and died in Paris. He was a de Stijl painting and sculptor. Three~Part Composition (1921, 48x55).
1948:: 10'000 to 100'000 persons in magnitude 7.3 earthquake with epicenter in Turkmenistan at a depth of 18 km just about at its capital, Ashkhabad (37º58'N 58º24'E).
1947 Max Karl Planck, físico alemán.
1941 Louis D Brandeis , 84, 1st Jewish US Supreme Court Justice.
1906 Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian mathematical physicist born on 20 February 1844. He made important advances in electromagnetism and thermodynamics.
1864 Some 60'000 die as most of Calcutta is destroyed by cyclone
1836 Orest Kiprensky, Russian painter born on 24 March 1782. MORE ON KIPRENSKY AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1816 Camilo Torres y Tenorio, político y abogado colombiano.
1565 Lodovico Ferrari, poisoned with white arsenic by his sister. He was a Bolognese mathematician born on 02 February 1522. A luxury car would be named after him (not).
1652 Adriaen van Utrecht, Flemish painter born on 12 January 1599. — more
after 1605 Guy François Le Grand François, French painter born on 20 November 1580. — more
1557 Francesco Ubertini Verdi Bacchiaca, Italian artist born on 01 March 1494 or 1495. — more
1524 Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter born in 1485. MORE ON PATINIR AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1285 Philippe III le Hardi, 40 ans, et des milliers de ses croisés. C'est sur la route des croisades que la malaria atteint l'armée Philippe III le Hardi commande. Plus de 20'000 cavaliers et 80'000 fantassins touchés. Lui-même trouve la mort à Perpignan. Son fils, Philippe IV le Bel, lui succède.
which occurred on an October 05:
1948 Adán Buenosayres, novela de Leopoldo Marechal, se publica.
1936 Václav Havel, Czech dissident dramatist who became the first freely elected president of Czechoslovakia in 55 years.
1932 Julio Adolfo Rey Prendes, político salvadoreño.
1930 Reinhard Selten, German mathematician (game theory) and economist. He, John C. Harsanyi [29 May 1920 – 09 Aug 2000], and John F. Nash Jr. [13 Jun 1928~], would jointly receive the 1994 Nobel Economics Prize "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games".
1928 La nueva Gramática de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española es presentada.
1924 José Donoso, escritor chileno.
1923 Philip Berrigan militant priest (Chicago 7)
1922 Bil Keane, "Family Circus" cartoonist.
1910 Nathan “Jake” Jacobson, Jewish-Polish-born US mathematician, whose official birth date was incorrectly set at 08 September. He died on 05 December 1999.
1911 Flann O'Brien, Irish novelist and playwright (The Hard Life, The Third Policeman).
1898 José Camón Aznar, escritor y crítico de arte español.
1896 Raimundo Fernández Cuesta, político falangista español.
1887 René Cassin pacifist (Nobel Peace Prize 1968)
1884 Glyn Warren Philpot, British artist who died on 16 December 1937. Glyn Philpot by Sir Oswald Birley
1882 Robert Hutchings Goddard Worcester Mass, rocket pioneer, held more than 200 rocketry patents
1880 The first ball-point pen is patented on this day by Alonzo T. Cross.
1879 John Erskine, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes
1864 Louis Lumière with brother Auguste made 1st motion picture in 1895.
1861 Thomas Little Heath, English mathematician who died on 16 March 1940.
1851 Thomas Pollock Anshutz (or Anschutz), US painter and teacher who died on 16 June 1912. — more with links to images.
1848 Jean Baptiste Edouard Détaille, French artist who died on 23 December 1912. MORE ON DÉTAILLE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1845 Joseph Wenglein, German artist who died on 18 January 1919.
1840 John Addington Symonds Brit historian/writer (Probs in Greek Ethics), translator of the Autobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini Autobiography Of Benvenuto Cellini
1830 Chester Alan Arthur, in Fairfield, Vermont, (R) 21st president of the United States (1881-85).
1829 Ludwig Knaus, German painter who died on 07 December 1910. — more with links to two images.
1813 Antonio García Gutiérrez, poeta y dramaturgo español.
1781 Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano, Prague philosopher, mathematician, and theologian, who died on 18 December 1848. He successfully freed calculus from the concept of the infinitesimal. He also gave examples of 1-1 correspondences between the elements of an infinite set and the elements of a proper subset.
1732 Nevil Maskelyne, English ordained minister, astronomer, mathematician, who died on 09 February 1811.
1713 Denis Diderot France, encyclopedist (Dictionnaire Encyclopédique)
1550 La ciudad de Concepción es fundada, junto al río Bío-Bío, por Pedro de Valdivia.