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a 06 October:
2003 This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is announced to go, for seminal discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging, to Paul C. Lauterbur [06 May 1929–] of the US and Peter Mansfield [09 Oct 1933–] of the UK.
Nothwithstanding the photo of Peter Mansfield [>>>], a Nobel Prize is not equivalent to canonization as a saint of the Catholic Church, or even of the Orthodox Church. For one thing, Nobel Prizes are awarded to persons living in this world, while a prerequisite to canonization is to have gone to Heaven. The Nobel Peace Prize is the one most likely to be awarded to persons who will later be officially recognized as saints. But the first such case would be that of the 1979 laureate [27 Aug 1910 – 05 Sep 1997], canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2012 by Pope John XXV.
What you see above Mansfield's head in the photo is just an out-of-focus ceiling light. Note that in Lauterbur's photo [<<<] posted on one of his web sites, any possibility of halo has been modestly cropped out.
Paul Lauterbur discovered the possibility to create a two-dimensional picture by introducing gradients in the magnetic field. By analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, he could determine their origin. This made it possible to build up two-dimensional pictures of structures that could not be visualized with other methods.
Peter Mansfield further developed the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field. He showed how the signals could be mathematically analysed, which made it possible to develop a useful imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging could be achievable. This became technically possible within medicine a decade later.
Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, is now a routine method within medical diagnostics. Worldwide, more than 60 million investigations with MRI are performed each year, and the method is still in rapid development. MRI is often superior to other imaging techniques and has significantly improved diagnostics in many diseases. MRI has replaced several invasive modes of examination and thereby reduced the risk and discomfort for many patients.
Rosangela Rosinha Garotinho Barros Assed Matheus de Oliveira [< photo to click], does much better than her husband Anthony Garotinho. Backed by Coligação Rio Esperança (PSB, PPB, PST, PTC, PSC, PSD, PRP, and PGT), she is elected outright, with 51% of the vote, to the position from which he resigned on 05 April 2002 to run for President: governor of Rio de Janeiro state. Born on 06 April 1963, she married at the age of 18 and is the mother of biological (Clarissa, 20, Wladimir, 17, Anthony, 12, Clara, 8) and adopted (Aparecida, 26, Altamir, 25, Amanda, 15, Wanderson, 10, David, 3) children [family picture]. She and her husband are active Presbyterians.
2002 Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer [photo >] is canonized a saint by pope John Paul II. Il sacerdote spagnolo, fondatore dell'Opus Dei, è nato a Barbastro il 09 Jan 1902 e ordinato presbitero il 28 marzo 1925. Escrivá diede vita all'Opus Dei il 02 Oct 1928, mosso dal desiderio di intraprendere un nuovo cammino vocazionale all'interno della Chiesa per promuovere la ricerca della santità e l'apostolato attraverso la santificazione del lavoro e della vita quotidiana. Dopo un lungo e fecondo itinerario sacerdotale, morì il 26 Jun 1975. [Homilía del Papa] [Reseña de los escritos de Escrivá] [The Opus Dei is controversial]
2002 Un groupe japonais a dévoilé un projet de $367 millions pour la construction de la plus haute tour du monde (600 m) dans le parc Ueno de Tokyo, rapporte la presse nippone. Cette structure dépasserait la CN Tower de Toronto (553 m). La tour servirait notamment de relais de transmission pour les télévisions, qui utilisent aujourd'hui la Tour Tokyo (333 m), un bâtiment rouge inspiré de la Tour Eiffel
2002 Human world chess champion Kramnik, with White, beats computer program Deep Fritz, with Black, in the 2nd of the 8 games in their match of 04, 06, 08, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19 October 2002, putting Kramnik ahead 1.5 to 0.5. 1. d4 d5 / 2. c4 d×c4 / 3. Nf3 Nf6 / 4. e3 e6 / 5. B×c4 c5 / 6. 0-0 a6 / 7. d×c5 Q×d1 / 8. R×d1 B×c5 / 9. Kf1 b5 / 10. Be2 Bb7 / 11. Nbd2 Nbd7 / 12. Nb3 Bf8 / 13. a4 b4 / 14. Nfd2 Bd5 / 15. f3 Bd6 / 16. g3 e5 / 17. e4 Be6 / 18. Nc4 Bc7 / 19. Be3 a5 / 20. Nc5 N×c5 / 21. B×c5 Nd7 / 22. Nd6+ Kf8 / 23. Bf2 B×d6 / 24. R×d6 Ke7 / 25. Rad1 Rhc8 / 26. Bb5 Nc5 / 27. Bc6 Bc4+ / 28. Ke1 Nd3+ / 29. R1×d3 B×d3 / 30. Bc5 Bc4 / 31. Rd4+ Kf6 / 32. R×c4 R×c6 / 33. Be7+ K×e7 / 34. R×c6 Kd7 / 35. Rc5 f6 / 36. Kd2 Kd6 / 37. Rd5+ Kc6 / 38. Kd3 g6 / 39. Kc4 g5 / 40. h3 h6 / 41. h4 g×h4 / 42. g×h4 Ra7 / 43. h5 Ra8 / 44. Rc5+ Kb6 / 45. Rb5+ Kc6 / 46. Rd5 Kc7 / 47. Kb5 b3 / 48. Rd3 Ra7 / 49. R×b3 Rb7+ / 50. Kc4 Ra7 / 51. Rb5 Ra8 / 52. Kd5 Ra6 / 53. Rc5+ Kd7 / 54. b3 Rd6+ / 55. Kc4 Rd4+ / 56. Kc3 Rd1 / 57. Rd5+ Possible continuation: the transition into the pawn ending is the simplest way to victory, for example / R×d5 / 58. e×d5 Kd6 / 59. b4 a×b4+ / 60. K×b4 K×d5 / 61. Kb5 Kd6 ( / f5 / 62. a5 e4 / 63. f×e4+ f×e4 / 64. a6 e3 / 65. a7 e2 / 66. a8Q++- ) / 62. a5 f5 / 63. a6 Kc7 / 64. Kc5 e4 / 65. f×e4 f×e4 / 66. Kd4 Kb6 / 67. K×e4 K×a6 / 68. Kf5 Kb6 / 69. Kg6 Kc7 / 70. K×h6 Kd7 / 71. Kg7+-
2000 Vojislav Kostunica takes power in Belgrade as president of Yugoslavia, elected by some 55% of the vote on 24 September. Sobodan Milosevic, the previous (dictatorial) president, had failed in his attempts to rig the election, and then had it reported as requiring a run-off election. However the Serbian masses demonstrated in the streets, culminating on 5 October with the taking of the Parliament building and of the government TV, while the police joined the demonstrators ending the 13-year autocratic regime of Milosevic.
1996 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
John Martinez of J. Martinez & Company in Atlanta, for Luak Coffee, the world's most expensive coffee, which is made from coffee beans ingested and excreted by the luak (aka, the palm civet), a bobcat-like animal native to Indonesia.
D.M.R. Georget, R. Parker, and A.C. Smith, of the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, England, for their rigorous analysis of soggy breakfast cereal, published in the report entitled 'A Study of the Effects of Water Content on the Compaction Behaviour of Breakfast Cereal Flakes."
Awarded jointly to Nick Leeson and his superiors at Barings Bank and to Robert Citron of Orange County, California, for using the calculus of derivatives to demonstrate that every financial institution has its limits.
Marcia E. Buebel, David S. Shannahoff-Khalsa, and Michael R. Boyle, for their invigorating study entitled "The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing on Cognition."
David B. Busch and James R. Starling, of Madison Wisconsin, for their deeply penetrating research report, "Rectal foreign bodies: Case Reports and a Comprehensive Review of the World's Literature." The citations include reports of, among other items: seven light bulbs; a knife sharpener; two flashlights; a wire spring; a snuff box; an oil can with potato stopper; eleven different forms of fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs; a jeweler's saw; a frozen pig's tail; a tin cup; a beer glass; and one patient's remarkable ensemble collection consisting of spectacles, a suitcase key, a tobacco pouch and a magazine.
The Taiwan National Parliament, for demonstrating that politicians gain more by punching, kicking and gouging each other than by waging war against other nations.
Shigeru Watanabe, Junko Sakamoto, and Masumi Wakita, of Keio University, for their success in training pigeons to discriminate between the paintings of Picasso and those of Monet. [REFERENCE: "Pigeons' Discrimination of Paintings by Monet and Picasso," Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior vol. 63, 1995, pp. 165-174.]
Martha Kold Bakkevig of Sintef Unimed in Trondheim, Norway, and Ruth Nielson of the Technical University of Denmark, for their exhaustive study, "Impact of Wet Underwear on Thermoregulatory Responses and Thermal Comfort in the Cold."
Robert H. Beaumont, of Shoreview, Minnesota, for his incisive study "Patient Preference for Waxed or Unwaxed Dental Floss."
Bijan Pakzad of Beverly Hills, for creating DNA Cologne and DNA PERFUME, neither of which contain deoxyribonucleic acid, and both of which come in a triple helix bottle.
1994 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
W. Brian Sweeney, Brian Krafte-Jacobs, Jeffrey W. Britton, and Wayne Hansen, for their breakthrough study, "The Constipated Serviceman: Prevalence Among Deployed US Troops," and especially for their numerical analysis of bowel movement frequency.
John Hagelin of Maharishi University and The Institute of Science, Technology and Public Policy, promulgator of peaceful thoughts, for his experimental conclusion that 4000 trained meditators caused an 18% decrease in violent crime in Washington, D.C. [Would 4000 trained mediators have caused an 81% decrease?]
This prize is awarded in two parts. First, to Patient X, formerly of the US Marine Corps, valiant victim of a venomous bite from his
pet rattlesnake, for his determined use of electroshock therapy -- at his own insistence, automobile sparkplug wires were attached to
his lip, and the car engine revved to 3000 rpm for five minutes.
Second, to Dr. Richard C. Dart of the Rocky Mountain Poison Center and Dr. Richard A. Gustafson of The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, for their well-grounded medical report: "Failure of Electric Shock Treatment for Rattlesnake Envenomation."
Robert A. Lopez of Westport, NY, valiant veterinarian and friend of all creatures great and small, for his series of experiments in obtaining ear mites from cats, inserting them into his own ear, and carefully observing and analyzing the results.
Lee Kuan Yew, former Prime Minister of Singapore, practitioner of the psychology of negative reinforcement, for his thirty-year study of the effects of punishing three million citizens of Singapore whenever they spat, chewed gum, or fed pigeons.
The Japan Meterological Agency, for its seven-year study of whether earthquakes are caused by catfish wiggling their tails. [to be followed by the complementary study of whether earthquakes cause catfish to wiggle their tails?]
L. Ron Hubbard, ardent author of science fiction and founding father of Scientology, for his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind or to a portion thereof.
Texas State Senator Bob Glasgow, wise writer of logical legislation, for sponsoring the 1989 drug control law which makes it illegal to purchase beakers, flasks, test tubes, or other laboratory glassware without a permit.
Jan Pablo Davila of Chile, tireless trader of financial futures and former employee of the state-owned Codelco Company, for instructing his computer to "buy" when he meant "sell," and subsequently attempting to recoup his losses by making increasingly unprofitable trades that ultimately lost 0.5%
of Chile's gross national product. Davila's relentless achievement inspired his countrymen to coin a new verb: " davilar," meaning, "to botch things up royally."
The Southern Baptist Church of Alabama, mathematical measurers of morality, for their county-by-county estimate of how many Alabama citizens will go to Hell if they don't repent. [additional details.]
1991 Reports surface that a former personal assistant to US Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill, had accused Thomas of sexually harassing her.
1979 Pope John Paul II is 1st Pope to visit the White House
1976 John Hathaway completes a bicycle tour of every continent in the world, cycling 81'400 km
1976 In his second presidential campaign debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." (Ford later conceded he'd misspoken.)
1949 US President Truman signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, totaling $1.3 billion in military aid to NATO countries.
1939 In an address to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler denies having any intention of pursuing war against France and Britain. Plan de paix de Hitler (rejeté par Chamberlain le 12)
1939 Reddition des derniers combattants polonais à Koch
1928 Chiang Kai-Shek becomes president of China
1927 The Jazz Singer, 1st movie with a sound track, premieres (NYC) with popular entertainer Al Jolson singing and dancing in black-face.
1911 The first transpacific radio conversation takes place over over 10,000 km between a Japanese steamer and a wireless station in San Francisco.
1908 Austria annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina
1890 Mormon Church outlaws polygamy
1889 Thomas Edison shows his 1st motion picture
1886 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure The Resident Patient
1873 Début du procès du maréchal Achille-François Bazaine, 62 ans, pour sa capitulation sans combat à Metz avec 140'000 hommes, qui complète la défaite dans la guerre de 1870 engagée par le second Empire contre la Prusse. Il sera condamné le 10 décembre à la dégradation et à mort par le conseil de guerre, que préside le duc d'Aumale. Sa peine sera commuée par le président de la République Mac-Mahon en 20 ans de prison. Il parviendra à s'évader le 9 août 1874 et finira sa vie en exil en Espagne, où il meurt le 28 septembre 1888..
1866 The Reno brothers--Frank, John, Simeon and William--commit the US's first train robbery near Seymore, Indiana netting $10'000. (However it was preceded by a train burglary. Exactly nine months before, bandits entered an Adams Express car en route to Boston from New York and stole over half a million dollars from safes on the unoccupied car.) [MORE]
1814 Alexander J. Dallas took the oath to become the United States' sixth Secretary of the Treasury on this day. Dallas' tenure came to a close in 1816
1801 Napoleon Bonaparte imposes a new constitution on Holland.
1788 The Polish Diet decides to hold a four year session.
1781 Americans and French begin siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown; last battle of the Revolutionary War
1696 Savoy Germany withdraws from the Grand Alliance.
1014 The Byzantine Emperor Basil earns the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he orders the blinding of 15'000 Bulgarian soldiers.
0891 Formosus begins his reign as Pope.
which occurred on an October 06:
2003 Elizabeta Rizea, 91, resistance fighter against the Communist dictatorship in Romania, from soon after its 1945 beginnings to 1949 when she was imprisoned.
2002 One Bulgarian engine-room sailor from an explosion of a small suicide bomb boat followed by fire on French supertanker Limburg [photo before explosion >] while it is meeting the boat of the pilot who is to guide it the 5 km into the port of Mina al-Dabah, near Mukalla in the Gulf of Aden. 17 others of the crew of 17 Bulgarians and 8 Frenchmen are injured.
The 157'833-ton ship, belonging to Euronav and chartered by Malaysia's Petronas, was carrying 397'000 barrels of Iranian crude petroleum, and was about to load more in the port. A severe petroleum spill results.
[faked photo below]
2002 Hani Beni Maniyeh, 24, Palestinian from Akrabeh near
Nablus, West Bank, bleeds to death after being hit from the back in the
femoral artery by gunfire from a group of 10 Israeli settlers from the Gidonim
and Itamar enclaves who at 09:00 attacked Palestinians harvesting olives
in an orchard 1.5 km from Itamar and 3 km from Akrabeh. Settlers have been
attacking Palestinians harvesters since the olive harvest began on 02 October.
Akrabeh residents are unable to get to 70% of their lands because of these
attacks. The Israeli army and police do nothing to stop the murderous settlers.
The al-Aqsa intifada body count is now at least At least 1584
Palestinians and 602 Israelis, according to Reuters.
2002 Sami Nursi, 21, Islamic Jihad activist, shot by Israeli soldiers at the entrance to the Jenin refugee camp, West Bank.
2002 Frank X. Barron, 80, after a fall, US psychologist best known for intensive studies of highly creative people. Two of his books, Creativity and Psychological Health (1963) and Creativity and Personal Freedom (1968), are considered classics in the field.
2001 Hamza al Hawazmeh, 24, by Israeli gunfire, and his cousin, 36, by a tank shell, both from Israeli troops invading Palestinian Hebron.
1968 Phyllis Nicolson, English mathematical physicist born on 21 September 1917.
1956 Charles Edward Merrill, 70, born on 19 October 1885, founder (on 03 January 1914, as Charles E. Merrill & Co.) and a directing partner of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane (as it was called at the time of his death), investment banking and brokerage firm, in semi-retirement since a 1944 heart attack. He also started the magazine Family Circle, distributed in chain stores.
1951 Henry Gurney British high commissioner to Malaya, assassinated
1927 Paul Louis Henri Sérusier, French painter born in 1863. MORE ON SÉRUSIER AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1912 Walter William Skeat, editor of Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, and of Chaucer's The Book of the Duchesse
1902 George Rawlinson, historian. RAWLINSON ONLINE: History of Phoenicia, translator of The History of Herodotus
1899 Felicia Skene, author. SKENE ONLINE: The Inheritance of Evil: Or, The Consequence of Marrying a Deceased Wife's Sister, Penitentiaries and Reformatories, Scenes from a Silent World: or Prisons and Their Inmates, The Shadow of the Holy Week, A Test of the Truth, The Tutor's Ward volume 1, volume 2
1892 Alfred Tennyson, author. TENNYSON ONLINE: Enoch Arden, &c., Enoch Arden, &c., Idylls of the King, The Lady of Shalott (with Pre-Raphaelite paintings), The Princess: A Medley, The Princess: A Medley
1891 Charles Stewart Parnell (born 27 June 1846), died in Brighton, England. The "Uncrowned King of Ireland" was an Irish nationalist and statesman who led the fight for Irish home rule in the 1880s and almost attained it. But the scandal of his adultery ruined his career and stalled advancement of the nationalist struggle. He dies long before home rule is finally achieved.
1889 Jules Dupré, French Barbizon school painter born on 05 April 1811, specialized in landscapes. MORE ON DUPRÉ AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1880 Benjamin Peirce, US mathematician and astronomer born on 04 April 1809. Author of Linear Associative Algebra (1870)— PEIRCE ONLINE: Address of Professor Benjamin Peirce, President of the American Association for the Year 1853, On Retiring from the Duties of President, An Elementary Treatise on Curves, Functions, and Forces volume 1, volume 2, Elements of the Theory of the Newtonian Potential Function
1867 Henry Timrod, poet. TIMROD ONLINE: Poems (1860), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1872), The Poems of Henry Timrod (1873), The Poems of Henry Timrod
1855 August Leopold Crelle, German civil engineer and mathematician born on 11 March 1780. He founded in 1826 the Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (“Crelle's Journal”) and was its editor-in-chief for the first 52 volumes.
1840 Ferdinand François Désiré Budan de Boislaurent, French physician and amateur mathematician born on 28 September 1761. He discovered a rule which gives necessary conditions for a polynomial equation to have n real roots between two given numbers.
1536 William Tyndale, English translator of the New Testament, convicted of heresy, is strangled and his remains burned, at Vilvorde, France.
0877 Charles II le Chauve, 54 ans, roi de France depuis 843 et Saint Empereur Romain Germanique (Karl der Kahle) depuis 875. (A ne pas confondre avec le roi Charles le Chauve ou le Bel, IV de France et I de Navarre [1322-1328]) Accouru au secours du pape attaqué par les Sarrasins, Charles II meurt de dysenterie sur la route du retour à Avrieux, près de Modane. Comme ça il n'a pas à faire face à la révolte de ses vassaux. Il est inhumé à Saint-Denis. Louis II le Bègue lui succède.
which occurred on an October 06:
2002 AngelBourse opens on the Internet. Based in Bristol, UK, its aim is to supplement the funds angels (venture capitalists) provide to tiny companies (market capitalization of less than £14 million) by making a market for those who want to risk at least £1000 in such companies. Thus it competes with the lower reaches of the London Stock Exchange's Alternative Investment Market (AIM). Initially AngelBourse lists 26 companies, not by name (for surfers who are not certified as either Sophisticated Investors or High Net Worth Individuals with an account costing £33 per month) but by code. However, after completing an application, giving my name as Anonymous Guest (without paying anything) I saw these listed [I added the links]: AJC Trailers BCD Modelling Calibrand Carefree.TV Click Recruitment Systems Lookbeyond Netvoyager Radtables Rostima SocietyPersonnel.com The Creative Educational Corporation The Prestfold Group Worldwide Environmental Technologies
1930 Hafez al Assad president-dictator (Syria)
1927 The Jazz Singer, a movie that featured both silent and sound-synchronized scenes, opens, ushering in the era of talking pictures.
1925 Shana Alexander, author-journalist.
1918 Abraham Robinson, Jewish-German-born US mathematician who died on 11 April 1974. Author of Complete theories (1956), Non-Standard Analysis (1966). Robinson invented non-standard analysis, which gives an alternative model for the Real numbers (sometimes called hyperreals) in which infinitesimals (numbers > 0 but < 1/n for all n) can be interpreted in a different way.
1914 Thor Heyerdahl Norway, anthropologist/explorer (Kon Tiki, Aku-Aku)
1908 Sergei Sobolev, Saint-Petersburg Russian mathematician who died on 03 January 1989. In the 1930s he introduced the Sobolev function spaces.
1898 Charles Lapicque, French artist who died in 1988.
1895 Caroline Gordon, writer (The Strange Children)
1888 Li Ta-chao cofounder with Mao Tse-tung of Chinese Communist Party
1887 Charles Edouard Jeanneret “Le Corbusier”, Swiss French architect, urban planner, painter, lithographer, writer, designer, and theorist, active mostly in France, who died on 27 August 1965. MORE ON “LE CORBUSIER” AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1887 Martín Luis Guzmán Mexico, novelist (The Eagle and the Serpent)
1862 Albert Jeremiah Beveridge US, politician/author (Progressive)
1849 Sir Basil Zaharoff arms dealer, "merchant of death"
1831 Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind, Braunschweig German mathematician who died on 12 February 1916. His major contribution was a redefinition of irrational numbers in terms of Dedekind cuts. He introduced the notion of an ideal which is fundamental to ring theory. Author of Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (1863), Stetigkeit und Irrationale Zahlen (1872), Über die Theorie der ganzen algebraischen Zahlen (1879).
1823 George Henry Boker, author. BOKER ONLINE: Anne Boleyn: A Tragedy, The Book of the Dead
1784 Pierre Charles François Dupin, French mathematician who died on 18 January 1873. He made contributions to differential geometry and in particular invented the Dupin Indicatrix.
1771 (or some time in December 1771?) Jacques Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, French artist who died on 06 May 1849.
1745 Francissek Smuglevitch, Polish artist who died on 18 September 1807
1578 Hieronymus Kessel, Flemish artist who died in 1636.
1552 Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit who was sent as a missionary to China in 1583 and co-founded the first successful Catholic missions there. His complete adoption of Chinese customs raised the issue of the limits of "accommodation" to other cultures, in the preaching of the gospel. He was also a mathematician. He died on 11 May 1610.
1536 Santi di Tito, Italian artist who died on 24 July 1603.