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an October 09:
2002 MSC Software [mostly for engineering] (MNS) predicts a $0.05-$0.07 third quarter loss from operations on $80 million to $82 million revenue, and says that it will record a $6 million charge. Thereupon MNS is dowgraded by Merrill Lynch from Buy to Neutral, and by AG Edwards from Hold to Sell. On the New York Stock Exchange 2 million of the 30 million shares of MNS are traded, dropping from their previous close of $7.45 to an intraday low of $2.74 and close at $5.00. They had traded as high as $23.40 as recently as 28 March 2002. [5~ year price chart >]
16.09 22 May 2002
2002 The shares of the Boston Celtics Limited Partnership (BOS) surge on the New York Stock Exchange, where they trade for the first time since they closed at $11.35 on 27 September. They open at $29.50, the intraday high, and close at $28.00. Only 28'400 of the 2.7 million shares are traded, but usually it is a rare day when more than 2000 shares of BOS are traded. The basketball team is 52% owned by a group led by Paul Gaston, and 48% is the traded shares of BOS owned by fans. The franchise is the only US professional sports team to be publicly traded. After the close of trading on 27 September 2002, venture capitalists Stephen Pagliuca, and father and son Irving and Wycliffe Grousbeck, announced plans to pay $360 million to purchase the team, whereupon trading was stopped. The public shareholders would receive $25 to $35 per share, it was estimated on 07 October 2002. [< 5~year price chart]
2002 On news that Borland (BORL) is to buy for $24 million ($2.75 a share) the computer software (CaliberRM, Code Wright, eXpressroom) corporation Starbase (SBAS), the SBAS shares skyrocket, on the NASDAQ, from their previous close of $0.80 to an intraday high of $2.72 and close at $2.69, on a volume of 2 million of its 8.7 million shares. At the close the bid is $0.01 and the asked $2000.00 (!!!) SBAS had traded as high $161.25 on 07 February 2000 and, within the last 52 weeks as high as $7.97 on 18 October 2001 and as low as $0.52 on 21 August 2002. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Following a court order (requested by US President Bush Jr. under the Taft~Hartley Law) the previous day, The Pacific Maritime Association, which represents employers at 29 US West Coast ports, ends the lockout of workers it started on 28 September 2002, in a dispute with the 10'500-member International Longshore and Warehouse Union, which it accused of a job slowdown. The dispute is on whether the future jobs created by technology will be union jobs.
2002 The 2002 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is announced to go by halves to Daniel Kahneman (US Israel) for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty and to Vernon L. Smith (US) for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms. (Each Nobel Prize for 2000 amounts to 10 million Swedish krone, or approximately $1'050'000 to $1'100'000 depending on the fluctuating exchange rate)
According to Nobel Foundation rules, the prizes can be given only to living persons, which is why Kahneman gets it but not his close co-researcher Amos Tversky [16 March 1937 02 June 1996].
MORE EVEN MORE (PDF)
|2002 The 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is announced to be awarded for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules. It goes half jointly to John B. Fenn, 85 (US) and Koichi Tanaka, 44 (Japan) for their development of soft desorption ionization methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules, and the other half to Kurt Wüthrich, 64 (Switzerland), for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution . Tanaka was born on 22 April 1958. Nobel Lectures (links good after 08 Dec 2002): Fenn _ Tanaka _ Wüthrich MORE EVEN MORE (PDF)|
| 2001 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announces
that it has decided to award the $943'000 Nobel Prize in Physics for 2001
jointly to Eric
A. Cornell, 39 (JILA and National Institute of Standards and Technology
, Boulder, Colorado), Carl
E. Wieman, 50 (JILA and University of Colorado, Boulder), and to Wolfgang
Ketterle, 43, (German, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,
Massachusetts) "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute
gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties
of the condensates". // New
state of matter revealed: Bose-Einstein Condensate // Advanced
scientific information (PDF 1.05MB)
1999 New Russian strikes in Chechnya as Western concerns grow (CNN)
| 1998 El primer gobierno italiano de centro-izquierda
de después de la II Guerra mundial cae en una moción de confianza planteada
por el primer ministro Romano Prodi.
1998 Se crea en EE.UU. un embrión humano con los genes de una mujer estéril.
1997 Dimite el primer ministro italiano, Romano Prodi, al perder la confianza de la Cámara.
1997 El Bundesbank altera los mercados europeos al subir en 0,30 puntos el precio del dinero. Las bolsas responden con fuertes pérdidas.
1997 This year's IgNobel Prizes are awarded in the following fields:
T. Yagyu and his colleagues from the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland, from Kansai Medical University in Osaka, Japan, and from Neuroscience Technology Research in Prague, Czech Republic, for measuring people's brainwave patterns while they chewed different flavors of gum.
Mark Hostetler of the University of Florida, for his scholarly book, "That Gunk on Your Car," which identifies the insect splats that appear on automobile windows.
Richard Hoagland of New Jersey, for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon.
Sanford Wallace, president of Cyber Promotions of Philadelphia -- neither rain nor sleet nor dark of night have stayed this self-appointed courier from delivering electronic junk mail to all the world.
John Bockris of Texas A&M University, for his wide-ranging achievements in cold fusion, in the transmutation of base elements into gold, and in the electrochemical incineration of domestic rubbish.
Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips and Yoav Rosenberg of Israel, and Michael Drosnin of the United States, for their hairsplitting statistical discovery that the bible contains a secret, hidden code.
Carl J. Charnetski and Francis X. Brennan, Jr. of Wilkes University, and James F. Harrison of Muzak Ltd. in Seattle, Washington, for their discovery that listening to elevator Muzak stimulates immunoblobulin A (IgA) production, and thus may help prevent the common cold.
Akihiro Yokoi of Wiz Company in Chiba, Japan and Aki Maita of Bandai Company in Tokyo, the father and mother of Tamagotchi, for diverting millions of person-hours of work into the husbandry of virtual pets.
Harold Hillman of the University of Surrey, England for his lovingly rendered and ultimately peaceful report "The Possible Pain Experienced During Execution by Different Methods."
Bernard Vonnegut of the State University of Albany, for his revealing report, "Chicken Plucking as Measure of Tornado
1996 Two Americans and a Briton, Robert F. Curl Jr., Richard E. Smalley, and Sir Harold W. Kroto, share the Nobel Prize in chemistry "for their discovery of fullerenes". Three US scientists, David M. Lee, 65, Douglas D. Osheroff, 51, and Robert C. Richardson, 59, win the physics prize "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3".
1994 Israeli Cpl. Nachshon Wachsman, 19, who is also a US citizen, is kidnapped by Palestinian. In a video, his captors would hold a gun to his head and threatened to kill him should the Rabin government not release some 200 Hamas prisoners. Instead Rabin would order a commando raid on the West Bank house in Bir Naballah where Wachsman was being held. In the ensuing gunfight, the terrorists shoot and kill Wachsman before being killed themselves by General Staff Reconnaissance Unit commandos. The leader of the team, Capt. Nir Poraz, also died in the raid.
1992 The UN bans Serbian flights over Bosnia, but does not take measures to enforce the ban.
1992 El Gobierno de Israel acepta negociar con los palestinos del exilio en las conversaciones de paz.
1992 El telescopio espacial "Hubble" encuentra pistas de la materia oscura del universo, de la que según los físicos depende el destino del universo.
1986 US Senate convicts US District Judge Harry E Claiborne making him the 5th federal official to be removed from office through impeachment.
1985 The murderous hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise liner surrender after the ship arrives in Port Said, Egypt.
1980 1st consumer use of home banking by computer (Knoxville Tn)
1978 150'000 personas conmemoran la "diada" valenciana.
1975 Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov wins Nobel Peace Prize
1974 La Organización para la Unidad Africana (OUA) manifiesta ante la ONU que es partidaria de la autodeterminación del Sáhara español, en contra de las reivindicaciones marroquíes.
1971 Tras fracasar un alzamiento en Argentina, los militares sublevados se rinden a las fuerzas gubernamentales.
1963 Uganda becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth
1963 El presidente John Fitzgerald Kennedy autoriza la venta de trigo de EE.UU. a la URSS.
1963 El concilio Vaticano II aprueba el uso parcial de las lenguas vernáculas en la misa.
1962 Arrecian las condenas al gobierno español en Francia, Suiza e Italia, que exigen una anmistía, desencadenadas por la pena de muerte impuesta al anarquista Jordi Conill.
1961 Volcano eruptions on Tristan de Cunha (South Atlantic)
1961 Tanganyika becomes independent within the British Commonwealth
1961 Declarado fuera de la ley el Partido Comunista en EE.UU.
1957 El Presidente Dwight David Eisenhower promulga una nueva ley sobre los derechos civiles en los EE.UU>
1945 Se dictan en España nuevas restricciones en el consumo de energía eléctrica.
1941 Un golpe de estado incruento en Panamá lleva al poder a Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia.
1919 Se implanta en España la jornada laboral de ocho horas.
1916 Ataque aéreo francés sobre Stuttgart.
1916 El expresidente de gobierno griego, Eleutherios Venizelos, proclama en Salónica la constitución de un gobierno revolucionario contra el rey Constantino.
1916 Comienzo de la octava ofensiva del Isonzo (Italia).
1915 Las tropas alemanas y austriacas toman Belgrado.
1890 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Red-Headed League
1874 Convenio Internacional de Berna, conocido por Unión Postal Universal.
1864 Engagement on Santa Rosa Island, Florida
1863 Confederate cavalry raiders return to Chattanooga after attacking Union General William Rosecrans' supply and communication lines all around east Tennessee.
1863 Bristoe Station Campaign begins in Virginia
1861 Engagement at Tom's Brook, Virginia
1845 Cofounder of the Oxford Movement in England, churchman John Henry Newman made his celebrated conversion from Anglicanism to Catholicism. From 1845-1862, nearly 250 other English clergy followed Newman into the Roman Catholic faith
1825 The first Norwegian immigrants to America arrive on the sloop Restaurationen.
1820 In Guayaquil, Ecuador declares its independence Los ecuatorianos suscriben en Guayaquil el Acta de Independencia.
1812 Battle of Lake Erie: US navy under the command of Lieutenant Jesse Duncan Elliot captures two British brigs, the Detroit and Caledonia. The next day Elliot sets the Detroit ablaze in retaliation for the British capture of the city of Detroit seven weeks before.
1776 Spanish missionaries dedicated the first mission chapel on the northern California coast at Yerba Buena. (In 1847, the city which grew up around the mission changed its name to San Francisco.)
1760 Austrian and Russian troops enter Berlin and begin burning structures and looting.
1746 Bishop Antonio Serzale of Brindisi prohibits Sisters from being Custodians of Churches.
1705 La rendición de Barcelona durante la Guerra de sucesión propicia que el archiduque Carlos III de Austria se proclame rey de España.
1664 Benjamin Keach [picture >] is hauled before a magistrate and accused of scandalous behavior: printing a Baptist primer for children.
1635 Rhode Island founder banished from Massachusetts
Religious dissident Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the General Court of Massachusetts. Williams had spoken out against the right of civil authorities to hand out punishment for religious offenses and opposed the practice of doling out land that belongs to Indians. After leaving Massachusetts, Williams establishes a settlement at the junction of two rivers near Narragansett Bay, located within present-day Rhode Island. Williams declares the settlement open to those seeking freedom of conscience and the removal of the church from civil matters. Taking the success of the venture as a sign from God, Williams names the first community in history boasting complete religious freedom Providence. Among those who find a haven in the religious and political refuge of the Rhode Island Colony are Anne Hutchinson, exiled from Massachusetts for theological reasons, some of the first Jews to settle in North America, and the Quakers. Roger Williams also founds the first Baptist church in America and edits the first dictionary of Native-American languages.
In 1631, a likeable twenty-eight year old minister named Roger Williams arrived in Massachusetts. He would soon upset the Puritan alliance between the church and the colonial government. Roger Williams was a splendid speaker with a magnetic personality who was personally liked by all of the leaders of the Massachusetts government. They were saddened, however, by the extreme positions he took on some of the major issues of the day. For example, Williams taught that the King of England had no right to issue the Bay Colony a charter in America, because the Indians owned the land. The arguments John Cotton and others had presented that the earth was the Lord's and the colonists could freely settle in areas not settled by the Indians were unacceptable to Williams.
Williams' ideas also clashed with the Massachusetts idea of a people covenanted together to form a state or society based on religious truths. Williams believed the state should have no authority over a man's religious beliefs or conscience. The Truth was strong enough to stand without the coercion of the state. Roger Williams became the first in America to express the idea of religious freedom and liberty of conscience, ideas which were in disagreement with the Puritan goal of establishing a Christian commonwealth as an example to Europe. The leaders of Massachusetts wanted a united body of believers in their colony, but Williams wanted the church and the state separate. Williams, then, attacked not only the very charter of the Massachusetts colony, but the colony's reason for existence!
In 1635 Roger Williams was tried by the Massachusetts court, and on this date, October 9, 1635 was sentenced to banishment. Rather than be deported back to England, Williams fled the colony in January of the next year and lived among the Narragansett Indians. In the summer of 1636 he established a settlement he named Providence, in memory of the Lord's protection of him during his time in the wilderness. He bought the land from the Indians and allowed complete religious toleration among later settlers. As other settlements in the area were made, the little colony came to be called Rhode Island. Religious freedom and liberty of conscience were preserved in Rhode Island throughout its colonial history, and it became a haven for those seeking a freedom not found in other colonies.
1470 Henry VI of England restored to the throne.
1468 Entretiens de Péronne commencent. C'est Louis XI lui-même qui a proposé à Charles le Téméraire qu'ils se rencontrent. Il veut négocier seul à seul avec lui alors qu'une deuxième coalition se dresse contre lui. Monsieur Charles", son propre frère, le duc François II de Bretagne, et Jean d'Almençon sont les alliés du Téméraire. Contre toute attente, l'entrevue vire à l'humiliation pour le roi de France. Charles le Téméraire, qui redoute la duplicité du roi : "Il n'est venu là que pour me trahir" et ordonne que l'on ferme les portes de la ville, rompt les négociations. Le roi prisonnier. Les conseillers du duc de Bourgogne lui disent alors : "Profitez des circonstances pour tirer du roi ce qu'il vous plaira.
1446 Korean Hangual alphabet devised
1325 Alfonso IV de Portugal sube al trono tras la muerte de su padre Dionisio.
1238 Jaime I el Conquistador entra en Valencia, que había capitulado el 28 de septiembre de este año ante el asedio de los cristianos.
1002 (1000?) Leif Eriksson, "the Lucky", who later evangelized Greenland, is reported to have been the first European to reach North America, discovering "Vinland" (possibly New England)
--28 BC The Temple of Apollo is dedicated on the Palatine Hill in Rome.
| Deaths which occurred
on an October 09:|
2003 Hayder Yusser, another Iraqi, and two US soldiers, in an hour-long evening gunfight after US troops in Baghdad, Iraq, surrounded the Sadr City headquarters or anti-US Shiite ayatollah Moktada (or Moqtada) al-Sadr, son of ayatollah Muhammah Sadiq al-Sadr (murdered in 1999 on orders from dictator Saddam Hussein), who has a private militia, the Jaish Mehdi. 4 US soldiers are wounded.
2003:: 3 policemen, 5 civilians, and two suicide bombers in a car which explodes at 08:30 when hitting another car in the parking lot of a police station in Sadr City, the biggest Shiite slum of Baghdad, Iraq, after crashing through the gate and being fired upon by police. Some 45 persons are injured.
2003 José Antonio Bernal Gómez, an air force sergeant at Spain's embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, shot at 08:15 by three assailants who chased him from his home, barefoot and in his undershorts.
2003 A US soldier, by a rocket propelled grenade hitting his convoy at 02:00 in Baqouba, 50 km northeast of Baghdad, Iraq. It is the 92nd US soldier to be killed in Iraq since USurper-President “Dubya” Bush pompously declared major combat over on 01 May 2003. Innocent Iraqis killed at not being counted by the US occupiers.
2003 Baba Jallow, 28, beaten to death by some 10 persons in the town Serekunda, 115 km from Banjul, Gambia. They believed that he had stolen a man's penis through sorcery. Reports of penis snatching are not uncommon in West Africa, with purported victims claiming that sorcerers simply touched them to make their genitals shrink or disappear in order to extort cash in the promise of a cure. Many men in Serekunda are now afraid to shake hands. Belief in sorcery is widespread in West Africa. Seven alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by angry mobs in Ghana in 1997.
2002 Dean Harold Meyers, 56, hit in the upper body by a single .223-caliber bullet from high-powered rifle X, shot from a a distance, at 20:18, moments after he filled his car's gasoline tank at a station in Manassas, Virginia, some 50 km west of Washington, DC. Civil engineer Meyers was on his way home to Gaithersburg, Maryland, from his job in Virginia. This is the 7th similar murder in the area in and around DC, from the same rifle. A lot of nonsense is spouted by news media and the various police forces, who seem clueless. (Example: they exhort the killer to stop this madness and surrender)
2002 Aileen Wuornos, 46, by lethal injection in Florida, for 6 murders. She was seemingly mentally ill. Her last words were: I'd just like to say I'm sailing with the Rock and I'll be back like Independence Day with Jesus, June 6, like the movie, big mothership and all. I'll be back. Wuornos had fired her attorneys and dropped her. Wuornos was sentenced to death six times for killing middle-aged men in 1989 and 1990, when she was a prostitute. Her first murder victim was Richard Mallory, a Clearwater electronics shop owner whose body was found in 1989 in Volusia County. After standing trial for Mallory's death, Wuornos pleaded guilty to five other murders in Marion, Pasco and Dixie counties. For years, Wuornos claimed she shot the men out of self-defense while being raped and sodomized. Later, she recanted her claims, saying she wanted to make peace with God. I'm one who seriously hates human life and would kill again," she told the state Supreme Court. Wuornos also claimed to have killed a seventh man.
2002 Two Palestinian boys, aged 12 and 16, when Israeli soldiers approaching the edge of Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip fired on a crowd throwing stones and homemade stun grenades.
2001 Four Afghan security guards for a UN contractor, as US cruise missile destroys the building of a United Nations-funded demining agency in Kabul, where they were sleeping. It was near the targeted Taliban radio transmission tower.
2000 Luis Portero, head prosecutor for the southern Andalucian Superior Court, shot in the head as he entered his apartment building in Granada shortly after 14:00. The attack is believed to have been carried out three people, probably of ETA. Two shots were fired at Portero, at least one hitting him on the back of the head. He died one hour later in a Granada hospital. Luis Portero García, fiscal jefe del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Andalucía, es asesinado de un tiro en la nuca a manos de la banda terrorista ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna].
1995 Sir Alec (Alexander Frederick) Douglas Home, político y aristócrata británico.
1988 Felix Wankel, Germany, inventor of the Wankel rotary engine (1954) [diagram >], which was used in Mazda cars. Wankel was born on 13 August 1902. (Everything you were afraid to ask about the Wankel engine, and rightly so)
1987 Clare Boothe Luce, of cancer, US ambassador to Italy (in the 1950s), member of Congress (Republican, 1943-1946), editor of Vanity Fair (until 1934) 84, author of plays such as The Women (1936, a devoted wife tries to win back her husband, who had been poached by a saleswoman), Kiss the Boys Goodbye (1938, a satire on the hoopla surrounding the search for the feminine lead in the movie Gone With the Wind), Margin for Error (anti-Nazi), and Abide With Me (1935), of books Stuffed Shirts (satirical articles about society), Europe in the Spring (of 1940). She was born on 10 April 1903. Her second (and last) marriage was in 1935 to Henry R. Luce, publisher of Time and Fortune, and later also of Life and Sports Illustrated. Clare Boothe Luce's 1946 conversion to Catholicism followed conversations with Father (later Bishop) Fulton J. Sheen.
1983: 17 prominent Koreans--including the deputy prime minister and two other cabinet members--and 2 Burmese. The president of South Korea, Doo Hwan Chun, with his cabinet and other top officials are scheduled to lay a wreath on a monument in Rangoon, Burma, when a bomb explodes. Hwan had not yet arrived so escaped injury, but 17 Koreans--including the deputy prime minister and two other cabinet members--and two Burmese are killed. North Korea is blamed.
1948 Joseph Wedderburn, mathematician
1935 Archibald Thorburn, British artist born on 31 May 1860.
1934 King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, 45, and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou, 72, assassinated in Marseilles by Georgief, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with the Croat separatist Ustasha in Hungary. Alexander and Barthou had been on a tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The assassinations bring the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation is prevented by the League of Nations. Alexander I was of the Karadjordjevic dynasty of Serbia, rivals of the Obrenovic dynasty.
1928 Ignasi Iglesias, dramaturgo español.
1918 Raymond Duchamp-Villon, escultor francés.
1912 Millie & Christine, 61, Siamese twins
1907 William Lundsay Windus, British painter born in 1822. MORE ON WINDUS AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1894 Norbert Goeneutte, French painter born in 1854. MORE ON GOENEUTTE AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1886 (08 Oct?) José María Casado del Alisal, Spanish painter and illustrator born on 24 March 1831. MORE ON CASADO AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1841 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German painter and architect born on 13 March 1781. links to images
1815 Louis Auguste Brun de Versoix, Swiss artist born on 03 October 1758.
1807 Malfatti, mathematician
1806 Benjamin Banneker, 74, astronomer/mathematician
1747 David Brainerd, 29, of tuberculosis (brought on by exposure). Colonial missionary to the New England Indians. Following his death, the publication of Brainerd's Journal by Jonathan Edwards influenced hundreds to become missionaries after him, , including the "father of modern Protestant missions," William Carey..
before 1704 Oct 9 Jan Pauwel Gillemans Jr., Flemish artist born on 03 September 1651.
1562 Gabriel Fallopius, Modena Italy, anatomist
1537 Hans Cranach, German painter and draftsman, born in 1513. more
1469 Filippo Lippi, fraile pintor italiano.
1390 Juan I, Rey de Castilla y León.
1253 Robert Grosseteste, mathematician, English reform-minded bishop who was a strong supporter of the Franciscans, exerted influence on Wyclif, and first formulated the scientific method.
1047 Pope Clement II, probably poisoned.
0680 Husain ibn 'Ali, Shi'i religious leader, enters martyrdom
| Births which occurred
on an October 09:
2000 The Trackball Explorer by Microsoft is announced, supposed to reduce the risk of wrist injury compared with a standard computer mouse. It will go on sale in November for about $75.
1976 Se firma el documento de constitución de la coalición política española denominada Alianza Popular.
1946 First electric blanket manufactured; sold for $39.50
1946 The Iceman Cometh, Eugene O'Neill's play, opens at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York
1945 Francisco Mateo Bejarano, escritor y poeta español.
1931 Antonio Linage Conde, abogado e historiador español.
1918 E Howard Hunt Hamburg NY, involved in Watergate break-in
1906 Léopold Sedar Senghor poet/president of Senegal (1960-80)
1903 Mariucha, obra de Benito Pérez Galdós se estrena en Murcia.
1899 Bruce Catton, US historian and journalist, famous for his works on the Civil War.
1879 Max von Laue, German physicist.
1874 (27 September Julian) Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich, Russian artist who died in 13 December 1947. MORE ON ROERICH AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to many images.
1873 Schwarzschild, mathematician
1873 Charles Rudolph Walgreen, "the father of the modern drugstore.
1859 Alfred Dreyfus, French artillery officer who (because he was Jewish) was falsely accused of giving French military secrets to foreign powers.
1855 The first calliope is patented by Joshua Stoddard of Worcester, Massachusetts.
1848 Frank Duveneck, US painter, sculptor, etcher, and teacher, who died in 1919. MORE ON DUVENECK AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1840 Simeon Solomon, British painter who died on 14 August 1905. MORE ON SOLOMON AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1837 Francis Parker, educator and founder of progressive elementary schools.
1835 Camille Saint-Saëns Paris France, composer (Ode à Sainte Cécile)
1833 Felix Schlesinger, German artist who died in 1910.
1805 August Anton Tischbein, German painter who died after 1867.
1800 José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz, general y político colombiano, dictador de la República en 1854.
1757 Charles X reactionary king of France (1824-30); overthrown
1731 Benjamin Banneker, mathematician
1726 Joseph Roos, Viennese painter who died on 25 August 1805. link to an image
1704 Johann Andrea von Segner, mathematician
1581 Bachet, mathematician